Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Point Particles and String Amplitudes

For myself understanding the dimensional relationship toward the QFT perspective of particle research and development,  it has been a difficult road to understanding this relation. It is not just the idea of what transpires as we architecturally build the world\universe we live in,  but to understand nature's expression as we see the movement in the universe as we research and experimental with particle  decay products.

Click on Image to go to appropriate site for image dedication

So there is a lot being said about what is contained in the first paragraph of this opening blog post that will never be understood by other layman like myself, or, other experts considering the developmental phases I have been going through. Are my  ruminations consistent,  or,  have they haphazardly layered a trail of confusion  to have it said that what danger lurks in this determination of what is written here is to confuse.

Should I put aside all that I have learn in context of theoretical developments?

Albrecht Dürer(self portrait at 28) See also: Albrecht Durer and His Magic Square

No.  I can assure you that I have been at this a number of years now to say that with what I am doing now is filling  in the gaps of where I have been to where I am going in terms of better explaining myself in a scientific context that is acceptable to the notion of what might have transpired in the 21 st century for some. It has been in learning string theory.  Yes, I have listened to all the articulations of the back and forth of what the basis of this theoretical determination is "as a mathematical foundation"  has yet to prove it''s validity as a method by which to explain the nature of the universe?

Physicists Andrew Strominger and Cumrin Vafa, showed that this exact entropy formula can be derived microscopically (including the factor of 1/4) by counting the degeneracy of quantum states of configurations of strings and D-branes which correspond to black holes in string theory. This is compelling evidence that D-branes can provide a short distance weak coupling description of certain black holes! For example, the class of black holes studied by Strominger and Vafa are described by 5-branes, 1-branes and open strings traveling down the 1-brane all wrapped on a 5-dimensional torus, which gives an effective one dimensional object -- a black hole. 

How am I to dismiss the logic of approach? We are learning to count in dimensional referencing? It is mathematically orientated is it not? But indeed,  Planck scale presents a problem.  So by what foundation can  it ever play as a method by which such discussion of the universe in expression? How can it have such validation as a geometrical expression of the nature of particle expression by virtue of the dimensional development along side of topological arrangement and correlations?

The crystalline state is the simplest known example of a quantum , a stable state of matter whose generic low-energy properties are determined by a higher organizing principle and nothing else. Prof. Robert B. Laughlin
This is just the road I took and it allowed me to see what can ever transpired as a expression of a understanding of symmetry breaking. It is an understanding of this correlation toward the "false vacuum to the true."  This was an expression of the space we are "living in" as an understanding of the timing in relation to the expression of this universe. One just had to know indeed their was indeed a higher order? A Klein bottle perhaps in  following the lines on the surface?

 Using the anti–de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence to relate fermionic quantum critical fields to a gravitational problem, we computed the spectral functions of fermions in the field theory. By increasing the fermion density away from the relativistic quantum critical point, a state emerges with all the features of the Fermi liquid. See:String Theory, Quantum Phase Transitions, and the Emergent Fermi Liquid
What can we say then is emergent? So you are learning to count in geometrical expressions as a placement of the Genus figures? So what correlations can be drawn toward the beginning of such counting?

For me it was necessary to carry on the tradition of geometrical seeing what was revealed in relativity development(Grossman and Riemann) to know that such an expression had to be moved into the world of the very small.

The Landscape Again and again....

It had to have a relativistic interpretation of the way in which such energies could detail the understanding of particles in expression. But also, of the energies involved. So this "Royal road to geometry" in relation to topology,  had to be understood by myself as I understood the Genus placements in the valleys of expression. The landscape.

I knew where such new physics needs to be in relation to what is happening as we look at the experiments of LHC . Of course I have to better understand the Jet manifestation in order to reveal some of the thinking that has been produced in my journeys.

Monday, November 14, 2011

Two Dimensions

A diagram showing the first four spatial dimensions.

 The concept of dimension is not restricted to physical objects. High-dimensional spaces occur in mathematics and the sciences for many reasons, frequently as configuration spaces such as in Lagrangian or Hamiltonian mechanics; these are abstract spaces, independent of the physical space we live in.

Big Bang, Classic Confusions-

One of the most confusing things about the Big Bang is that it involves an expanding universe. Any reasonable person, hearing about the Big Bang, will imagine something that he or she has seen expanding: a cloud of smoke exploding outward, or a balloon expanding as it is filled with air. This is very natural. And having imagined this, the reasonable person will ask, “But what is the universe expanding into?”


Let's now start analysing a 2D case, that of the classic Flatland example, in which a person lives in a 2D universe and is only aware of two dimensions (shown as the blue grid), or plane, say in the x and y direction. Such a person can never conceive the meaning of height in the z direction, he cannot look up or down, and can see other 2D persons as shapes on the flat surface he lives in.

We cannot directly visualize a hypersphere for the very reason that it is a 4-dimensional object and goes beyond our senses. What we can visualize, however, is a hypersphere in the form of 3-dimensional slices (as is displayed to the left). A hypersphere is in essence an array of 3 dimensional solid spheres that increase and then decrease in size. This would represent our basic conception of the hypersphere, and is shown in the animated picture here.-

Understanding 4 dimensional space
Dimension (n)
Surface Area
π r2
(4/3)π r3
(1/2)π2 r4
2 r3
(8/15)π2 r5
(8/3)π2 r4
(1/6)π3 r6
π3 r5
(16/105)π3 r7
(16/15)π3 r6

See: Spacetime 101

Friday, November 11, 2011

Space Weather: Wind in Space

An X1.9 Flare at 2011 Nov 03 2027 UT!


Full SDO cadence (12 sec) movie of the M2.5 flare and associated CME from June 7,2011; composite of AIA wavelengths 211 (red channel), 193 (green), and 171 (blue); 05:00-13:00UTC; 2400 frames (300 frames per hour). Images are rotated 90 degrees for a normal aspect ratio. It took 236 GB of hard drive space, 5 minutes of programming, and about 9 hours of processing on a 2.26GHz quad-core to create this. More to come!

Thursday, November 10, 2011

Asymptotic freedom

 Witten: One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist's suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics.

In physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes interactions between particles to become arbitrarily weak at energy scales that become arbitrarily large, or, equivalently, at length scales that become arbitrarily small (at the shortest distances).

Asymptotic freedom is a feature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory of the nuclear interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental constituents of nuclear matter. Quarks interact weakly at high energies, allowing perturbative calculations by DGLAP of cross sections in deep inelastic processes of particle physics; and strongly at low energies, preventing the unbinding of baryons (like protons or neutrons with three quarks) or mesons (like pions with two quarks), the composite particles of nuclear matter.

Asymptotic freedom was discovered by Frank Wilczek, David Gross, and David Politzer who in 2004 shared the Nobel Prize in physics.


Bag Model of Quark Confinement

In dealing with the nature of quark confinement, one visualization is that of an elastic bag which allows the quarks to move freely around, as long as you don't try to pull them further apart. But if you try to pull a quark out, the bag stretches and resists.


Robert Laughlin:The true origin of these rules is the tendancy of natural systems to organize themselves according to collective principles. Many phenomena in nature are like pointillist paintings. Observing the fine details yields nothing but meaningless fact. To correctly understand the painting one must step back and view it as a whole. In this situation a huge number of imperfect details can add up to larger entities of great perfection. We call this effect in the physical world emergence.

Article linked in quote is only a snapshot now?  But links work to specific pages. Maybe you will find appropriate quote?:) So it is nice to see the memory of things if if you try to erase them.

Wednesday, November 09, 2011

A Mysterious Dark Flow?

Dark flow is an astrophysical term describing a peculiar velocity of galaxy clusters. The actual measured velocity is the sum of the velocity predicted by Hubble's Law plus a small and unexplained (or dark) velocity flowing in a common direction.

According to standard cosmological models, the motion of galaxy clusters with respect to the cosmic microwave background should be randomly distributed in all directions. However, analyzing the three-year WMAP data using the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, the authors of the study found evidence of a "surprisingly coherent" 600–1000 km/s[1] flow of clusters toward a 20-degree patch of sky between the constellations of Centaurus and Vela.

The authors, Alexander Kashlinsky, F. Atrio-Barandela, D. Kocevski and H. Ebeling, suggest that the motion may be a remnant of the influence of no-longer-visible regions of the universe prior to inflation. Telescopes cannot see events earlier than about 380,000 years after the Big Bang, when the universe became transparent (the Cosmic Microwave Background); this corresponds to the particle horizon at a distance of about 46 billion (4.6×1010) light years. Since the matter causing the net motion in this proposal is outside this range, it would in a certain sense be outside our visible universe; however, it would still be in our past light cone.

The results appeared in the October 20, 2008, issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters.[1][2][3] Since then, the authors have extended their analysis to additional clusters and the recently released WMAP five-year data.


This all-sky view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way and has been desaturated to serve as the background for the dark flow plots. The image is derived from the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, which contains more than 1.5 million galaxies, and the Point Source Catalog, which holds nearly 500 million stars within the Milky Way. The galaxies are color coded for distances obtained by various surveys. The nearest sources are blue (redshifts less than 0.01), moderately distant sources (redshifts between 0.01 and 0.04) are green, and red represents the farthest sources that 2MASS resolves (between redshifts of 0.04 and 0.1).(click image for larger viewing)

Video showing direction of travel of galaxy clusters at four distances from Earth. The colored dots are clusters within one of four distance ranges, with redder colors indicating greater distance. Colored ellipses show the axis of bulk motion for clusters of the corresponding color. Images of representative galaxy clusters in each distance slice are also shown. Credit: NASA/GSFC/A. Kashlinsky et al.

Distant galaxy clusters mysteriously stream at a million miles per hour along a path roughly centered on the southern constellations Centaurus and Hydra. A new study led by Alexander Kashlinsky at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., tracks this collective motion -- dubbed the "dark flow" -- to twice the distance originally reported, out to more than 2.5 billion light-years.

The study used a new technique to determine the motion of X-ray-emitting galaxy clusters. The clusters appear to be moving along a line extending from our solar system toward Centaurus/Hydra, but the direction of this motion is less certain. Evidence indicates that the clusters are headed outward along this path, away from Earth, but the team cannot yet rule out the opposite flow.

The video shows the team's catalog of galaxy clusters separated into four "slices" representing different distance ranges. A colored ellipse shows the flow axis for the clusters within each slice. While the size and exact position of the ellipses vary, the overall trends show remarkable agreement. The video includes images of representative clusters in each distance slice.

The dark flow is controversial because the distribution of matter in the observed universe cannot account for it. Its existence suggests that some structure beyond the visible universe -- outside our "horizon" -- is pulling on matter in our vicinity. See: Dark Flow

See Also: Dark Energy, Dark Flow, and can  we explain it away?

Tuesday, November 08, 2011

Elementary Particles in the Decay Chain

 The general theory of relativity is as yet incomplete insofar as it has been able to apply the general principle of relativity satisfactorily only to gravitational fields, but not to the total field. We do not yet know with certainty by what mathematical mechanism the total field in space is to be described and what the general invariant laws are to which this total field is subject. One thing, however, seems certain: namely, that the general principal of relativity will prove a necessary and effective tool for the solution of the problem for the total field.Out of My Later Years, Pg 48, Albert Einstein (bold added for emphasis by me)

What anchors me to reality is the understanding that what will be displayed in the particle chain and here there was some debate in my mind.....literately..... I seem to be questioning whether this decay chain or elementary connection should even be described as a chain. What had me thinking this way is how pervasive we could say energy is inclusive as a statement that we might say the chain of events lists all that is of value in that energy disposition. Cosmic Ray Spallation,  or Jet, seemed fitting to me that such articulation of the collision process would have amounted to so many descriptions of the one thing contained in the dissipation of energy.

I am not even sure of what I am talking about here.....but as most times my mind seems to be working even while I am suppose to be asleep. I catch the tail end of things and and do you think it is ever clear what it is I am after in my understanding to know that I could write it all down and be so perfecting clear. And as a layman to boot,  how confusing I could make it for others.

Once produced, the neutral Xi-sub-b (Symbol for Xi-sub-b) particle travels about a millimeter before it disintegrates into two particles: the short-lived, positively charged Xi-sub-c (Symbol Xi-sub-c^+) and a long-lived, negative pion (π-). The Xi-sub-c then promptly decays into a pair of long-lived pions and a Xi particle (Symbol pi^-), which lives long enough to leave a track in the silicon vertex system (SVX) of the CDF detector before it decays a pion and a Lambda (Λ). The Lambda particle, which has no electric charge, can travel several centimeters before decaying into a proton (p) and a pion (π). Credit: CDF collaboration and Fermi

Well such things start often by the exposure of the many pictures that I have captured on the internet in order to understand that such decay chains are relevant I think in how we see the development of the hierarchy of energy used to determine particle collisions. Of course I am not a scientist so I have to be really careful here.

Six of the particles in the Standard Model are quarks (shown in purple). Each of the first three columns forms a generation of matter.


So while I am never completely sure in my entirety the journey through science can I say has been with such consistency? Could I say my classroom has been all over the place and my enduring appeal for knowledge could have been the dissemination of so many wrong things.

I truly do not understand at what point that I started to be the convert to a relativistic discretion of the world as a legitimate expression of the universe contained in our undertaking of the decay chain. Is this what the debating is all about in my mind as I wrestle to explain where I have been and where I am going?

Foundations of Big Bang Cosmology

So for me what does this all have to do with the basis of how we might look at the cosmos and see such description will help us form a geometrical presence of the universe to know that we are using a relativistic interpretation to actually help us to describe the nature of expression of the universe as Omega.

Friedman Equation What is pdensity.
What are the three models of geometry? k=-1, K=0, k+1
Omega=the actual density to the critical density
If we triangulate Omega, the universe in which we are in, Omegam(mass)+ Omega(a vacuum), what position geometrically, would our universe hold from the coordinates given? See: Non Euclidean Geometry and the Universe

So while I am working to be consistent with the understanding of dimensional representation of the universe one may see how I have catapulted myself past the euclidean description of the world to move into the relativistic realm of expression based in  geometrical expressions. This allowed me to contained my views on Cherenkov as relativistic expressions detailed in an area that one may of assigned to missing energy events.

Further it may be of some help to understand that by "developing an theorem for particulate expression in relation to dimensional attribution" was significant to me (degrees of freedom) to have such development along side of the development of geometry as a viable approach to furthering our looking into the very nature of the world in which we live.  Genus figure descriptions contained in the valley have to be developed in relation to how we see possible expression, as a sign of the pencil falling one way or how a stone may roll down a hill, as a asymmetrical expression of the way in which the universe began and developed along the decay chain of energy dissipation?


Sunday, November 06, 2011

LHC trials proton–lead collisions

Juggling magnetic fields to collide protons and lead

Physicists at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are analysing the results of their first attempt at colliding protons and lead ions. Further attempts at proton–lead collisions are expected over the next few weeks. If these trials are successful, a full-blown experimental programme could run in 2012.

Since the Geneva lab began experiments with the LHC in 2009, it has mostly been used to send two beams of protons in opposite directions around the 27 km accelerator, with the hope of spotting, among other things, the Higgs boson in the resulting collisions. Two beams of lead ions have also been smashed into each other in order to recreate the hot dense matter, known as a quark–gluon plasma, that was present in the early universe.

But to fully understand the results of such collisions, physicists need to know the properties of the lead ions before they collide. That is, their "cold state" before vast amounts of heat are released by the collisions. One way to do this, according to Urs Wiedemann at CERN, is to collide protons with lead ions.See:LHC trials proton–lead collisions
A lead-ion collision as recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC. © CERN for the benefit of the CMS collaboration.

 The LHC has been smashing lead ions since Sunday, and physicists from the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments are working around the clock to analyze the aftermath of these heavy-ion collisions at record energies and temperatures.* Last week we walked you through the process of creating, accelerating and colliding lead ions. Now we’ll talk about the big question: Why spend one month each year colliding heavy ions in the LHC?See:LHC basics: What we can learn from lead-ion collisions


LHC finishes 2011 proton run

Saturday, November 05, 2011

Reflections on LHC experiments present latest results at Mumbai conference

Just following up on ole news to keep abreast of what is going on with CERN.

LHC experiments present latest results at Mumbai conference

 Geneva, 22 August 2011. Results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, presented at the biennial Lepton-Photon conference in Mumbai, India today, show that the elusive Higgs particle, if it exists, is running out of places to hide. Proving or disproving the existence the Higgs boson, which was postulated in the 1960s as part of a mechanism that would confer mass on fundamental particles, is among the main goals of the LHC scientific programme. ATLAS and CMS have excluded the existence of a Higgs over most of the mass region 145 to 466 GeV with 95 percent certainty.

As well as the Higgs search results, the LHC experiments will be presenting new results across a wide range of physics. Thanks to the outstanding performance of the LHC, the experiments and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, some of the current analyses are based on roughly twice the data sample presented at the last major particle physics conference in July.


The Latest Word on the Higgs from the Mumbai Conference

 Restructured the post: My preliminary discussion is first, the updates from the talks are now at the end.  The take-away message from the LHC talks: Conversations About Science with Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler-Posted on

Friday, November 04, 2011

Nova: The Fabric of the Cosmos

The Fabric of the Cosmos

Watch a live webcast with Brian Greene November 2 at 10pm - Watch the webcast. Hosted by The World Science Festival, Columbia University, and NOVA, this webcast will allow in-theatre and digital audiences to further explore the program's rich material in direct conversation with Greene and other featured program participants. You can ask questions in advance at the World Science Festival Facebook page.

"The Fabric of the Cosmos," a four-hour series based on the book by renowned physicist and author Brian Greene, takes us to the frontiers of physics to see how scientists are piecing together the most complete picture yet of space, time, and the universe. With each step, audiences will discover that just beneath the surface of our everyday experience lies a world we’d hardly recognize—a startling world far stranger and more wondrous than anyone expected.

Brian Greene is going to let you in on a secret: We've all been deceived. Our perceptions of time and space have led us astray. Much of what we thought we knew about our universe—that the past has already happened and the future is yet to be, that space is just an empty void, that our universe is the only universe that exists—just might be wrong.

Interweaving provocative theories, experiments, and stories with crystal-clear explanations and imaginative metaphors like those that defined the groundbreaking and highly acclaimed series "The Elegant Universe," "The Fabric of the Cosmos" aims to be the most compelling, visual, and comprehensive picture of modern phys

Watch live streaming video from worldsciencefestival at livestream.com
See: Live Forum

Brian Greene, "The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality"
Vintage | 2005 | ISBN: 0375727205 | 592 pages

One harmonious possibility is that string enthusiasts and loop quantum gravity aficionados are actually constructing the same theory, but from vastly different starting points. That each theory involves loops-in string theory, these are string loops; in loop quantum gravity, they're harder to describe non mathematically, but. roughly speaking, they're elementary loops of space-suggests there might be a connection. This possibility is further supported by the fact that on a few problems accessible to both, such as blackhole entropy, the two theories agree fully. And on the question of spacetime's constituents, both theories suggest that there is some kind of atomized structure. Page 490, Fabric of the Cosmos by Brian Greene

See Also:

Jet Manifestation: A World Unto Itself.

The Landscape Again and again....


(September 20, 2010) Leonard Susskind gives a lecture on the string theory and particle physics. He is a world renown theoretical physicist and uses graphs to help demonstrate the theories he is presenting.

String theory (with its close relative, M-theory) is the basis for the most ambitious theories of the physical world. It has profoundly influenced our understanding of gravity, cosmology, and particle physics. In this course we will develop the basic theoretical and mathematical ideas, including the string-theoretic origin of gravity, the theory of extra dimensions of space, the connection between strings and black holes, the "landscape" of string theory, and the holographic principle.

This course was originally presented in Stanford's Continuing Studies program.

Stanford University:

Stanford Continuing Studies Program:

Stanford University Channel on YouTube:


Quarks, gluons and anti-quarks are the constituents of protons, neutrons and (by definition) other hadrons.  It is a fascinating aspect of the physics of our world that when one of these particles is kicked out of the hadron that contains it, flying out with high motion-energy, it is never observed macroscopically. Instead, a high-energy quark (or gluon or anti-quark) is transformed into a spray of hadrons [particles made from quarks, antiquarks and gluons].  This spray is called a “jet.” [Note this statement applies to the five lighter flavors of quark, and not the top quark, which decays to a W particle and a bottom quark before a jet can form.] See: Jets: The Manifestation of Quarks and Gluons


See Also: