Friday, January 07, 2011

Crab Nebula

This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope of the Crab Nebula, a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star's supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded this violent event nearly 1,000 years ago in 1054, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans.

The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula's eerie interior bluish glow. The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star. The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star's rotation. A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star.

The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord Rosse in 1844, using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes such as the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away.

The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen, green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.


January 6, 2011 - Fermi's Large Area Telescope Sees Surprising Flares in Crab Nebula

Each of the two flares the LAT observed lasted a few days before the Crab Nebula's gamma-ray output returned to more normal levels. According to Funk, the short duration of the flares points to synchrotron radiation, or radiation emitted by electrons accelerating in the magnetic field of the nebula, as the cause. And not just any accelerated electrons: the flares were caused by super-charged electrons of up to 1015 electron volts, or 10 quadrillion electron volts, approximately 1,000 times more energetic than the protons accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider in Europe, the world's most powerful man-made particle accelerator, and more than 15 orders of magnitude greater than photons of visible light.
"The strength of the gamma-ray flares shows us they were emitted by the highest-energy particles we can associate with any discrete astrophysical object," Funk said. January 6, 2011 - Fermi's Large Area Telescope Sees Surprising Flares in Crab Nebula-Date Issued: January 6, 2011 Contact: Melinda Lee, SLAC Media Manager

Lessons in Life

 For me there has to be a beginning for any object of presentation,  so that the understanding fully incorporates how one is looking at say "our skies historically" can be the seed of what matures tomorrow. While that process and it's unfolding can be months in the making, it must for me have an imprint of where it came from, so that anything that matures out of it, can be understood in the context of the way in which I might want to write my story.

This  does not mean and shall never mean,  it becomes the story of Clifford's and has any relation to anything he writes.

 This is necessary for me in order to progress through time, to ultimately see how "artistically describing" can lead one to a fuller comprehension of the seriousness of the task at hand.

For me, as a tracker, I am looking for the seeds of such designs. How such projects can come to mind, just as much as,  theoretical ideas can manifest from all that has come before it. It must follow the rules of science in order for the theoretical to have ever materialized right?


Anish Kapoor chosen for landmark 2012 sculpture --

Image of Orbit Image by ARUP
 Artistic renditions must "like science articles" abide by the science as we know it. That it is displayed properly in nature, as it is so written by equatorial discriptions?

If you followed the topic of a  post  entry by Clifford you sort of get the  picture by the question he raises.   He said,
"Now, while looking at the picture above, I noticed something interesting. Is it just me, or is the sky wrong? I don’t mean that it is blue and over London and therefore a contradiction (droll, but not even close to the truth). Look at the shadow of the Thing (called The Orbit, I think), and look at the pattern of the blue in the sky." Stairway to Heaven- Published by Clifford on March 31, 2010

So if are your bit of a perfectionist, find yourself dreaming of a project that will certainly display the issues of "artistic rendition" as shown in the article of the Orbit's Skies,   I saw Clifford correlating the process and elaboration of his current project,  as it was listed by links below..

The Project - 1-

The Project - 2-

The Project - 3-


Blacklines -

I want to quickly take you to the Blog posting that was important for me , knowing full well all the subsequent posts written by Clifford are leading up to what started as the lesson for me, now looking at the beginning,  as I have proposed from my perspective, has now come to fruition, as a project of much importance.

But first you must know something about the shadows, how important to me, and how these are markers in the truest sense of the word so as to reveal where the sun is , as well as how one may look at the sky  in accordance with the principals of science.


So you have to go back to the very beginning of the Post called Stairway to Heaven by Clifford to understand what I have always known, and what has preoccupied my time many years ago. It is necessary to see the comment made to understand the relevance I may ever have in comments according to how a picture is perceived, how shadows are used to highlight perspective about objects, or, about how objects them self cast such shadows.

I thought from a historical standpoint to today?

It’s all in the shading?:)I mean for instance, using architectural objects for telling time? Or marking locations.

Stefan of Backreaction had a nice blog posting about it placing one in New York.

Would this serve as an illustration “for picture analysis” in Stairway to Heaven? A relation too, the idea of Early Euclidean beginnings ‘of the geometries’ as a basis of “angle of determinations’ of the sun’s location?
Being Cryptic, is information that you don't have,  that one must have,  in order to complete the picture? If you do not ever have the experience, how are you ever to talk about a particular situation that needed explanation in the truest sense. So one might write about it, or draw in painting style according to his perception of it.


So after following the blog posting by Clifford, leading too, Paints , it was Jude that helped me to understand the perspective about the direction in which to look at Clifford's picture there.
As Jude pointed out, moving from the idea of suspension(Ele Munjeli) , toward actually “looking up” makes this very interesting three dimensional viewing of the location.
I like it because the “expansion of viewing,” from a different perspective is realized, whether it was your intention or not.

If I did not have the information  I am giving you,  then it is but a simple lesson in life. A lesson, without the content of something much deeper and significant about that which drives it home. Helps one to fully grok the experience. So you try to emulate the experience, by writing, by painting? Creating a narrative about the lesson involved.

So by arriving at "Paints" you understand the creative artistic process that lead Clifford there.

I’m impressed with your drawing abilities.

The arena picture caught me of guard, as to the location of the sun, as the shadow was laid over the windows of the building. At first, it looked like I was looking right through the building at a completed structure through too…windows on the other side. Is there another building across from it, or in the same direction as the shadow?

Should one line up the shadow of the building with the woman in blue’s shadow?

I know you tend to the ole ways, but I was wondering again about mouse overs for computer based images(sound, wording captions) how you are going to portray these discussions.
Again, wonderful creative process. It must have taken a lot of work.

But now in order to understand the lesson, not just of the shadows involved but the direction of where the sun is located in his picture. This is important not only in concert with the idea of the shadows, but of the very sky itself. As I looked up, the visualization was expansive.

In Paints, once understanding what I was actually looking at,  by looking up, who could have not caught the sun reflected on the side of the building. So for me, this was about finding the location of the Sun. Something else happened as well as I looked at the sky.  How well one needs to pay attention.  How else one is able to identify the location as it is represented in the sky?

There is a lot of  detail not only on the side of the building, but also on the differences of color detailed in the sky. It's really quite remarkable the attention to detail given, but also the attention given to artistic displayed of the science in nature on mathematically as it can be representative in the sky.

On Tuesday I had ended with a computation that is the essence of the reason the sky is blue, which is a nice enough thing to talk about, but today I wanted to go more in depth on the whole thing, and show that you can in a few steps show that the blueness has a particular pattern to it. I wrote out the final equations in a few steps and looked at them for a moment or two and realized that with the sun rising at that very moment, it was the perfect situation to have! So I went outside to enjoy the beautiful Autumn day and the beauty there is in seeing an equation writ large in the sky - and it really was all there.Blue Skies… Published by Clifford on October 29, 2009

Tuesday, January 04, 2011


The lessons of history are clear. The more exotic, the more abstract the knowledge, the more profound will be its consequences." Leon Lederman, from an address to the Franklin Institute, 1995

BBC article-Click on Image
See Also: LHC sound


Sonification is the use of non-speech audio to convey information or perceptualize data. Due to the specifics of auditory perception, such as temporal and pressure resolution, it forms an interesting alternative or complement to visualization techniques, gaining importance in various disciplines. It has been well established for a long time already as Auditory Display in situations that require a constant awareness of some information (e.g. vital body functions during an operation). Sonification as a method for exploration of data and scientific modeling is a current and ongoing research desideratum.

One of the first successful applications of sonification is the well-known Geiger counter, a device measuring ionizing radiation. The number and frequency of audible clicks are directly dependent on the radiation level in the immediate vicinity of the device.



Sonification is an interdisciplinary field combining:

Some existing applications and projects

Sonification techniques

Many different components can be altered to change the user's perception of the sound, and in turn, their perception of the underlying information being portrayed. Often, an increase or decrease in some level in this information is indicated by an increase or decrease in pitch, amplitude or tempo, but could also be indicated by varying other less commonly used components. For example, a stock market price could be portrayed by rising pitch as the stock price rose, and lowering pitch as it fell. To allow the user to determine that more than one stock was being portrayed, different timbres or brightnesses might be used for the different stocks, or they may be played to the user from different points in space, for example, through different sides of their headphones.

Many studies have been undertaken to try to find the best techniques for various types of information to be presented, and as yet, no conclusive set of techniques to be used has been formulated. As the area of sonification is still considered to be in its infancy, current studies are working towards determining the best set of sound components to vary in different situations.

Several different techniques for rendering auditory data representations can be categorized:


  1. ^ Thomas Hermann, Andy Hunt, and Sandra Pauletto. Interacting with Sonification Systems: Closing the Loop. Eighth International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV'04) : 879-884. Available: [1]. DOI=
  2. ^ Thomas Hermann, and Andy Hunt. The Importance of Interaction in Sonification. Proceedings of ICAD Tenth Meeting of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia, July 6–9, 2004. Available: [2]
  3. ^ Sandra Pauletto and Andy Hunt. A Toolkit for Interactive Sonification. Proceedings of ICAD Tenth Meeting of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia, July 6–9, 2004. Available: [3].

See also

External links


Radar echos from Titan's surface

This recording was produced by converting into audible sounds some of the radar echoes received by Huygens during the last few kilometers of its descent onto Titan. As the probe approaches the ground, both the pitch and intensity increase. Scientists will use intensity of the echoes to speculate about the nature of the surface.


Gravity is talking. LISA will listen.

The Cosmos sings with many strong gravitational voices, causing ripples in the fabric of space and time that carry the message of tremendous astronomical events: the rapid dances of closely orbiting stellar remnants, the mergers of massive black holes millions of times heavier than the Sun, the aftermath of the Big Bang. These ripples are the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein's 1915 general relativity; nearly one century later, it is now possible to detect them. Gravitational waves will give us an entirely new way to observe and understand the Universe, enhancing and complementing the insights of conventional astronomy.
See:What Does Gravity Sound Like?

See Also: Gravitational Wave Detectors are Best Described as "Sounds.

Maurits Cornelis Escher

A 1929 self-portrait
Born June 17, 1898
Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
Died 27 March 1972 (aged 73)
Laren, The Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Field Drawing, Printmaking
Works Relativity, Waterfall, Hand with Reflecting Sphere
Influenced by Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Awards Knighthood of the Order of Orange-Nassau    

Maurits Cornelis Escher (17 June 1898 – 27 March 1972), usually referred to as M.C. Escher (English pronunciation: /ˈɛʃər/, Dutch: [ˈmʌurɪts kɔrˈneːlɪs ˈɛʃər]  ( listen)),[1] was a Dutch graphic artist. He is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture, and tessellations.


Early life

Maurits Cornelis, nicknamed "Mauk",[2] was born in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands, in a house that forms part of the Princessehof Ceramics Museum today. He was the youngest son of civil engineer George Arnold Escher and his second wife, Sara Gleichman. In 1903, the family moved to Arnhem where he attended primary school and secondary school until 1918.

He was a sickly child, and was placed in a special school at the age of seven and failed the second grade.[3] Though he excelled at drawing, his grades were generally poor. He also took carpentry and piano lessons until he was thirteen years old. In 1919, Escher attended the Haarlem School of Architecture and Decorative Arts. He briefly studied architecture, but he failed a number of subjects (partly due to a persistent skin infection) and switched to decorative arts.[3] Here he studied under Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita, with whom he would remain friends for years. In 1922 Escher left the school, having gained experience in drawing and making woodcuts.

Later life

In 1922, an important year of his life, Escher traveled through Italy (Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena, Ravello) and Spain (Madrid, Toledo, Granada). He was impressed by the Italian countryside and by the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish castle in Granada, Spain. He came back to Italy regularly in the following years. In Italy he met Jetta Umiker, whom he married in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome and stayed there until 1935, when the political climate under Mussolini became unbearable. Their son, Giorgio Arnaldo Escher, named after his grandfather, was born in Rome. The family next moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland, where they remained for two years.

Escher, who had been very fond of and inspired by the landscapes in Italy, was decidedly unhappy in Switzerland, so in 1937, the family moved again, to Ukkel, a small town near Brussels, Belgium. World War II forced them to move in January 1941, this time to Baarn, the Netherlands, where Escher lived until 1970. Most of Escher's better-known pictures date from this period. The sometimes cloudy, cold, wet weather of the Netherlands allowed him to focus intently on his works, and only during 1962, when he underwent surgery, was there a time when no new images were created.

Escher moved to the Rosa Spier house in Laren in 1970, a retirement home for artists where he had his own studio. He died at the home on 27 March 1972, at age 73.


Escher's first print of an impossible reality was Still Life and Street, 1937. His artistic expression was created from images in his mind, rather than directly from observations and travels to other countries. Well known examples of his work also include Drawing Hands, a work in which two hands are shown, each drawing the other; Sky and Water, in which light plays on shadow to morph the water background behind fish figures into bird figures on a sky background; and Ascending and Descending, in which lines of people ascend and descend stairs in an infinite loop, on a construction which is impossible to build and possible to draw only by taking advantage of quirks of perception and perspective.

He worked primarily in the media of lithographs and woodcuts, though the few mezzotints he made are considered to be masterpieces of the technique. In his graphic art, he portrayed mathematical relationships among shapes, figures and space. Additionally, he explored interlocking figures using black and white to enhance different dimensions. Integrated into his prints were mirror images of cones, spheres, cubes, rings and spirals.
In addition to sketching landscape and nature in his early years, he also sketched insects, which frequently appeared in his later work. His first artistic work, completed in 1922, featured eight human heads divided in different planes. Later around 1924, he lost interest in "regular division" of planes, and turned to sketching landscapes in Italy with irregular perspectives that are impossible in natural form.

Although Escher did not have mathematical training—his understanding of mathematics was largely visual and intuitive—Escher's work had a strong mathematical component, and more than a few of the worlds which he drew are built around impossible objects such as the Necker cube and the Penrose triangle. Many of Escher's works employed repeated tilings called tessellations. Escher's artwork is especially well-liked by mathematicians and scientists, who enjoy his use of polyhedra and geometric distortions. For example, in Gravity, multi-colored turtles poke their heads out of a stellated dodecahedron.
The mathematical influence in his work emerged around 1936, when he was journeying the Mediterranean with the Adria Shipping Company. Specifically, he became interested in order and symmetry. Escher described his journey through the Mediterranean as "the richest source of inspiration I have ever tapped."

After his journey to the Alhambra, Escher tried to improve upon the art works of the Moors using geometric grids as the basis for his sketches, which he then overlaid with additional designs, mainly animals such as birds and lions.
His first study of mathematics, which would later lead to its incorporation into his art works, began with George Pólya's academic paper on plane symmetry groups sent to him by his brother Berend. This paper inspired him to learn the concept of the 17 wallpaper groups (plane symmetry groups). Utilizing this mathematical concept, Escher created periodic tilings with 43 colored drawings of different types of symmetry. From this point on he developed a mathematical approach to expressions of symmetry in his art works. Starting in 1937, he created woodcuts using the concept of the 17 plane symmetry groups.

Circle Limit III, 1959
In 1941, Escher wrote his first paper, now publicly recognized, called Regular Division of the Plane with Asymmetric Congruent Polygons, which detailed his mathematical approach to artwork creation. His intention in writing this was to aid himself in integrating mathematics into art. Escher is considered a research mathematician of his time because of his documentation with this paper. In it, he studied color based division, and developed a system of categorizing combinations of shape, color and symmetrical properties. By studying these areas, he explored an area that later mathematicians labeled crystallography.
Around 1956, Escher explored the concept of representing infinity on a two-dimensional plane. Discussions with Canadian mathematician H.S.M. Coxeter inspired Escher's interest in hyperbolic tessellations, which are regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane. Escher's works Circle Limit I–IV demonstrate this concept. In 1995, Coxeter verified that Escher had achieved mathematical perfection in his etchings in a published paper. Coxeter wrote, "Escher got it absolutely right to the millimeter."

His works brought him fame: he was awarded the Knighthood of the Order of Orange Nassau in 1955. Subsequently he regularly designed art for dignitaries around the world. An asteroid, 4444 Escher, was named in his honour in 1985.

In 1958, he published a paper called Regular Division of the Plane, in which he described the systematic buildup of mathematical designs in his artworks. He emphasized, "Mathematicians have opened the gate leading to an extensive domain."

Overall, his early love of Roman and Italian landscapes and of nature led to his interest in the concept of regular division of a plane, which he applied in over 150 colored works. Other mathematical principles evidenced in his works include the superposition of a hyperbolic plane on a fixed 2-dimensional plane, and the incorporation of three-dimensional objects such as spheres, columns and cubes into his works. For example, in a print called "Reptiles", he combined two and three-dimensional images. In one of his papers, Escher emphasized the importance of dimensionality and described himself as "irritated" by flat shapes: "I make them come out of the plane."

Waterfall, 1961
Escher also studied the mathematical concepts of topology. He learned additional concepts in mathematics from the British mathematician Roger Penrose. From this knowledge he created Waterfall and Up and Down, featuring irregular perspectives similar to the concept of the Möbius strip.

Escher printed Metamorphosis I in 1937, which was a beginning part of a series of designs that told a story through the use of pictures. These works demonstrated a culmination of Escher's skills to incorporate mathematics into art. In Metamorphosis I, he transformed convex polygons into regular patterns in a plane to form a human motif. This effect symbolizes his change of interest from landscape and nature to regular division of a plane.
One of his most notable works is the piece Metamorphosis III, which is wide enough to cover all the walls in a room, and then loop back onto itself.

After 1953, Escher became a lecturer at many organizations. A planned series of lectures in North America in 1962 was cancelled due to an illness, but the illustrations and text for the lectures, written out in full by Escher, were later published as part of the book Escher on Escher. In July 1969 he finished his last work, a woodcut called Snakes, in which snakes wind through a pattern of linked rings which fade to infinity toward both the center and the edge of a circle.


The special way of thinking and the rich graphic work of M.C. Escher has had a continuous influence in science and art, as well as references in pop culture. Ownership of the Escher intellectual property and of his unique art works have been separated from each other.
In 1969, Escher's business advisor, Jan W. Vermeulen, author of a biography in Dutch on the artist, established the M.C. Escher Stichting (M.C. Escher Foundation), and transferred into this entity virtually all of Escher's unique work as well as hundreds of his original prints. These works were lent by the Foundation to the Hague Museum. Upon Escher's death, his three sons dissolved the Foundation, and they became partners in the ownership of the art works. In 1980, this holding was sold to an American art dealer and the Hague Museum. The Museum obtained all of the documentation and the smaller portion of the art works.

The copyrights remained the possession of the three sons - who later sold them to Cordon Art, a Dutch company. Control of the copyrights was subsequently transferred to The M.C. Escher Company B.V. of Baarn, Netherlands, which licenses use of the copyrights on all of Escher's art and on his spoken and written text, and also controls the trademarks. Filing of the trademark "M.C. Escher" in the United States was opposed, but the Dutch company prevailed in the courts on the grounds that an artist or his heirs have a right to trademark his name.
A related entity, the M.C. Escher Foundation of Baarn, promotes Escher's work by organizing exhibitions, publishing books and producing films about his life and work.
The primary institutional collections of original works by M.C. Escher are the Escher Museum, a subsidiary of the Haags Gemeentemuseum in The Hague; the National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC); the National Gallery of Canada (Ottawa); the Israel Museum (Jerusalem); Huis ten Bosch (Nagasaki, Japan); and the Boston Public Library.

Selected works

  • Trees, ink (1920)
  • St. Bavo's, Haarlem, ink (1920)
  • Flor de Pascua (The Easter Flower), woodcut/book illustrations (1921)
  • Eight Heads, woodcut (1922)
  • Dolphins also known as Dolphins in Phosphorescent Sea, woodcut (1923)
  • Tower of Babel, woodcut (1928)
  • Street in Scanno, Abruzzi, lithograph (1930)
  • Castrovalva, lithograph (1930)
  • The Bridge, lithograph (1930)
  • Palizzi, Calabria, woodcut (1930)
  • Pentedattilo, Calabria, lithograph (1930)
  • Atrani, Coast of Amalfi, lithograph (1931)
  • Ravello and the Coast of Amalfi, lithograph (1931)
  • Covered Alley in Atrani, Coast of Amalfi, wood engraving (1931)
  • Phosphorescent Sea, lithograph (1933)
  • Still Life with Spherical Mirror, lithograph (1934)
  • Hand with Reflecting Sphere also known as Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror, lithograph (1935)
  • Inside St. Peter's, wood engraving (1935)
  • Portrait of G.A. Escher, lithograph (1935)
  • “Hell”, lithograph, (copied from a painting by Hieronymus Bosch) (1935)
  • Regular Division of the Plane, series of drawings that continued until the 1960s (1936)
  • Still Life and Street (his first impossible reality), woodcut (1937)
  • Metamorphosis I, woodcut (1937)
  • Day and Night, woodcut (1938)
  • Cycle, lithograph (1938)
  • Sky and Water I, woodcut (1938)
  • Sky and Water II, lithograph (1938)
  • Metamorphosis II, woodcut (1939–1940)
  • Verbum (Earth, Sky and Water), lithograph (1942)
  • Reptiles, lithograph (1943)
  • Ant, lithograph (1943)
  • Encounter, lithograph (1944)
  • Doric Columns, wood engraving (1945)
  • Three Spheres I, wood engraving (1945)
  • Magic Mirror, lithograph (1946)
  • Three Spheres II, lithograph (1946)
  • Another World Mezzotint also known as Other World Gallery, mezzotint (1946)
  • Eye, mezzotint (1946)
  • Another World also known as Other World, wood engraving and woodcut (1947)
  • Crystal, mezzotint (1947)
  • Up and Down also known as High and Low, lithograph (1947)
  • Drawing Hands, lithograph (1948)
  • Dewdrop, mezzotint (1948)
  • Stars, wood engraving (1948)
  • Double Planetoid, wood engraving (1949)
  • Order and Chaos (Contrast), lithograph (1950)
  • Rippled Surface, woodcut and linoleum cut (1950)
  • Curl-up, lithograph (1951)
  • House of Stairs, lithograph (1951)
  • House of Stairs II, lithograph (1951)
  • Puddle, woodcut (1952)
  • Gravitation, (1952)
  • Dragon, woodcut lithograph and watercolor (1952)
  • Cubic Space Division, lithograph (1952)
  • Relativity, lithograph (1953)
  • Tetrahedral Planetoid, woodcut (1954)
  • Compass Rose (Order and Chaos II), lithograph (1955)
  • Convex and Concave, lithograph (1955)
  • Three Worlds, lithograph (1955)
  • Print Gallery, lithograph (1956)
  • Mosaic II, lithograph (1957)
  • Cube with Magic Ribbons, lithograph (1957)
  • Belvedere, lithograph (1958)
  • Sphere Spirals, woodcut (1958)
  • Ascending and Descending, lithograph (1960)
  • Waterfall, lithograph (1961)
  • Möbius Strip II (Red Ants) woodcut (1963)
  • Knot, pencil and crayon (1966)
  • Metamorphosis III, woodcut (1967–1968)
  • Snakes, woodcut (1969)

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Duden Aussprachewörterbuch (6 ed.). Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut & F.A. Brockhaus AG. 2005. ISBN 3-411-04066-1.
  2. ^ "We named him Maurits Cornelis after S.'s [Sara's] beloved uncle Van Hall, and called him 'Mauk' for short ....", Diary of Escher's father, quoted in M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, Abradale Press, 1981, p. 9.
  3. ^ a b Barbara E, PhD. Bryden. Sundial: Theoretical Relationships Between Psychological Type, Talent, And Disease. Gainesville, Fla: Center for Applications of Psychological Type. ISBN 0-935652-46-9.


  • M.C. Escher, The Graphic Work of M.C. Escher, Ballantine, 1971. Includes Escher's own commentary.
  • M.C. Escher, The Fantastic World of M.C. Escher, Video collection of examples of the development of his art, and interviews, Director, Michele Emmer.
  • Locher, J.L. (2000). The Magic of M. C. Escher. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-6720-0.
  • Ernst, Bruno; Escher, M.C. (1995). The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher (Taschen Series). TASCHEN America Llc. ISBN 1-886155-00-3 Escher's art with commentary by Ernst on Escher's life and art, including several pages on his use of polyhedra.
  • Abrams (1995). The M.C. Escher Sticker Book. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-2638-5 .
  • "Escher, M. C.." The World Book Encyclopedia. 10th ed. 2001.
  • O'Connor, J. J. "Escher." Escher. 01 2000. University of St Andrews, Scotland. 17 June 2005.
  • Schattschneider, Doris and Walker, Wallace. M. C. Escher Kaleidocycles, Pomegranate Communications; Petaluma, California, 1987. ISBN 0-906212-28-6.
  • Schattschneider, Doris. M.C. Escher : visions of symmetry, New York, N.Y. : Harry N. Abrams, 2004. ISBN 0-8109-4308-5.
  • M.C. Escher's legacy: a centennial celebration; collection of articles coming from the M.C. Escher Centennial Conference, Rome, 1998 / Doris Schattschneider, Michele Emmer (editors). Berlin; London: Springer-Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3-540-42458-X (alk. paper), ISBN 3-540-42458-X (hbk).
  • M.C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, edited by J. L. Locher, Amsterdam 1981.

External links

Monday, January 03, 2011

Concepts Fade to Moments

Relativity, by M. C. Escher. Lithograph, 1953.

Of course I struggle "with" as to be free and in liberation of, as if to liberate oneself from all the constraints that we have applied to our circumstance, "by choice." Can this be done? Can a human being actually float and defy gravity? I mean, how ridiculous?:) No....not one of those meditating bouncing beans either.

So it is ever the exercise in my mind to clarify and to seek an understanding of something given that holds great meaning, and may help me to understand an experience that will not let go..
Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.

I was given an image in mind a long time ago that has stayed close to me even while I concertize myself to the very explanations that science has to offer as a basis of fact. That if one could in a sense "experience an opposing force of another body,"  that "through playing" one can come into what I had learn about the sensing of, as to blend with opposition. So as to move accordingly, while knowing that it could reach an extreme, I could in turn, turn it back on itself.

A body's mass also determines the degree to which it generates or is affected by a gravitational field. If a first body of mass m1 is placed at a distance r from a second body of mass m2, each body experiences an attractive force F whose magnitude is
 F = G\,\frac{m_1 m_2}{r^2} \, ,
where G is the universal constant of gravitation, equal to 6.67×10−11 kg−1 m3 s−2. This is sometimes referred to as gravitational mass (when a distinction is necessary, M is used to denote the active gravitational mass and m the passive gravitational mass). Repeated experiments since the 17th century have demonstrated that inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent; this is entailed in the equivalence principle of general relativity.

If you have ever expressed this physically, as in some Martial Art Form,  some competitive edge in reaction, then it will have been grokked at it's fullest, because you have blended the concept, with movement. It's as if structurally you are given lines to follow, but now have to extend those lines into actually movements,  from the mind, into the physical body.

View of inner parts of earth. # continental crust # oceanic crust # upper mantle # lower mantle # outer core # inner core * A : Mohorovičić discontinuity * B : Core-mantle boundary (Gutenberg discontinuity) * C : Lehmann discontinuity * Author : KronicTOOL * Software : Photoshop (Click on Image for larger viewing)

Now one would have to assume there is some mathematical basis to this exchange, yet I would rather focus on the exchange, as to define this in our life as something "sensual in movement and form." Is it perfectly systematical and symmetrical "that one side had to equal the other," in order for me to explain something about life as an expressive attitude about our dealings in society? How "justice might work" as a balancing scale? A balancing scale, about life and it's truths

Weight at Earth's Core

Would your body weigh more or less if standing on the Earth's core? What about above sea level?

As you go further inside the Earth, the force you feel due to gravity lessens, assuming the Earth is has a uniform density all the way throughout. Less force means you weigh less.

The reason is that the mass attracting you is inside a sphere, and is given by M = (4/3) * pi * (radius)3 * density

The force you feel is given by F = G * M * (your mass) / (radius)2

This means the net force is F = G * (4/3) * pi * radius * density * (your mass)

(pi=3.14159 and G = Newton's gravitational constant)

So as you go further inside the Earth, the radius is decreasing, so the force you feel is decreasing. The mass above you oddly enough doesn't contribute at all to any net force on your body.

In reality, of course, the Earth is not of uniform density, and there is a slight increase in force as you go down from the surface, before it begins to decrease again. Still, you weigh less standing on the Earth's core.

As far as what happens above sea level - you must realize that what happens outside the Earth is different from what happens inside the Earth. Inside, as you go deeper and deeper, the mass attracting you is less and less (as stated). Above sea level (the surface of the Earth, specifically) as you go further and further away, the mass remains constant (obviously), but the distance gets larger and larger, which makes the force (given by F = G * M(Earth) * M(you) / r2) smaller.

Notice that the formula that applies inside the Earth is different from the one that applies outside.

Dr. Louis Barbier
(October 2003)

So there is this ancient notion about gravity being the same at all places on the earth, that slighting the idea of such minute differences, one would have to say "that it is not the same" and hence has left oneself "back in time" before it could be understood that  the earth can be looked at in another way? That the length and distance to it's outer edge, as some inverse square law can be explained "of all things." Systemically explaining away,  by understanding that gravity "is the same according to the weight of" is not the same in all places.

Truth, is that slight difference?

So how does one break free inside, between the understanding of Feather and Iron, versus Feather and Heart?

Structurally, building any foundation there are exactitude's toward defining that space according to  dimensional attributes as to straight lines and angles of perception. If you actualize this in physical form, you may have constructed a building. There are rules according to Pythagorean theorem that allows you build square things.

The emergence of,  follows distinctive rules according to expression, artistically inclined, and for me, any point in space has such abilities. How structurally sound, any expressive display that for realities sake and purpose, we see where such expressions can arrive out of nothing? It was not logical and did not make sense to me that such expression can appear  out of nothing, to become something. So there is a bias here for me about what is being revealed in that point, as well as, of what is being revealed in that moment.

I am of course interested in the creative process of a scientist. I am trying to be as responsible as I can about our comparison of the Heart and Truth(Feather) on the same scale as to be lead by example so as to define this concept better as,  "If the heart was free from the impurities of sin," not as some religious perspective about good and evil, but about the slight differences in the changes in the gravity of earth, and about the object that occupies that space, as well as,  the inherent nature of that truth.

Composition of Earth's mantle in weight percent[16][citation needed]
Element Amount Compound Amount
O 44.8
Si 21.5 SiO2 46
Mg 22.8 MgO 37.8
Fe 5.8 FeO 7.5
Al 2.2 Al2O3 4.2
Ca 2.3 CaO 3.2
Na 0.3 Na2O 0.4
K 0.03 K2O 0.04
Sum 99.7 Sum 99.1

If I should point toward elemental considerations, each to its own,  then,  as some expression of some inverse square law toward that outer rim of physicality of earth's domain, then  it is with this insight that I look toward  the "weight" of the concept with which "entrance to freedoms of eternal life" are nothing more then the recognition of "what weighs" according to those truths and what we adopt in our own lives according to the choices we make. If I say Heart, then it is wise that such entrances into the human being, is but a mental thing about how we weight things according to our set of criteria according Truth?

Cross section of the whole Earth, showing the complexity of paths of earthquake waves. The paths curve because the different rock types found at different depths change the speed at which the waves travel. Solid lines marked P are compressional waves; dashed lines marked S are shear waves. S waves do not travel through the core but may be converted to compressional waves (marked K) on entering the core (PKP, SKS). Waves may be reflected at the surface (PP, PPP, SS).

Seismographs detect the various types of waves. Analysis of such records reveals structures within the Earth.