Sunday, January 11, 2009

SuperCritical Fluid

What choice do I have but to quote myself.:)

At 11:47 AM, January 09, 2009, Blogger Plato said...
Superfluous is a mathematical construct for sure. Continuity, asked not from the condense matter theorist point of view as Jacque's remind, or, as Susskind speaks of Laughlin( was Susskind ever aware of Witten's statements?)

Edward WittenEdward Witten's Homepage

One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist's suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics.

Now I write this link and quote above because it set my own mind in motion, from that point. I began looking at the experiments and trying to derive something that was consistent in that process that would lead into that same logical conclusion that we are "seeing" and "not seeing" what happens.

Once we know that there is one de Sitter solution, it is easy to find many more of them by just changing the values of the fluxes. Sujay Ashok and Michael Douglas of Rutgers University have recently estimated the number of different solutions to be at least 10100, which indicates an extremely rich landscape with many mountains, valleys, oceans and even volcanoes. Each minimum-energy point represents a different universe, and the height of that point is the value of the cosmological constant for that universe. Viewing the solution this way, the probability that one of these universes has a cosmological constant that is as small as is indicated by current experiments is actually non-zero. See:The string-theory landscape

You must know there is a reason that I am showing these articles just to provide consideration and will put up some information here soon that deals with this point.

I would say I do and am always impressed by Lubo's candidness, so I do not derive any solution to this process and it remains a troubling aspect of my research. The counter argument I produce I had discovering along the way to provide an example in a comment section that deals with what I am saying to Zephir here in this blog entry, under the idea of the landscape. I would ask that Lubos look a little closer and speak to the idea of the Landscape even though under the tutelage of Tom Banks, he specifics his reluctance.

You must also know that I do not align myself with any current research model( disaster scenarios specific LHC.Org) other then to say I recognize facets "of this thinking from my own research" and that this presentation speaks to that. If there is no math involved then how can it represent the landscape in thinking? Logical conclusions, follow logical math processes in String theory?

Letting our minds be consoled with the understanding that cosmic particle collisions take place on earth is the point I am making about seeing "the sun in gamma" and understanding that such measures allow us to see this way. It also helps us to understand that such a location(microscopic blackholes) allows information to travel faster then light in the medium of earth, so that we understand that things can travel "through and tunnel." Information is conserved.

A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. It can diffuse through solids like a gas, and dissolve materials like a liquid. Additionally, close to the critical point, small changes in pressure or temperature result in large changes in density, allowing many properties to be "tuned". Supercritical fluids are suitable as a substitute for organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. Carbon dioxide and water are the most commonly used supercritical fluids, being used for decaffeination and power generation respectively.
See Also:
  • animated presentation describing what a supercritical fluid is

  • ***

    For explanation of these animations see: The behaviour of dense particle systems.

    From certain perspective, the AWT is extrapolation of free fermion models of string field theory to zero dimension. These models are nothing very new in physics, as some physicists have assumed, the strings are composed from more fundamental particles (so called preons) already. The one-dimensional strings are just the lowest number of dimensions, which the formal math can handle without problem, while avoiding the singularities. The concept of environment composed from zero dimensional particles is naturally singular from formal math perspective, so it cannot use it. It can be replaced by one-dimensional strings partially, but here's a technical problem: such approximation leads to
    landscape of 10E+500 possible solutions
    , so it's unusable from practical reasons. While from particle model of Aether is evident, such system enables the only way of it's compactification, leading to dynamic mesh of one-dimensional density fluctuations (i.e. "strings") naturally - so no assumption of strings, no assumption of relativity and quantum mechanics postulates is required here at all. By such way, the zero-dimensional approach follows the Occam razor criterion, which
    minimizes the number of postulates
    in theories.
    See:27789 - 09/18/08 04:08 AM Re: Aether Wave Theory [Re: zorro1]


    See Also:

  • Are Strings as Spacetime an Emergent Phenomena?

  • Lost in Translation

  • Birth By Approximization
  • Saturday, January 10, 2009

    γνώθι σεαυτόν

    A stained glass window with the contracted version γνωθι σαυτόν.

    The saying "Know thyself" may refer by extension to the ideal of understanding human behavior, morals, and thought, because ultimately to understand oneself is to understand other humans as well. However, the ancient Greek philosophers thought that no man can ever comprehend the human spirit and thought thoroughly, so it would have been almost inconceivable to know oneself fully. Therefore, the saying may refer to a less ambitious ideal, such as knowing one's own habits, morals, temperament, ability to control anger, and other aspects of human behavior that we struggle with on a daily basis.

    It may also have a mystical interpretation. 'Thyself', is not meant in reference to the egotist, but the ego within self, the I AM consciousness.

    Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and the famous prehistoric oracle. Even in Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias. Supposedly carved into the temple were three phrases: γνωθι σεαυτόν (gnothi seauton = "know thyself") and μηδέν άγαν (meden agan = "nothing in excess"), and Εγγύα πάρα δ'ατη (eggua para d'atē = "make a pledge and mischief is nigh"),[6] as well as a large letter E.[7] Among other things epsilon signifies the number 5. Plutarch's essay on the meaning of the “E at Delphi" is the only literary source for the inscription. In ancient times, the origin of these phrases was attributed to one or more of the Seven Sages of Greece,[8] though ancient as well as modern scholars have doubted the legitimacy of such ascriptions.[9] According to one pair of scholars, "The actual authorship of the three maxims set up on the Delphian temple may be left uncertain. Most likely they were popular proverbs, which tended later to be attributed to particular sages

    "Let no one destitute of geometry enter my doors." Plato (c. 427 - 347 B.C.E.)

    "[Geometry is] . . . persued for the sake of the knowledge of what eternally exists, and not of what comes for a moment into existence, and then perishes, ...[it] must draw the soul towards truth and give the finishing touch to the philosophic spirit."


  • PLATO:Mathematician or Mystic ?
  • IN The Era of Quantum Gravity, will we be destitute?
  • Wednesday, January 07, 2009

    Lost in Translation

    Photo Credit: NASA

    Supernova Remnant Turns 400

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Now, astronomers using NASA's three Great Observatories are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy.

    This combined image -- from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and e Chandra X-ray Observatory -- unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.
    See:Supernova Remnant Turns 400


    Given the idea that there is an original version to what is constituted as reality and attempts to describe it are really, "Births by approximation."

    Now you have to understand the previous blog posting by this name to understand that I presented supernovas and remnants as a illustration of what happens when we see the universe by itself, is laid out before us, while within that time frame (universe's birth to present), events have happened that are defined as Supernovas.

    Several types of supernovae exist that may be triggered in one of two ways, involving either turning off or suddenly turning on the production of energy through nuclear fusion. After the core of an aging massive star ceases to generate energy from nuclear fusion, it may undergo sudden gravitational collapse into a neutron star or black hole, releasing gravitational potential energy that heats and expels the star's outer layers.

    Now in terms of what we now know in what has been demonstrated by being lead by scientific process, a realization that such events as "the Spherical cow embeds parts of the universe in expression." We now know that such a view in terms of 13.7 billion years in the universe's age, has elements within it that are aged as well which should not exceed the age of the universe? How does gravity occur in the totality of the whole universe, for it not to be the same, as the Supernova unfolds.

    Type II

    Within a massive, evolved star (a) the onion-layered shells of elements undergo fusion, forming an iron core (b) that reaches Chandrasekhar-mass and starts to collapse. The inner part of the core is compressed into neutrons (c), causing infalling material to bounce (d) and form an outward-propagating shock front (red). The shock starts to stall (e), but it is re-invigorated by a process that may include neutrino interaction. The surrounding material is blasted away (f), leaving only a degenerate remnant.

    Stars with at least nine solar masses of material evolve in a complex fashion.[5] In the core of the star, hydrogen is fused into helium and the thermal energy released creates an outward pressure, which maintains the core in hydrostatic equilibrium and prevents collapse.

    When the core's supply of hydrogen is exhausted, this outward pressure is no longer created. The core begins to collapse, causing a rise in temperature and pressure which becomes great enough to ignite the helium and start a helium-to-carbon fusion cycle, creating sufficient outward pressure to halt the collapse. The core expands and cools slightly, with a hydrogen-fusion outer layer, and a hotter, higher pressure, helium-fusion center. (Other elements such as magnesium, sulfur and calcium are also created and in some cases burned in these further reactions.)


    The event itself and the resulting explosion has to have a basis in terms of geometrics. What shall we call these Supernovas when their previous existence may have been a blackhole? What do we call stars that collapse that make blackholes.

    Source: Image Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller/NSF

    Stars shine
    by burning hydrogen. The process is called nuclear fusion. Hydrogen burning produces helium "ash." As the star runs out of hydrogen (and nears the end of its life), it begins burning helium. The ashes of helium burning, such as carbon and oxygen, also get burned. The end result of this fusion is iron. Iron cannot be used for nuclear fuel. Without fuel, the star no longer has the energy to support its weight. The core collapses. If the star is massive enough, the core will collapse into a black hole. The black hole quickly forms jets; and shock waves reverberating through the star ultimately blow apart the outer shells. Gamma-ray bursts are the beacons of star death and black hole birth.
    Bold emphasis to encourage a conclusive realization about the classification of those events within the universe given to Gamma recordings in our measures.

    Hybrids in the Universe?-12.20.06X-ray image of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614 taken by the XRT instrument on Swift. The burst glowed in X-ray light for more than a week following the gamma-ray burst. This so-called "afterglow" gave an accurate position of the burst on the sky and enabled the deep optical observations made by ground-based observatories and the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/Swift Team
    A year ago scientists thought they had figured out the nature of gamma-ray bursts. They signal the birth of black holes and traditionally, fall into one of two categories: long or short. A newly discovered hybrid burst has properties of both known classes of gamma-ray bursts yet possesses features that remain unexplained.

    The long bursts are those that last more than two seconds. It is believed that they are ejected by massive stars at the furthest edge of the universe as they collapse to form black holes.


  • Birth By Approximization
  • Spherical Cows and their X-ray Sources
  • Tuesday, January 06, 2009

    The Universe and the World in Landscape

    Photograph by Clifford Johnson

    Sometimes it is important to be able to see in the context that mountains can hold for other people. These people are living in a world "a little perceptibly" different then our own. So what do I mean by this?

    First off, where is this picture taken? Some of us will never know, or, we might come across something that will trigger a recognition. Few of us lay people will ever visit or travel too that place in Aspen, for the reasons such a gathering will take place. Those of his specific profession may pilgrimage there every year, or maybe, not at all.

    So let me say that before I ever met the "notion of the landscape" here, I had my own values about the nature of the world I live in. The mountains, through my own studies were sacred places that I had come to recognize through my journeys into the Native American beliefs. I recognized these mountains through recognition of my own religious up bringing. Through Myth.

    Not that I shall influence the nature of those mountains by my beliefs, but one should know, that I have my own pictures that I had worked with to help me along. These relate to Clifford's picture, and relate to how I see the universe myself. Clifford does not know me, nor is there any friendship. I am a interloper gathering information.:)


    Maybe you have your own picture that you can use to illustrate what is being implied here? This is the unfortunate thing about being the lay person, and working from the information we read and attempt to put it together in our own minds. It is right? Just trying to make sense of it. It may seem like noise to the profession, but it is by all standards "a birth of an approximation."

    While such walks may impart certain feelings within individuals, I can't help but see this symbolism transferred to a "higher mental abstraction" that once engaged "in a mathematics of kind" would proclaim itself as a "perspective over the world" before them. As they stand on that mountain top.

    This then that mountain top is the "initial state." Birth by Approximation. From this perspective, the universe came into being. Down there in the valleys "is" the universe in expression. Down there, is the Earth.


    If only I was a painter.....what would this perception of mine look like? I could not help but point out that part of understanding the nature of the expression of the landscape is to see it from the author/painter's perspective. How shall one translate to verbal expressions an understanding which shall leave no doubt as to it's substance. It's nature in the world of expression. The use of my words and colours?

    Travel then into the past, and look at the link.


  • The Location of the Rooms
  • Monday, January 05, 2009

    Graphical timeline from Big Bang to Heat Death

    Click on Image for Larger View-See:Graphical timeline from Big Bang to Heat Death

    From the Big Bang through the present day and well into the future, matter and dark matter in the universe is concentrated in stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters. Therefore, the universe is not in thermodynamic equilibrium and objects can do physical work.[11], §VID. The decay time of a roughly galaxy-mass (1011 solar masses) supermassive black hole due to Hawking radiation is on the order of 10100 years,[12], so entropy can be produced until at least that time. After that time, the universe enters the so-called dark era, and is expected to consist chiefly of a dilute gas of photons and leptons.[11], §VIA. With only very diffuse matter remaining, activity in the universe will have tailed off dramatically, with very low energy levels and very large time scales. Speculatively, it is possible that the Universe may enter a second inflationary epoch, or, assuming that the current vacuum state is a false vacuum, the vacuum may decay into a lower-energy state.[11], §VE. It is also possible that entropy production will cease and the universe will achieve heat death.
    Timeframe for heat death

    Sunday, January 04, 2009

    Birth By Approximization

    Of course I am acknowledging the universe in a big way here, "that by measure," we can arrive at "some ideas" about the nature of this universe. Fundamental constants acknowledged.

    This post was to raise awareness of the "idea about noise that can be created by people," layman like myself, as to questions we can have about the universe's birth. How can I be more specific? While these questions are not specific to an analysis of the way and approaches in experiment at the forefront, or theoretics, I can wonder and do voice from "information specific as lead by science" that the "science trades embedded" are in the analysis, and am working toward this resolution of a "factual and actual representation."

    There is an assumption on my part that gravity existed "before this universe" and "came into expression" as this universe. How does one qualify this statement? I do not discount that I was lead here by Veneziano. I do not discount and acknowledge an astronomer would be happy with just accepting the universe as the way it is, in a nice box. But yes, I too think outside the box in more ways then one.:) Shall I not acknowledge, such heat generated in my thinking mind may propel new universes in idea expression?

    These are just two of the measures below that have, and will, allow us to interpret the very outlay and expression motivated, as it is.

    Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results. Credit Source: WMAP Science Team

    The temperature (TT) and temperature-polarization correlation (TE) power spectra based on the 5 year WMAP data. Additional data provide more sensitive measurements of the third peak in TT and the high-l TE spectrum, especially the second trough.
    See: Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    Now, I develop this post knowing that Clifford and Robert and Sean, look to discuss respectively and abstractly Boltzmann Brains, gravity inherent, a description of the universe at large. That some work from "purely abstract levels in mathematics." It is not always certain and clear for me how this math is deduced, but from holding "bench marks of the constants" as an progression to further questions. Future theoretics.

    It is planned to launch Planck in early April of 2009 together with the Herschel satellite. After launch, Planck and Herschel will separate and will be placed in different orbits around the second Lagrangian point of the Earth-Sun System.Credit Source: Planck Science Team Home

    Planck will help provide answers to one of the most important sets of questions asked in modern science - how did the Universe begin, how did it evolve to the state we observe today, and how will it continue to evolve in the future? Planck's objective is to analyse, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the Universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the Cosmic Microwave Background.

    While they all do say that they do not have the full knowledge, would it be safe to say, that they all are arriving at their conclusions by approximations as well? That these approximations in context of the real thing, real knowledge, is far from an adequate description of the birth of this universe and would still be considered as noise?:)

    Saturday, January 03, 2009

    Spherical Cows and their X-ray Sources

    As a layman I find this of particular importance when we send our vision out amongst the stars, all the while looking at the substance of these events "within the larger context of the universe." While each particular event is revealed through Chandra's catalogued linked below it helps me to see them within that universe as well as think of them in terms of "this singular event" as shown in the Crab Nebula.

    Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO/F.Seward et al

    This image gives the first clear view of the faint boundary of the Crab Nebula's X-ray-emitting pulsar wind nebula. The nebula is powered by a rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron star, or pulsar (white dot near the center). The combination of rapid rotating and strong magnetic field generates an intense electromagnetic field that creates jets of matter and anti-matter moving away from the north and south poles of the pulsar, and an intense wind flowing out in the equatorial direction.

    The inner X-ray ring is thought to be a shock wave that marks the boundary between the surrounding nebula and the flow of matter and antimatter particles from the pulsar. Energetic electrons and positrons (antielectrons) move outward from this ring to brighten the outer ring and produce an extended X-ray glow.

    The fingers, loops, and bays in the image all indicate that the magnetic field of the nebula and filaments of cooler matter are controlling the motion of the electrons and positrons. The particles can move rapidly along the magnetic field and travel several light years before radiating away their energy. In contrast, they move much more slowly perpendicular to the magnetic field, and travel only a short distance before losing their energy.

    This effect can explain the long, thin, fingers and loops, as well as the sharp boundaries of the bays. The conspicuous dark bays on the lower right and left are likely due to the effects of a toroidal magnetic field that is a relic of the progenitor star.
    See:Crab Nebula: Fingers, Loops and Bays in The Crab Nebula

    Now of course, when I read on how the astronomers approximate, it was as if I was watching it from a view, and all of this is on stage. What was in my thinking before this is what I had done naturally anyway, since such regions of the universe has these places as part of the larger context. How they contribute to the universe at large, just seem to be part of the geometrical evolution of the event for me and was part of the effort to explain in this geometrical unfolding.

    Dr. Kip Thorne, Caltech 01-Relativity-The First 20th Century Revolution

    Thusly, the impetus for information of these events were part of the motivation factors that are driven. It left to us to see "the nature of these places," in our universe which allowed us a portrayal of the elements in a dissipative and degenerative energy expenditure, as fore tellings of a further geometrical inclination.

    The idea here then is that gravity does not emerge from the "substance of the neutrinos," but happens much earlier. It happens with the "geometrical inclination within the confines of the universe." If, the total universe is an expression of the same geometrical inclination as an event, then, "every event that happens within universe," either contributes to the inflationary aspect, or, it does not. If the numbers of events "exceed the universe" then those events contribute to a "speeding up" that can occur?

    It is "the geometrical action itself" that presents the gravity waves to our location here on earth. It is not to be thought of as earth as any central sun located but an object placed or event, that sits in the universe, and can measure the gravitational waves as they pass these locations.

    Other Images of X-ray sources that allow us to ponder the nature of expression "in the approximate" using the Spherical Cow in relation.


    Chandra Images by Category: Supernovas & Supernova Remnants


    See also:

    Friday, January 02, 2009

    The Whole World is a Stage

    Euler product formula

    Now you must know what sets my mind to think in such abstract spaces. "Probability of seeing a stage in a concert."

    All The World's A Stageby William Shakespeare
    From: As you Like It, Act II Scene VII

    Jaques:All the world's a stage,
    And all the men and women merely players:
    They have their exits and their entrances;
    And one man in his time plays many parts,
    His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
    Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms.
    And then the whining school-boy, with his satchel
    And shining morning face, creeping like snail
    Unwillingly to school. And then the lover,
    Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
    Made to his mistress' eyebrow. Then a soldier,
    Full of strange oaths and bearded like the pard,
    Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel,
    Seeking the bubble reputation
    Even in the cannon's mouth. And then the justice,
    In fair round belly with good capon lined,
    With eyes severe and beard of formal cut,
    Full of wise saws and modern instances;
    And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts
    Into the lean and slipper'd pantaloon,
    With spectacles on nose and pouch on side,
    His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
    For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice,
    Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
    And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
    That ends this strange eventful history,
    Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
    Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.

    So of course I am in this space of a kind looking and trying to orientate to watch the performance. My position to the stage, from the stage to myself. Whose to think such formulas would provide a solid description of the effort? So now I am embroiled in information of all kinds here. Shakespeare plays on.

    "Liesez Euler, Liesez Euler, c'est notre maître à tous"
    ("Read Euler, read Euler, he is our master in everything")
    - Laplace

    The world can be a interesting place once you see it's multi-dimensional ability to have more information then what is apparent around us. We have to open our eyes and listen more carefully. Are you listening Glaucon?:)

    "Dyson, one of the most highly-regarded scientists of his time, poignantly informed the young man that his findings into the distribution of prime numbers corresponded with the spacing and distribution of energy levels of a higher-ordered quantum state." Mathematics Problem That Remains Elusive—And Beautiful By Raymond Petersen

    So in general such a space when held to the "thinking of points" what is it that shall gauge the thinking mind to think it is possible to explain itself "as gaps within the apparent world" of the everyday? Shall every person care when they are embroiled within the business of the media reported? Do you think the person next to you does not care about the world? Do you not think they experience? The voice is cast from the stage and all is heard in it's reverberations. No head involved, just the bouncing and measure of distance, in an echo of reason. Does an elemental thought have no substance?

    Prime Numbers Get Hitched by Marcus du Sautoy • Posted March 27, 2006 12:40 AM

    It would also prove to be significant in confirming the connection between primes and quantum physics. Using the connection, Keating and Snaith not only explained why the answer to life, the universe and the third moment of the Riemann zeta function should be 42, but also provided a formula to predict all the numbers in the sequence. Prior to this breakthrough, the evidence for a connection between quantum physics and the primes was based solely on interesting statistical comparisons. But mathematicians are very suspicious of statistics. We like things to be exact. Keating and Snaith had used physics to make a very precise prediction that left no room for the power of statistics to see patterns where there are none.

    Mathematicians are now convinced. That chance meeting in the common room in Princeton resulted in one of the most exciting recent advances in the theory of prime numbers. Many of the great problems in mathematics, like Fermat's Last Theorem, have only been cracked once connections were made to other parts of the mathematical world. For 150 years many have been too frightened to tackle the Riemann Hypothesis. The prospect that we might finally have the tools to understand the primes has persuaded many more mathematicians and physicists to take up the challenge. The feeling is in the air that we might be one step closer to a solution. Dyson might be right that the opportunity was missed to discover relativity 40 years earlier, but who knows how long we might still have had to wait for the discovery of connections between primes and quantum physics had mathematicians not enjoyed a good chat over tea.

    It looks as though primes tend to concentrate in certain curves that swoop away to the northwest and southwest, like the curve marked by the blue arrow. (The numbers on that curve are of the form x(x+1) + 41, the famous prime-generating formula discovered by Euler in 1774.). See more info on Mersenne Prime.

    So of course, how many ways can one travel to get too?

    The river Pregel divides the town of Konigsberg into four separate land masses, A, B, C, and D. Seven bridges connect the various parts of town, and some of the town's curious citizens wondered if it were possible to take a journey across all seven bridges without having to cross any bridge more than once. All who tried ended up in failure, including the Swiss mathematician, Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)(pronounced "oiler"), a notable genius of the eighteenth-century.

    As a lay person being introduced to the strange world of mathematics it is always interesting to me in the way one can see in abstract processes.

    The Bridges of KonigsbergThe Beginnings of Topology...The Generalization to Graph Theory
    Euler generalized this mode of thinking by making the following definitions and proving a theorem:

    Definition: A network is a figure made up of points (vertices) connected by non-intersecting curves (arcs).

    Definition: A vertex is called odd if it has an odd number of arcs leading to it, other wise it is called even.

    Definition: An Euler path is a continuous path that passes through every arc once and only once.

    Theorem: If a network has more than two odd vertices, it does not have an Euler path.

    Euler also proved the converse:

    Theorem: If a network has two or less odd vertices, it has at least one Euler path.

    Gedanken Experiments

    While some might consider the multi-dimensional nature of the emotive states laughter does indeed go a long way. It is not without consideration here that such a thinking moves beyond the normal everyday. We are all embroiled in it, one way or another. That is the "very superficial to me," that such an idea sees beyond the limitations of the everyday, and in this consideration, such emotive idealizations can be, very temporal and fluid.

    A workers notion then, to the highs and lows, no matter your position in society, so do not think you can escape it's grasp it has on you, or you, moving in the world with experience.

    COSMIC SEARCH: How did you come up with the name "black hole"?

    John Archibald Wheeler:It was an act of desperation, to force people to believe in it. It was in 1968, at the time of the discussion of whether pulsars were related to neutron stars or to these completely collapsed objects. I wanted a way of emphasizing that these objects were real. Thus, the name "black hole".

    The Russians used the term frozen star—their point of attention was how it looked from the outside, where the material moves much more slowly until it comes to a horizon.* (*Or critical distance. From inside this distance there is no escape.) But, from the point of view of someone who's on the material itself, falling in, there's nothing special about the horizon. He keeps on going in. There's nothing frozen about what happens to him. So, I felt that that aspect of it needed more emphasis.

    Now being the layman that I am following the history of the subject contained in this proposal by the two individuals of the article below. It has not past my attention that history has unfolded and that such experiments have been presented later to show the continuing questions that exist or bet that had been established, that have now been paid.

    Gedanken Experiments Involving Black Holes


    Analysis of several gedanken experiments indicates that black hole complementarity cannot be ruled out on the basis of known physical principles. Experiments designed by outside observers to disprove the existence of a quantum-mechanical stretched horizon require knowledge of Planck-scale effects for their analysis. Observers who fall through the event horizon after sampling the Hawking radiation cannot discover duplicate information inside the black hole before hitting the singularity. Experiments by outside observers to detect baryon number violation will yield significant effects well outside the stretched horizon.

    So to be sure one gets the sense that I have moved further then just to illustrate or present the idea of the Gedanken on another new blog for consideration, the opening thought of this post, I would like to show what I had gathered "on information," and then move on from there.

    See:The elephant and the event horizon 26 October 2006 by Amanda Gefter at New Scientist.

    Hawking radiation owes its existence to the weirdness of the quantum world, in which pairs of virtual particles pop up out of empty space, annihilate each other and disappear. Around a black hole, virtual particles and anti-particles can be separated by the event horizon. Unable to annihilate, they become real. The properties of each pair are linked, or entangled. What happens to one affects the other, even if one is inside the black hole.

    It should not pass one's attention also that such an expression of what is happening inside the blackhole has it's observers working from the view of the horizon, and that such applications like Conformal Field theory, work to help us describe such a place.

    Campbell's Soup Can by Andy Warhol Exhibited in New York (USA), Leo Castelli Gallery

    Spacetime in String Theory-Dr. Gary Horowitz, UCSB-Apr 20, 2005

    This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's "miraculous year", 1905, when he formulated special relativity, and explained the origin of the black body spectrum and Brownian motion. In honor of this occasion, I will describe the modern view of spacetime. After reviewing the properties of spacetime in general relativity, I will provide an overview of the nature of spacetime emerging from string theory. This is radically different from relativity. At a perturbative level, the spacetime metric appears as ``coupling constants" in a two-dimensional quantum field theory. Nonperturbatively (with certain boundary conditions), spacetime is not fundamental but must be reconstructed from a holographic, dual theory. I will conclude with some recent ideas about the big bang arising from string theory.


    See also:

    Monday, December 29, 2008

    We are , What Stars are Made of?

    One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist's suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics Edward Witten

    Imagine indeed, that such a picture below is an approximate of how our Milky Way Galaxy would appear to the distant observer.

    "It is remarkable and ironic that this ferocious "mother of all explosions" involves the lowly neutrino, an elementary particle that seems otherwise to be the most inert and inconspicuous of all particles. Out blast the neutrinos, taking with them all of the outer matter of the star, the new synthesized elements producing a brilliant flash of light of many millions of times brighter than all the stars shining within a single galaxy. The outer shell of the body of the Titan, containing all the elements from hydrogen to iron, is blown into space. A dense, spinning neutron star or perhaps a blackhole, the tiny remnant of the pure neutron core of the Titan with a mass greater than that of our Sun, is left behind."1

    M51: Cosmic Whirlpool-Credit: S. Beckwith (STScI) Hubble Heritage Team, (STScI/AURA), ESA, NASA See also:Astronomy Picture of the Day

    I was a little perturbed by how scientists themself assuming 5% of the world population would think that such congregations must be "held to themself" and their "sphere of communications." These communications are based on what 20% of the world population currently sees in Internet communications worldwide, would relegate "this figure of 5%" much narrower, to a figure allotted to "internet viability and population reached by those are really see less then 5%." This will change as the Internet viability and population increase. An expanding market then sought by Magazines to take on board "Blogging groups?"

    We show that any massive cosmological relic particle with small self-interactions is a super-fluid today, due to the broadening of its wave packet, and lack of any elastic scattering. The WIMP dark matter picture is only consistent its mass M ≫ MPl in order to maintain classicality. The dynamics of a super-fluid are given by the excitation spectrum of bound state quasi-particles, rather than the center of mass motion of constituent particles. If this relic is a fermion with a repulsive interaction mediated by a heavy boson, such as neutrinos interacting via the Z0, the condensate has the same quantum numbers as the vierbein of General Relativity. Because there exists an enhanced global symmetry SO(3, 1)space × SO(3, 1)spin among the fermion’s self-interactions broken only by it’s kinetic term, the long wavelength fluctuation around this condensate is a Goldstone graviton. A gravitational theory exists in the low energy limit of the Standard Model’s Electroweak sector below the weak scale, with a strength that is parametrically similar to GN.2

    So, your of this group who sought to sell themself to Discovery Magazine, and forfeit(?) all posts and topics as an article of some extrapolation from the ARxiv to the "select only," the few? What was achieved then by the lone scientist, when he sought to exemplify his work on the and by chance of discussion sell all their days pondering as work of the future to a magazine?

    If you open with a question(?) with something that is very public, you have to consider what market you are extending yourself too, by thinking to ignore public contribution under the guise of this Magazine's presentation of authors. A forum?

    A Job possibly? Money to allow them the comforts of spreading good cheer amongst the populations? Imagine, if the population was ever to see "this advance" of bought scientists to mine only what it shall transpire for "new information" for that magazine, by only the inclusion of their trade associates. "Shall you as scientists resist then" such a corporate takeover, and exemplify yourself to denouncing such a corporate structure limited to communications away from the public?

    George Musser while scouring the archives and forums for his stories at least sought to contribute to the stories as they unfolded for the public through magazine subscription, then to "mine by incentive, a detach impetus for "new information" about what the stars are made up of. What remnants are left to insight the reader, to think that gravity was formed by evidence of some relics and only held in the scientists mind?

    See Also:

    1Symmetry by Leon M. Lederman and Christopher T. Hill page 36-Children of the Titans
    2Emergent Electroweak Gravity" Bob McElrath CERN theory group, Geneva 23, CH 1211, Switzerland-