Showing posts with label Quarks. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Quarks. Show all posts

Monday, February 20, 2006

More on Dual Nature of Blackhole

In some theories, microscopic black holes may be produced in particle collisions that occur when very-high-energy cosmic rays hit particles in our atmosphere. These mini-black-holes would decay into ordinary particles in a tiny fraction of a second and would be very difficult to observe in our atmosphere.

The ATLAS Experiment offers the exciting possibility to study them in the lab (if they exist). The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a mini-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The mini-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

The RHIC fireball as a dual black hole
We argue that the fireball observed at RHIC is (the analog of) a dual black hole. In previous works, we have argued that the large $s$ behaviour of the total QCD cross section is due to production of dual black holes, and that in the QCD effective field theory it corresponds to a nonlinear soliton of the pion field. Now we argue that the RHIC fireball is this soliton. We calculate the soliton (black hole) temperature, and get $T=4a /\pi$, with $a$ a nonperturbative constant. For $a=1$, we get $175.76 MeV$, compared to the experimental value of the fireball ``freeze-out'' of about $176 MeV$. The observed $\eta/ s$ for the fireball is close to the dual value of $1/4\pi$. The ``Color Glass Condensate'' (CGC) state at the core of the fireball is the pion field soliton, dual to the interior of the black hole. The main interaction between particles in the CGC is a Coulomb potential, due to short range pion exchange, dual to gravitational interaction inside the black hole, deconfining quarks and gluons. Thus RHIC is in a certain sense a string theory testing machine, analyzing the formation and decay of dual black holes, and giving information about the black hole interior.

The case for mini black holes
Geodesics in Kerr space-time, as predicted by the theory of general relativity. Small black holes produced, for example at colliders, are expected to be spinning. Image: Numerical simulation by Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute (AEI); visualization by W Benger, Zuse Institute, Berlin/AEI

Approaches of the Gauss-Bonnet type, which include quadratic terms in scalar curvature in the Lagrangian, are good candidates for a description beyond general relativity as they can be supported both by theoretical arguments (heterotic strings in particular) and by phenomenological arguments (Taylor expansion in curvature). In such a case, the coupling constant of the Gauss-Bonnet term, namely the quantum character of the gravitational theory used (and the link with the underlying string theory) can also be reconstructed and the LHC would become a very valuable tool for studying speculative gravitation models.

Other promising avenues are also being investigated for new physics. Firstly, the black holes formed may be excellent intermediate states for highlighting new particles. When the collision energy is higher than the Planck scale ED, the cross-section for the creation of black holes is quite large (~500 pbarn) and has no suppression factor. Moreover, when the temperature of the black hole is higher than the mass of a particle, the particle must be emitted during evaporation in proportion to its number of internal degrees of freedom. There is thus a definite potential for the search for the Higgs or for supersymmetric particles in the evaporation products of black holes, possibly with cross-sections much greater than for the direct processes. Finally, taking account of a D-dimensional cosmological constant also modifies the evaporation law. If the constant is sufficiently high - which is possible without contradicting the low value measured in our brane - the temperature and the coupling coefficients with the entities emitted could be the signature of this particular structure of space-time. It would be quite neat and certainly surprising that a measurement of the cosmological constant in the bulk should come from the LHC!

Microscopic black holes are thus a paradigm for convergence. At the intersection of astrophysics and particle physics, cosmology and field theory, quantum mechanics and general relativity, they open up new fields of investigation and could constitute an invaluable pathway towards the joint study of gravitation and high-energy physics. Their possible absence already provides much information about the early universe; their detection would constitute a major advance. The potential existence of extra dimensions opens up new avenues for the production of black holes in colliders, which would become, de facto, even more fascinating tools for penetrating the mysteries of the fundamental structure of nature

Public Service Announcement: Black Holes @ RHIC by John Steinberg

Unfortunately, all of this is overstated. At RHIC we don’t make a “real” black hole, in the sense envisioned by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. Rather, Nastase’s point of view is that RHIC collisions can be described by a “dual” black hole. But what does “dual” mean in this context? It’s not “two-ness” in any sense, but rather indicates that one can write down a theory which describes the collision as a black hole, but in a completely different world than that we see around us. To make his model work, he (and many other researchers who are exploring this direction) make a calculation of a black hole in 10 dimensions in order to describe difficult (but gravitationally benign) aspects of the strong interaction in 4 dimensions.

No Black Holes Today, Thanks

As George Musser remarked to me in an email,

Egads, what a mispresented story. Nastase says they might be *dual* to black holes -- a relation of interest in string theory, but hardly the same thing as an honest-to-god black hole.

Exactly. The point of Nastase's paper is not that the RHIC fireball may be a black hole but that it might be described by the same math used for black holes. Such duality is vital in modern physics, because some problems are easier to formulate and solve within one mathematical framework rather than another, although both are applicable.

Now, if you want to know about the real prospects for making microscopic black holes by colliding particles in an accelerator, watch for the May issue of Scientific American, which will, by happy coincidence, have a feature on that very subject.


  • Microstate Blackhole Production

  • Some Distant Bounding Surface
  • Saturday, February 11, 2006

    History of the Superfluid: New Physics

    Nice Picture above.

    It is really confusing for me sometimes so I have to revisit the set up, to make sure I have things slotted to the way it is being used to penetrate reductionistic views, that help us understand the new physics that emerges from Gold Ion collisions.

    So what is a color glass condensate? According to Einstein's special theory of relativity, when a nucleus travels at near-light (relativistic) speed, it flattens like a pancake in its direction of motion. Also, the high energy of an accelerated nucleus may cause it to spawn a large number of gluons, the particles that hold together its quarks. These factors--relativistic effects and the proliferation of gluons--may transform a spherelike nucleus into a flattened "wall" made mostly of gluons. This wall, 50-1000 times more dense than ordinary nuclei, is the CGC (see Brookhaven page for a letter-by-letter explanation of the CGC's name). How does the gluon glass relate to the much sought quark-gluon plasma? The QGP might get formed when two CGC's collide

    So you say that the particles are supported by the HE4 Superfluid, then how does that energy leak off into the extra dimensions? Hmmmm. As thread unfolds below? What are these strangelets that are catapulted beyond the collider? Porous induced shell casing?

    As well as bringing the accelerator's counter-rotating beams together, LHC insertion magnets also have to separate them after collision. This is the job of dedicated separators, and the US Brookhaven Laboratory is developing superconducting magnets for this purpose. Brookhaven is drawing on its experience of building the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which like the LHC is a superconducting machine. Consequently, these magnets will bear a close resemblance to RHIC's main dipoles. Following a prototyping phase, full-scale manufacture has started at Brookhaven and delivery of the first superconducting separator magnets to CERN is foreseen before the end of the year.

    Bose Nova revisited

    I wanted to bring this to the surface again for inspection, as this comes out of the work another fellow and I had discussed at length as we shared perspective on the nature and dynamics geometrically inclined.

    Accretion Disk

    Sometimes, if one does not realized what is governing the thought process, why and how would such things not make some kind of sense. As we move our perceptions ever deeper into the workings of the reductionistic world and find, that these results are being meet in a theoretical sense, as developing well along experimental one too.

    As a layman these views are important to me ,more then the cyncism that pervades the supposed debate on model assumption. While the cynic provides no service other then being that. I have learn to see where the patience and developemental attitude requires a more conducive field of opportunity to bring out the best in each of those scientist that very quickly, the desired approach, is being gone after.

    So herein lies a little history, and the synoptic event that is holding my thoughts today.

    Do the Bosenova

    To set a BEC swirling Ketterle's team shone a rotating laser beam on it while holding it in place with strong magnets. The experiment is like "stroking a ping-pong ball with a feather until it starts spinning," muses Ketterle. The surprising thing was that suddenly, a regular array of whirlpools appeared in the BEC. "It was a breathtaking experience when we saw those vortices," recalls Ketterle. Researchers had seen such whirlpools before (in liquid helium and in BECs) but never so many at once. This array of superfluid whirlpools was exactly the kind of storm system astronomers predicted would swirl beneath the iron crust of a neutron star.

    Evidence for the swirling depths of neutrons stars is based on the fact that some neutron stars are pulsars - the emit a powerful beam of radiation as they spin - like a cosmic lighthouse. The pulses are very regular but occasionally there is a glitch and a pulse might come slightly too early or too late and it is these glitches that are thought to be due to superfluid vortices hammering into the inside of the neutron star's crust.

    Ketterle adds that attractions between atoms in a BEC could parallel the collapse of a neutron star so emulating the distant and massive in the laboratory too. The explosive collapse of a BEC, dubbed a "Bosenova" (pronounced "bose-a-nova") by Wieman releases only a tiny quantity of energy, just enough to raise the temperature of the BEC by 200 billionths of a degree. Supernovae release many times the energy.

    So while I had drawn attention to the process afew years ago that we had discussed, it was important that the very idea of a geometrical process that encompass all the information we currently have, has been filed to specific areas for consideration.

    While the tidbits placed our perspectives all over the map, and held the idealization of the geometry to Feynman's toy models, a greater implication existed that few of realized as we can read about Dirac and the way in which he sees. While I had not been blessed with such a mathematical mind, it seems my vision of things are quite capable, while speaking about reductionistic proceses intuitive roads that lead to the developmental understanding of the nature of the supefuid. A place in which flatspacetime geometry would allow you to consider properties that ask us to explain what this emergent property might be.

    So, if such supersymmetrical idealization was to exist what was this place to say about what began here, or there, in the expression of our universe? Something had to be created that was new to us in our assessment as "new physics." So what was produced? Where did this avenue and funnel allow such an expression that we would look at the bose nova expressing itself, in a model approach.

    Whirling atoms dance into physics textbooks

    Superconductivity is superfluidity for charged particles instead of atoms. High-temperature superconductivity is not fully understood, but the MIT observations open up opportunities to study the microscopic mechanisms behind this phenomenon.

    "Pairing electrons in the same way as our fermionic atoms would result in room-temperature superconductors," Ketterle explained. "It is a long way to go, but room-temperature superconductors would find many real-world applications, from medical diagnostics to energy transport." Superfluid Fermi gas might also help scientists test ideas about other Fermi systems, like spinning neutron stars and the primordial soup of the early universe.

    Historical Perspective
  • Eric Cornell

  • Carl Wieman

  • Wolfgang Ketterle

  • 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics

  • Neutron star

  • M. Coleman Miller

  • Today and the New Physics

    So now that you see that this process is a interesting one, it is necessary to see how such comparative views on a cosmological scale could have been ever immersed in the microperspective.

    This has been my attempt at bringing the place for persepctve into line so that such "new physics" woud have captured the layman's mind. Found the seed bed for new maths, to have created a visionary world that could have arisen from this point on the brane, that such circles, had a greater meaning then one could have ever realized.

    What was happening outside of our colliders that we could speak to what was happening inside of the colliders? This is amazing story, as we now see that events happening with high energy particles, have made themself known in our immediate envirnment to have said what can exist here now in such weak field manifestations, that we had graduated from the normal gravity wave perception GR lead us from, and sent us too?

    Many Holes?

    So now that a cosmological event has captured our mind, the big bang taken us to the first microseconds of our universe, the supersymmetrical view realized, what say we see the possiblility in those new bubbles that arise from Dirac's Sea?

    Each hole while existing within the frame work of a supefluid state madeit possible for us to realize that such expressions would have happen at such micro levels that we had been thinking about how we send our measures to such levels? The new physics is what had been strange to our normal way of thinking and now?

    It would have been my hope that bringing five different people together in the Cosmic Variance scheme of things, would have created the perfect group, as to bringing persepctive and varied opinion together in perception into the family and said how nice that these different perspectives were really one aspect of the whole picture?

    Tuesday, February 07, 2006

    Evidence for Extra Dimensions and IceCube

    ...the creative principle resides in mathematics. In a certain sense therefore, I hold it true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed.
    Albert Einstein

    Sometimes if we paid attention enough, the neurons seem to fire appropriately and the detachment of the ideas seemingly distant from one another, become illuminated and connected? Imagine it taking place in Clifford's other office.

    Foundations Study Guide: Philosophy of Mathematics by David S. Ross, Ph.D.

    The philosophy of mathematics is the philosophical study of the concepts and methods of mathematics. It is concerned with the nature of numbers, geometric objects, and other mathematical concepts; it is concerned with their cognitive origins and with their application to reality. It addresses the validation of methods of mathematical inference. In particular, it deals with the logical problems associated with mathematical infinitude.

    Among the sciences, mathematics has a unique relation to philosophy. Since antiquity, philosophers have envied it as the model of logical perfection, because of the clarity of its concepts and the certainty of its conclusions, and have therefore devoted much effort to explaining the nature of mathematics.

    Such a cognitive fucntion then would be important as these math symbols arose in our minds. Possible new mathematical models in which to describe the nature we see around us. So one makes sure they have a pad and pencil, while they ventured away from the regime, with which the mind has been so intensely engaged?

    Now being so far from the understanding of these mathematics, I can only hope to understand the concepts as they unfold in a geometrical insight, while I try to make sure I understand them in relation to abstract thinking.

    SNO on the go – at last!

    Over the past 30 years, five different experiments have sought to measure the flux of these elusive particles from the Sun (produced by the same nuclear processes that make it shine) and have consistently come up short of theoretical predictions. One explanation is that the neutrinos emitted ‘oscillate’ into another variety of neutrino which past experiments could not detect.

    Within the IceCube collaboration the Univ. of Uppsala and the Univ. of Berkeley have joined the DESY initiative. The DESY team is also in close contact to the groups in Europe, the USA and Asia which are working on acoustic detectors for Neutrino-Telescopes installed in water. Details on the different projects have been presented on the First Workshop on Acoustic Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Detection held at Stanford in September 2003.

    The muon will travel faster than light in the ice (but of course still slower than the speed of light in vacuum), thereby producing a shock wave of light, called Cerenkov radiation. This light is detected by the photomultipliers, and the trace of the neutrinos can be reconstructed with an accuracy of a couple of degrees. Thus the direction of the incoming neutrino and hence the location of the neutrino source can be pinpointed. A simulation of a muon travelling through AMANDA is shown here (1.5 MB).

    Some understanding of the dual nature of blackholes is needed here in order to understand what is "produced" and how this is "spread out."

    "String theory and other possibilities can distort the relative numbers of 'down' and 'up' neutrinos," said Jonathan Feng, associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UC Irvine. "For example, extra dimensions may cause neutrinos to create microscopic black holes, which instantly evaporate and create spectacular showers of particles in the Earth's atmosphere and in the Antarctic ice cap. This increases the number of 'down' neutrinos detected. At the same time, the creation of black holes causes 'up' neutrinos to be caught in the Earth's crust, reducing the number of 'up' neutrinos. The relative 'up' and 'down' rates provide evidence for distortions in neutrino properties that are predicted by new theories."

    Before engaging article below it is important that the differences be noted between strangelets(strange quarks), and the distortions in neutrino properties. If it is understood the microstate blackholes are created, then the dispersion of other particle in the atmosphere give us indications and consequences gained from dual nature of the blackhole.

    I am confused here, and this point of interactive consideration is holding my mind as to why both these situations together are important. The difficulty may come from from the immediate association, while reocgnition of these two have been raised from the event and collision.

    Earth punctured by tiny cosmic missilesBy Robert Matthews, Science Correspondent
    (Filed: 12/05/2002)

    Strangelets - sometimes also called strange-quark nuggets - are predicted to have many unusual properties, including a density about ten million million times greater than lead. Just a single pollen-size fragment is believed to weigh several tons.

    They are thought to be extremely stable, travelling through the galaxy at speeds of about a million miles per hour. Until now, all attempts to detect them have failed. A team of American scientists believes, however, that it may have found the first hard evidence for the existence of strangelets, after scouring earthquake records for signs of their impact with Earth.


  • Cosmic Ray Collisions and Strangelets Produced
  • Sunday, January 29, 2006

    Being Informed On things One might of Missed

    Some links and slides given by Dr. Nick Evan. Clifford of Cosmic Variance relayed this information in a titled post called, "Return to the Fold"

    Every model assumption has to involve the understanding of all "science processes." "If" any of these processes are missed, then the assumptions that we move from, to those speculations beyond models and further idealizations, will suffer under the idealization of correct thinking and hence, spread misconceptions.

    This is not my ideal, so then indeed such an idea of working in the blogosphere is not to advance an ideal that I have about life and the learning that it has taken me too, but fully recognizing that to advance under the auspice of right thinking, requires further work and understanding of these science principles.

  • Two articles from Physics World - String Theory Meets QCD & The Gravity of Hadrons.

  • The Search for the Ultimate Theory - on steps towards grand unification.

  • Particles & Strings - an overview of the frontier of particle physics and string theory.

  • Brane World - an introduction to the latest ideas from string theory

  • Quarks & Strings - an introduction to the duality between quarks and string theory

  • Understanding Nothing - the physics of the vacuum.

  • Light Fantastic - talk for a laser show about Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Particle Physics
  • Friday, January 27, 2006

    Cosmic Rays Collisions and Strangelets Produced?

    I like to think of
    Enlightenment in another way Jaffe:)

    While we had focused our attention on the airs about the earth, how would it been possible for us earthlings to push back the limitations on on our views that we could have seen cosmological data in context of all that we do in the environment?

    See QuarkStars on this.

    The collisions are strange: PHENIX can identify particles that contain strange quarks, which are interesting since strange quarks are not present in the original nuclei so they all must be produced. It is expected that a Quark-Gluon Plasma will produce a large amount of strange quarks. In particular, PHENIX has measured lambda particles. There are more lambda particles seen than expected.

    I thought I would go over existing post I made in April of 2005 (se revised version below)and correct some of the links that would be more appropriate to information released in the Blogs of Reference Frame, Cosmic Variance and Not Even Wrong's site about "Amanda and ICECUBE."

    Exotic physics finds black holes could be most 'perfect,' low-viscosity fluid

    Son and two colleagues used a string theory method called the gauge/gravity duality to determine that a black hole in 10 dimensions - or the holographic image of a black hole, a quark-gluon plasma, in three spatial dimensions - behaves as if it has a viscosity near zero, the lowest yet measured.

    These characteristics of superfluids are very interesting things to consider, as well as what is prodcuerd in "this action" as we are taken to the supefluid created. Think indeed, that this blackhole "is" the superfluid, and the strangelets, what are these? These never existed, until the superfluid was created?

    But in the 10 dimensions of string theory, the fluid of a black hole isn't like other fluids. Space-time is considered to be flat in our perception, Son said, and five of the extra dimensions are compacted into a small, finite sphere. In the remaining dimension, however, space is curved. Evaporation doesn't occur in this dimension, he said, because as particles radiate from the fluid they strike the curved edge of the dimension and are sent bouncing back into the black hole.

    These links help set up the thinking for information outside of LHC, that was given for perspective back earlier by John Ellis. The leading perspective on Microstate blackhole production was given then as well in the post with Quark Gluon perspectives, about strangelets produced.

    While I had thought these relevant to Dark energy creation in our Cosmo, I did not point directly to the nature of these strangelets gathering at the center of our planet. You had to follow all these posts in order to understand the effect of microstate production, not only in RHIC or LHC, but in the cosmic perspective gained from Pierre Auger experiments as well.

    I gave early history consideration so that you might understand a early concern of what mankind might have garnered in thinking, when in actuallity, this was happening naturally every time the cosmic rays penetrated the airs around the earth.

    You might well see now that these considerations have been logically followed and there has not been much help as I had been laying the ground work for how perspective is garnered about gravitational considerations. These though are quickly dissipating blackholes created in the airs, around this planet.

    Cosmic rays are nuclei and elementary particles always falling very fast on the earth from the universe. Enormous number of cosmic rays are always passing through our bodies. Cosmic rays was discovered by Victor Hess, who is an Austrian physicist, on 1912. He went up to the high altitude of 4000 meters by a balloon and found the ionization rate of the atmosphere is raised at the higher altitude by cosmic rays. After that, cosmic rays have been studied extensively and progressively, and mysteries in the Universe and the Nature are being revealed.

    Cosmic rays come from the neighborhood of the Earth and also far galaxies. Galactic and extra galactic cosmic rays are considered to be accelerated at dynamical astronomical objects, such as supernova remnants, neutron stars,and active galactic nuclei. After far-reaching long traveling, they plunge into the atmosphere and bring about nuclear interactions with nuclei of oxygen and nitrogen in the air. The extraterrestrial cosmic rays which come from outside the earth are conventionally called primary cosmic rays, and newly produced particles via the nuclear interactions are called secondary cosmic rays. The main components of the secondary cosmic rays are muon, neutrino, electron, gamma ray, and neutron. While electrons and gamma rays are absorbed into the air, muons and neutrinos can be observed even under the ground.

    Of course, this could all be speculation and misconceptions garnered in wrong thinking. So I'll leave it to the experts to correct the disemmination that would affront theoretical positions and hopefully I'll see such corrections. :)

    Update: Bloggery updating does not seem to be working, so I will recreate the post here for examination.


    Cosmic ray experiments must overcome tremendous obstacles. The flux of particles above 1019 eV is extremely low (about 0.5 km-2yr-1sr-1), so detectors need to probe a large effective area to detect sufficient flux. This requires earthbound observatories. Consequently, the high energy particle is detected indirectly, as cosmic ray primaries entering the Earth's atmosphere interact with atmospheric nuclei to produce large cascades of relativistic secondary particles known as extensive air showers.

    It somehow seems appropriate, that having been given some hint fom John Ellis of his research and interests, that the historical record could some how be brought into view. The appearnce of these references enhance later log entries on this site. A sort of moving backwards to get to the esence of what has happened in astrophysics and the journey tounderstand the nergies involved that speak to the idea of particle shower creation that had been consistent with reductionistics view we have gone through in the research of string theory.

    The highest energy particle ever observed was detected by the Fly's Eye in 1991. With an energy of 3.5 x 1020eV (or 56J), the particle, probably a proton or a light nucleus, had 108 times more energy than particles produced in the largest earth-bound accelerators. The origin of the particle is unknown. At such a high energy, and with its assumed charge, the path of this particle through the cosmos would have been relatively unaffected by galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields. Yet no plausible astrophysical source is known along the arrival direction, within the maximum possible source distance imposed by collisions with photons of the cosmic microwave background. This event remains a mystery! It is clear that it existed, but there is no obvious explanation for its source.

    These are some of the links that follow the early hisotry of our observations, so that we underrstand well that such cosmic rays are still viable arena for the understanding of these interactions. Sean Carroll may create the April's fool joke on mass migration from particle reductionistionism to astrophycics, but the truth is what is learnt is very applicable to both arenas and what had been learnt, can never be forgotten as we move our observations to the FLY'EYE

  • Collision Course Creates Microscopic "Blackholes"

  • Pierre Auger Observatory

  • Cosmological and Microstate Blackholes

  • Early history developement is sometimes important to understand the trends that intermingle began in branches of High Energy Particle Research and Cosmic particle research. We understood well the limitation that we would run into for the size of the coliders necessary for such observations that having understod the limits reached in this regard we see where one branch will push us to consider the world around us and the inertactions developing towards the understanding of thes ecosmic showers that we are experiencing.

    Extremely energetic cosmic rays interact with the cosmic background photons via pair creation and photopion production and lose their energies during their trip. Therefore there is upper limit of distances which they can propagete in the space with a given energy. The above figure shows this limit (so called attenuation length) in case of cosmic ray protons. You see the 2x10^20 eV particles cannot propagate longer than 30 Mpc (100 million light years), which sets the limit concerning the location of possible sources.

    Other Information Shamelessly Boorrowed:

  • Search for Diffuse Cosmic Gamma Rays above 200 TeV
    Cassiday, G.L. et al.1991, Ap.J., 375,202.

  • A Search for Evidence of Point Sources in the Cherenkov Flash Data From Fly's Eye II
    Elbert, J.W. et al.1991, ICRC, 1,265.

  • Search for Point Sources of U.H.E. Gamma Rays Using the Utah Cherenkov Array
    Corbato, S.C. et al.1991, ICRC, 1,281.

  • The High Resolution Fly's Eye (Hires): Parameters and Motivation
    Borodovsky, J. et al.1991, ICRC, 2,688.

  • Description and Status of the High Resolution (Hires) Fly's Eye Experiment
    Au, W. et al.1991, ICRC, 2,692.

  • Observations of Real and Simulated Showers Using the First Two High Resolution Fly's Eye (Hires) Mirrors
    Borodovsky, J. et al.1991, ICRC, 2,696.

  • Study of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) Detected with the Fly's Eye and the UMC Air Shower Array
    Green, K.D. et al.1991, ICRC, 4,347.

  • Shower Simulations for the Fly's Eye
    Gaisser, T.K. et al.1991, ICRC, 4,413.

  • Limits on Deeply Penetrating Particles from the Fly's Eye Detector
    Cooper, R. et al.1991, ICRC, 4,623.
  • Thursday, January 26, 2006

    Quark Stars

    Quark stars signal unstable universe By William J. Cromie
    Gazette Staff

    In orbit around Earth, a satellite called the Chandra X-ray Observatory surveys the universe for sources of X-rays, which come from hot, active places. Such places include neutron stars, the still energetic corpses of burnt out stars once more massive than the Sun. When such stars use up their hydrogen fuel they explode into bright supernova, then their cores collapse into an extremely heavy ball of neutrons enveloped in a thin atmosphere containing iron and other debris from the explosion. In the core of the dying star, extreme pressure breaks atoms down into protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons and electrons combine into neutrons, and the remaining material is so heavy that one tablespoon of it weighs about four trillion pounds.

    A "central theme" arises in my mind, when I think about how this dark energy came into being.

    If held to current technologies and pre producable themes held in context of our cosmo, can we take such levels of dark energy production to be from the cause of strange quark productions?

    It is difficult for me to understand why the whole process is not involved in this geometrical assertion to what happens at the beginning of this universe, has "pre big bang implication" that was necessary to understand, before we can ever agreed on what the expansionary process might entail under the guise of how this dark energy is produced. How the lensing is lent to the nature of the dark energy, that we would see gravitonic consequences of accepting a fifth dimensional possibility? Would lend credence to the nature of the "spacetime fabric" as gravtonic considerations?

    As a layman it is puzzling to me, so you have to forgive my mistakes and misunderstandings and as I learn I hope to deal with this appropriately. It is not my desire to spread misconceptions

    RX J185635-375: Candidate Quark Star
    Explanation: Is RJX J185635-375 really so small? Previously, this compact star held claim to being the closest neutron star -- only 150 light-years away. Now new observations and analysis indicate not only a larger distance, roughly 450 light-years, but a very small radius for RXJ J185635-375, pictured above. One hypothesized solution holds hope a RJX J185635-375 is actually a not a neutron star but a quark star -- something new. Now quark stars are truly strange -- some may have made a transition to type of matter known as strange quarks. Quark stars, were they to exist, can be intermediate between neutron stars and black holes in size and density. Quark stars can also be more compact and cool faster than neutron stars. In fact, some might even be ultracompact -- so dense that light itself can orbit. Future observations will likely settle the controversial claims of RJX J185635-375's distance and radiative geometry, and hence determine if a previously undiscovered type of beast roams the sky.

    Laval Nozzle

    Are we Creating the circumstances for dynamical situations. Has geometrical implications from the dynamical perspective of accretion disks part of the evolving universe?

  • Strangelets Form Gravitonic Concentrations?

  • Quark Gluon Plasma II: Strangelets
  • Friday, January 13, 2006

    Strangelets in Cosmic Considerations

    In accretion disks how would this counter intuitive recognition of the Jet have been incorporated into what could have been ejected as anti-matter creation? Doing the Bose Nova maybe?

    Killer plasma ready to devour the Earth Reports by Robert Uhlig David Derbyshire and Roger Highfield
    (Filed: 07/09/2001)

    By colliding gold nuclei at huge energies, the RHIC is investigating "quark-gluon plasma", a state of matter in which the fundamental sub-nuclear particles, called quarks and gluons, become unstuck and swill around in a kind of particle soup that should have been around shortly after the Big Bang.

    Dr Allanach warned that if experiments with the RHIC go wrong, it could produce a new hypothetical kind of particle called the killer strangelet.

    In a catastrophic chain reaction, the killer strangelet would gobble up nuclei until it had eaten a million billion, when its weight would pull it towards the centre of the earth.

    This isssue is important to me for a number of reasons. One of which is the Risk assesment, and how something could be gobbled up. These were ole concerns that began to appear around 2001, in the understanding of blackhole creation in the colliders.

    Since then what has come about is the recognition of this new superfluid states that would help propel thinking as a measure of what could have began from a particle state collision that we have gone to enormous energies in which to concieve, as to what took place at the beginning of this universe.

    By grasping the understanding of strangelets and the relationship gained in understanding what effects can be creaetd by producing collisions, the resulting product created in the form of Quark Gluon plasma as a superfluid, how would such creation see the use of this as a possibility recognizing "counter intuitive" thinking in the apprehension of what flat spacetime as a measure would have signalled there?

    Earth punctured by tiny cosmic missilesBy Robert Matthews, Science Correspondent
    (Filed: 12/05/2002)

    According to the scientists, both events are consistent with an impact with strangelets at cosmic speeds. In a report about to be submitted to the Seismological Society of America, the team of geologists and physicists concludes: "The only explanation for such events of which we are aware is passage through the earth of ton-sized strange-quark nuggets."

    Professor Eugene Herrin, a member of the team, said that two strangelets just one-tenth the breadth of a hair would account for the observations. "These things are extremely dense and travel at 40 times the speed of sound straight through the Earth - they'd hardly slow down as they went through."

    Strangelets then come to mind as a possible scenario worth considering in a geometrical sense, as to what the beginning is, out of the length that we would go to track back from those same collisions processes. Our mappers would have to be very busy and detailed in their discriptions to help us see how such cosmic strangelets could have been recorded in current data.

    In general, AMS is trying to study the sources of cosmic rays. These sources include ordinary things like stars and supernovae, as well as (perhaps!) exotica like quark stars, dark-matter annihilations, and galaxies made entirely of antimatter. Each astrophysical source emits a particular type of cosmic rays; the rays migrate through space in all directions; we detect the ones that pass near Earth. With careful theoretical modeling, we figure out how astrophysical objects leave their "fingerprints" in cosmic rays, and we figure out how to measure that fingerprint (or the absence of it!). Sometimes the fingerprint is the presence of a whole new type of particle (like an anti-helium or strangelet); sometimes, the fingerprint is an unusual feature in an energy spectrum (like a dark matter or microquasar signal). Click on the links above (or in the navigation bar to the left) to learn more about AMS's physics goals!

    So we were given some perspective on this issue, from then and now, some review as to what takes place in these accretion disks, suddenly hold geometrical insight as to what unfolds in a complete process.

    Jet production, from what the superfluid can do in it's characteristic natures, to have seen how this feature operates independant of the buckets rotations.

    See earlier references. Counter intuitive realizations manifested in the properties of these superfluids.

    Tuesday, January 10, 2006

    Strangelets Form Gravitonic Concentrations?

    While it is never easy for me to follow these things, it is nice that such leads would have been moved forward by others, to help in that regard. At the same time will we have been lead to the interesting feature of what ends and begins in new universe interpretations?

    I always hope so from the understanding of what had become cyclical in the detrmination of this universe, considering, that we like to proceed only from the big bang?

    I guess when one saids that the quark Gluon plasma is the blackhole, how shall we treat the deviation of symmetry breaking? But as the place in which deviation to negative attributes, would have taken Gr down to the understanding of hyperbolic tendencies?

    We added the quantum nature to compactifies statements about how we think the nature of reality is bent extremely? We look for such information in the reality around us and if such mircostate balckhole are dissapative, and very fast, what is left for us to view in the daylight of our reasoning, that we did not understand that nightime follows. The sun has enormous powers in our cosmic realizations?

    Where now, Dirac entered the picture?

    There are strange things happening with the superfluids? By looking at these, one's intuitive alarms are ringing, because it seems to be counter-intuitive? What do I mean by this?

    So lets look back at them and wonder, what feature of the suppersymmetrical universe would have ever had this form to new universe that "the potential" would have been the bubble that formed from quark gluon plasma states, to have said, hey, maybe Dirac's sea of virtual particles has some realistic vitality here in rising from Mothers womb?

    You have to understand I am prone to layman misunderstandings so such growth factors have been the attempts to follow the logic of experimentation. What are we left with as we gazed at the reality around us? The experiment mentions that strange quarks are created.

    Accretion disks and models of the universe

    While such feature would have been the example of geometrical principles throughout its stages of universal developement, the overview would have been a interesting comparison of what emerged in the first few seconds, would have had some comparative models for viewing.

    Mark's recent meeting at the AAAs and new material promoted, might have asked us how shall we view such cosmological events that seem strange to us? Similar to what is being discussed here?

    So how would such gravitonic concentration be collected at the center of the earth, if we understood, that gravity waves would pass through all things, and yet such accretion disks create more then the solid definitive answers about such singularites adopted. Then the "pea" that uncomfortably leaves an impression on the fabric of spacetime?

    So what logic is forming about such geometrical features, that such collapses are included?

    Of course I need to understand more here.

    Monday, January 09, 2006

    Quark Gluon Plasma II: Strangelets

    You have to follow the logic developement, which is confusing, because in one respect "Risk assessment" does not think of cosmic collisions as interesting comparisons to microstate production, yet as I travelled through the information held in context of Pierre Auger experiments, Jaffe's statement from 1999 makes for some interetsing discussion below.

    Is it true or not?

    In recent years the main focus of fear has been the giant machines used by particle physicists. Could the violent collisions inside such a machine create something nasty? "Every time a new machine has been built at CERN," says physicist Alvaro de Rujula, "the question has been posed and faced."

    There does not appear to be suppression of particles with a high transverse momentum in Deuteron+Gold collisions: In order to confirm the observation of suppression, a control experiment was run by PHENIX in the Spring of 2003. Here, a collision was studied in which a medium such as the Quark-Gluon Plasma is not expected to be formed. The collisions studied were small deuteron nuclei colliding with Gold nuclei. In this case, more, rather than fewer, particles are seen with a high transverse momentum. This observation confirms that the suppression seen in Gold+Gold collisions is most likely due to the influence of a new state of matter being produced, such as a Quark-Gluon Plasma.

    There are more protons than pions at high transverse momentum: PHENIX can identify different types of particles, including lighter pions and heavier protons and kaons. PHENIX finds that there are more protons than pions at high transverse momentum. This may indicate that the physical processes that produce these particles are occurring differently in heavy ion collisions. Also, there are almost as many anti-protons as protons, which is another indication that conditions are favorable for the production of a Quark-Gluon Plasma.

    A large number of produced particles are observed: PHENIX finds that there are additional particles produced in collisions of Gold ions than what would be expected from measurements of simpler collisions of protons. This fact hints that conditions may be favorable for the production of a Quark-Gluon Plasma. Also, more particles are produced when the ions collide head on.

    A large total amount of transverse energy production is observed: PHENIX can measure the amount of energy that comes out sideways, or transverse, to the direction the ions were originally travelling. Like the number of produced particles, the total transverse energy is largest when the ions collide head on. From this measurement, PHENIX estimates that the density of energy in the center of the collision is about 30 times that of a normal nucleus. This fact also hints that conditions may be favorable for Quark-Gluon Plasma production.

    The source of produced particles is large and short-lived: Borrowing a technique from astronomy that has been applied to measure the radius of individuals stars, the size of the source volume where the particles are produced has been measured by PHENIX. The transverse size of the source appears to be much larger than the original size of the Gold nuclei, and lives for a very short time. The short life is contrary to what is expected from a Quark-Gluon Plasma and remains a mystery to be solved.

    An electron signal above background is observed: PHENIX is unique at RHIC in that it can identify individual electrons coming from the collision, many of which are the result of decays of heavier particles within the collision. PHENIX measures a number of electrons that is above the expected background. The excess electrons are likely coming from decays of special particles with heavy charm quarks in them. Further study of these charmed particles will help us better understand if a Quark-Gluon Plasma has been formed.

    Non-random fluctuations are observed, but they are likely due to the presence of jets: During a phase transition, it is typical to see fluctuations in some properties of the system. PHENIX has measured fluctuations in the charge and average transverse momentum of each collision. Thus far, PHENIX reports no large charge fluctuations that might be seen if there is a phase transition from a Quark-Gluon Plasma. PHENIX reports that there are excess fluctuations in transverse momentum, but they appear due to the presence of particles from jets. The behavior of the fluctuations is consistent with the jet suppression phenomenon mentioned previously.

    The particles are flowing - a lot: PHENIX can measure how much the particles flow around in the collision. PHENIX observes a significant particle flow effect, which is expected when heavy ions collide. However, those high transverse momentum particles surprise again, and show a flow effect that is not yet understood and may be more evidence for the existence of a Quark-Gluon Plasma.

    The collisions are strange: PHENIX can identify particles that contain strange quarks, which are interesting since strange quarks are not present in the original nuclei so they all must be produced. It is expected that a Quark-Gluon Plasma will produce a large amount of strange quarks. In particular, PHENIX has measured lambda particles. There are more lambda particles seen than expected.

    I don't have to remind you of why I have taken this route to understand what is taking place as such proton proton collisions reveal some interesting perspectives.

    Quark stars signal unstable universeBy William J. Cromie
    Gazette Staff

    In orbit around Earth, a satellite called the Chandra X-ray Observatory surveys the universe for sources of X-rays, which come from hot, active places. Such places include neutron stars, the still energetic corpses of burnt out stars once more massive than the Sun. When such stars use up their hydrogen fuel they explode into bright supernova, then their cores collapse into an extremely heavy ball of neutrons enveloped in a thin atmosphere containing iron and other debris from the explosion. In the core of the dying star, extreme pressure breaks atoms down into protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons and electrons combine into neutrons, and the remaining material is so heavy that one tablespoon of it weighs about four trillion pounds.

    But they noticed something very odd?

    A Black Hole Ate My Planet

    In 1995, Paul Dixon, a psychologist at the University of Hawaii, picketed Fermilab in Illinois because he feared that its Tevatron collider might trigger a quantum vacuum collapse. Then again in 1998, on a late night talk radio show, he warned that the collider could "blow the Universe to smithereens".

    But particle physicists have this covered. In 1983, Martin Rees of Cambridge University and Piet Hut of the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, pointed out that cosmic rays (high-energy charged particles such as protons) have been smashing into things in our cosmos for aeons. Many of these collisions release energies hundreds of millions of times higher than anything RHIC can muster--and yet no disastrous vacuum collapse has occurred. The Universe is still here.

    This argument also squashes any fears about black holes or strange matter. If it were possible for an accelerator to create such a doomsday object, a cosmic ray would have done so long ago. "We are very grateful for cosmic rays," says Jaffe.

    Wednesday, December 28, 2005

    Presence and Entanglement

    The equivalence principle(29 DEcember 2005 Wiki)
    The accuracy of the gamma-ray measurements was typically 1%. The blueshift of a falling photon can be found by assuming it has an equivalent mass based on its frequency E = hf (where h is Planck's constant) along with E = mc2, a result of special relativity. Such simple derivations ignore the fact that in general relativity the experiment compares clock rates, rather than than energies. In other words, the "higher energy" of the photon after it falls can be equivalently ascribed to the slower running of clocks deeper in the gravitational potential well. To fully validate general relativity, it is important to also show that the rate of arrival of the photons is greater than the rate at which they are emitted

    From a layman perspective, I am seeing that the nature of the gravitational field in a circumstance where such "strengths and weaknesses" would have been viable property to our way of seeing?

    Lensing by showing us, that such avenues would have found the valution of the photon travelling the quickest route?

    So, by changing the face of what we had always agreed upon( encapsulating Gr perspective bulit upon Maxwells creations and the geometries), as the way of energy and matter relation, such presence, would have then said, as a force carrier, that in these two cases, I will always be the way you would interpret my being in gravitational context?? You assume the model

    So "always" in the "presence" of a gravitational field?

    Fifth force(29 Dec 2005 Wiki)

    A few physicists think that Einstein's theory of gravity will have to be modified, not at small scales, but at large distances, or, equivalently, small accelerations. They point out that dark matter, dark energy and even the Pioneer anomaly are unexplained by the Standard Model of particle physics and suggest that some modification of gravity, possibly arising from Modified Newtonian Dynamics or the holographic principle. This is fundamentally different from conventional ideas of a fifth force, as it grows stronger relative to gravity at longer distances. Most physicists, however, think that dark matter and dark energy are not ad hoc, but are supported by a large number of complementary observations and described by a very simple model.

    Now, I am having a bit of a problem with the idea of "high energy" being "redshifted" because of the nature of the blackholes gravitational force? IN this case such a presence wouldhave by nature and strength of curvatures would have forced high enegy states to immediately curve backwards. If such blueshigfting is free to penetrate the fastest routes then such signs woudl have gave indication, yet the immediate horizon vicinity, plays havoc on these ideas?

    The only way one could ascertain such a state of redshifting, is if "high energy" was evident in proximaty of the blackhole?

    Would this be true or false?


    Hypercharge (29 Dec 2005 Wiki)
    In particle physics, the hypercharge (represented by Y) is the sum of the baryon number B and the flavor charges: strangeness S, charm C, bottomness and topness T, although the last one can be omitted given the extremely short life of the top quark (it decays to other quarks before strong-interacting with other quarks).

    Plectics, by Murray Gellman

    It is appropriate that plectics refers to entanglement or the lack thereof, since entanglement is a key feature of the way complexity arises out of simplicity, making our subject worth studying.

    So by simlifying these ideas of entanglement, we find a model building from the orientation supplied by Murray Gellman, where expeirmentatin and hisortical pursuate have created a legitamate question about what Penrose might ask of a New quantum world view?

    Secondly, entanglement issues were progressive, and historically this helps clear up the issues of spooky?

    While dissident took us fastidiously to Hooft, I could also interject with Penrose?

    But in doing so, such progressions from "simplifed states of plectics" would have taken us through a whole host of idealization in terms's of "dimensional significance," had we adopted Hooft's holographical vision?

    If by Hooft's very beginnings, we had thought deeply about the progresions he had taken us too, then how would such developements have looked, if we were the prisoners, and the light behind us, pointed to the shadows on thew wall?

    Saturday, December 17, 2005

    Why this Universe?

    Sea of Virtual Particles

    Who is to deny that such processes incorporated into our views of today would not have drawn the cosmologist and the deeper intracies of physics, to point to our nature and it's beginnings in our universe . To raise questions about how such families were to arise from that place and time, specified and leading from one science inclination to another?

    The Universe is governed by cycles of matter and energy, an intricate series of physical processes in which the chemical elements are formed and destroyed, and passed back and forth between stars and diffuse clouds. It is illuminated with the soft glow of nascent and quiescent stars, fierce irradiation from the most massive stars, and intense flashes of powerful photons and other high energy particles from collapsed objects. Even as the Universe relentlessly expands, gravity pulls pockets of its dark matter and other constituents together, and the energy of their collapse and the resulting nucleosynthesis later work to fling them apart once again.

    This all fell under the arrow of time, yet would it not recognize, that such exchanges between the cycles of energy and matter to take place in that process? That such exchanges would define the natures of galaxies in there beginnings and ends, as a geometrical consistancies born out of the beginnings of this universe? How so? Could such links be made to indicate, that this universe so unique, as to arise from the first inceptions as phase transitions? Some first principle?

    Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos: Eleven Science Questions for the New Century (2003)
    Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA)

    Two essential conceptual features of the Standard Model theory have fundamentally transformed the understanding of nature. Already in QED the idea arose that empty space may not be as simple a concept as it had seemed. The Standard Model weak interaction theory takes this idea a step further. In formulating that theory, it became evident that the equations did

    Friday, December 09, 2005

    Laughlin, Reductionism, Emergence

    I am still operating from the idea of Xtra-Dimensions. What motivating force would have brought such a quantum gravity group together and the aspect it might have spoken from? What mysterious forces motivates all these ladies/ gentlemen?

    Everyone knows that human societies organize themselves. But it is also true that nature organizes itself, and that the principles by which it does this is what modern science, and especially modern physics, is all about. The purpose of my talk today is to explain this idea.

    Can I hardly leave this post written below in my linked coment without some further explanantion?

    You have to be careful about words like “emergent,” because it has pre-existing connotations that may or may not be relevant to how the theory ends up actually working.

    You know for me it became the quest to understand what the basis of reality was. So if one is given perspective to think about from different angles, then the very idea of a "emergent process unfolding from the quantum gravity regimes", then it would have been a truly ground breaking acknowledgement of what the basis of reality really is?

    I would have thought the modifications to GR might have signalled some truth to what was emergent(although this would ask us what that quantum geometry is?) from a condense matter perspective, as Witten saids below.

    I also heard Robert Laughlin say, it didn’t matter if you use bricks or sargeant majors?

    I had trouble with this ,and looking at CFT on the horizon, it made me think of string as a fifth dimensional component within the blackhole. Is this wrong and misleading, not to have looked at the spacetime fabric a a graviton constituent since these modifications were made to GR?

    My thoughts were developing in perspectve as I did my own research, so all of a sudden the basis of the views that I was capturing started to make sense. What were people doing with the very ideaas of this theory of everything?

    One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist’s suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics.

    The Elephant?

    Now having given the poem there for Sean's introduction to Mind and the poetry, we are given a sense of what the historical issues plaguing the ideas of quantum gravity? Filled with the perplex of citizens of a town? To have the proverb, this hinduist portrayal, Sufi expressed, as a lessson in our attempts to understand. It was not me, who first used John Saxes poem in the Physics realms, so do you know who this was?

    So now we have this condense matter approach to consider? I wonder how well it will do when people share perspective about "this approach" to have taken a strong stance against Robert Laughlin's theory of everything? Where are you Peter Woit? What is your way, that you should be so different from what Lubos is saying below?

    Lubos Motl:
    All of us agree that some important features of physical phenomena do not depend on the details of underlying physics; many of these phenomena are emergent in character; it is not too important or useful to know quarks or strings in order to study most of the crucial concepts in biology, climate, physics of water, or quantum computing. If Laughlin thinks that other physicists do not realize this fact, then he is fighting a strawman. Most physicists realize these things - and many fundamental physicists actually use very similar mathematical techniques as Laughlin does in his "emergent" approach.

    So is there a consensus on how the science of our day recogizes the work that is trying to make iself known, as the truth and the light of the way? What does the elephant represent?

    Robert Laughlin:
    Likewise, if the very fabric of the Universe is in a quantum-critical state, then the "stuff" that underlies reality is totally irrelevant-it could be anything, says Laughlin. Even if the string theorists show that strings can give rise to the matter and natural laws we know, they won't have proved that strings are the answer-merely one of the infinite number of possible answers. It could as well be pool balls or Lego bricks or drunk sergeant majors.

    How far in depth shall our abstract views look, as one uses the math to gaze into the "blackhole of oblivion" and wonder? What constitues the very nature from that very horizon. How shall Robert Laughlin speak on it? How shall he speak about the trigger?

    Tuesday, December 06, 2005

    Color Glass Condensate

    A Second Chance?

    Just so that I undertsood this part, intuitive recognition and short requirements previews, had me wonder about how I am proceeding? If as a layman I could not voice what was inherent in the process, did I lack sufficient credibility?

    I understand that.

    I once heard that a mechanic will on the sake of profession and support of colleagues, not tolerate opinion about another of profession without having the sufficient rank. "So and so did this and," I understand that too.

    I know we are talking about the valuation of supersymmetry? Had we not recognized the value it serves in experimental process? Then how would such relations not have been embedded in "thought processes" which serve to catelyst thinking to ideas about "communication viabilties?" A gravitational wave generated that would tell us something about how this early geoemtrical design was initiated?

    What made one not think that such phenomena would not have been incurred in galaxy rotational designs, that lead to states of consideration held in the Crab Cake design of Cosmic Variance, to not have seen the uses of early universe design as feasible structures within the context of the global universe?

    On Physics Watch

    Kapusta points out that the condensation temperature would be well below the cosmic background temperature, so it would be quite a feat to make this superfluid. However, Kapusta also notes that a sufficiently advanced civilization might use pulses of neutrino superfluid for long-distance communications.

    So what value does such thinking take hold of our imagnation not to have understood that if saw in a particle collisions in landscape design and relevance, then what made such landscape possibilites seen from a particluar light called supersymmetry?

    This was a guiding principal was it not that had accomplished soemthing tangible in what began as a theoretcial idealization, and moved through thinking and design to have culminated in further thought patterns? It moved from the concrete?:)

    So what is a color glass condensate? According to Einstein's special theory of relativity, when a nucleus travels at near-light (relativistic) speed, it flattens like a pancake in its direction of motion. Also, the high energy of an accelerated nucleus may cause it to spawn a large number of gluons, the particles that hold together its quarks. These factors--relativistic effects and the proliferation of gluons--may transform a spherelike nucleus into a flattened "wall" made mostly of gluons. This wall, 50-1000 times more dense than ordinary nuclei, is the CGC (see Brookhaven page for a letter-by-letter explanation of the CGC's name). How does the gluon glass relate to the much sought quark-gluon plasma? The QGP might get formed when two CGC's collide.

    Friday, September 09, 2005

    Quark Gluon Plasma

    So how far back to the beginning, and if we had thought supersymmetry could exist, would it be in the most perfect fluid?

    This form of matter is called quark-gluon plasma or QGP. Like its name suggests, QGP is a "soup", or plasma, of quarks and gluons.

    (see physics primer)

    RHIC Scientists Serve Up “Perfect” Liquid

    “The truly stunning finding at RHIC that the new state of matter created in the collisions of gold ions is more like a liquid than a gas gives us a profound insight into the earliest moments of the universe,” said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science.

    Also of great interest to many following progress at RHIC is the emerging connection between the collider’s results and calculations using the methods of string theory, an approach that attempts to explain fundamental properties of the universe using 10 dimensions instead of the usual three spatial dimensions plus time.

    Dr. Raymond L. Orbach
    “The possibility of a connection between string theory and RHIC collisions is unexpected and exhilarating,” Dr. Orbach said. “String theory seeks to unify the two great intellectual achievements of twentieth-century physics, general relativity and quantum mechanics, and it may well have a profound impact on the physics of the twenty-first century.”

    So the issue is which blackholes would help point towards this supersymmetrical view that I jest in the Ipod post and the ipod that forms the perfect fluid? So this idea then about which blackhole has to have found some value in what I assign the new Ipod technology, that takes back to a time near the beginning of the universe.

    Some say if you have to explain the joke then it sort of devalues the joke. Not in this case if you move forward with it, and see what the latest is in research. Sort of "sets the stage" as I allude too, in this other article of cosmic variance's.

    A simple jesture is the question of course (Clifford reminds us here) and without it, how can you move perception forward? It's kind of hard to do that on your own, limited by the current knowledge one might have. So you in essence look forward to those areas that help direct this knowledge. For those who want to rehash the ID debate, only add fuel to the fire for the believers. Better to let it die it's own death and watch for the merits of scientific valuation that is brought forth through media. Speak directly to this only, and the refutation will be it's measure by it's own design.

    What conditions would have allowed such a scene to be developed in supersymmetrical view, that I had wondered, could such a perfect fluid be the example needed? What blackholes hole would allow such a view to be carried down to this level in gold ion collisions, that we might see the results of string theory, as a useful analogy in the discernation of what can now be brought forward for inspection. As to the credibility of what string/M-Theory proposes?

    Give value to string theory where previous comments on the nature of experimental research has lacked luster for this approach? The name choosen for the new Ipod model was specific, as it provided for the idea that we can take this supersymmetrical reality closer to the beginning of this universe and use the BPS blackhole nature for this conisdertaion and resulting fliud nature realized?

    What conditions would provide for such a reality?

    So of course by incinuation what is the nature of this BPS Blackhole that I am refering. That will be the issue on the next post created.

    Tuesday, August 30, 2005

    Entanglement Interpretation of Black Hole Entropy

    "Entanglement entropy" is the latest article posted by Lubos Motl. From this ideas are brought back for consideration, with Nigel and myself in trying to explain. I am not to swift sometimes in my explanations, so the inudation of links here direct underscore the probabilistic valuation one might assign perspective in relation to the topic assigned by Lubos in titled Link.

    Plato said:
    I was going after consensus in terms of how temperature on Bekenstein bound was seen in context of 5th dimenison and 5d comparisons.

    Bekenstein image is very useful here as was Lee Smolins discription.

    If not in your surprize(?) I do not think Lubos Motl and Lee Smolin are too far apart? Here is a better picture of the Lava lamp. The Window on the Universes, has extended our understanding here as well.

    Entanglement Interpretation of Black Hole Entropy in String Theory

    This allows the comparison of the entanglement entropy with the entropy of the field theory dual, and thus, with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole. As an example, we discuss in detail the case of the five dimensional anti-de Sitter, black hole spacetime

    Glast determination in "calorimeric views" would be consistent the deeper look of gluonic perception at such levels? It would be hard to know this starting point yet the environment is conducive, non?

  • Three quarks indicated by red, green and blue spheres (lower
    left) are localized by the gluon field.

  • A quark-antiquark pair created from the gluon field is
    illustrated by the green-antigreen (magenta) quark pair on the right. These quark pairs give rise to a meson cloud around the proton.

  • The masses of the quarks illustrated in this diagram account for only 3% of the proton mass. The gluon field is responsible for the remaining 97% of the proton's mass and is the origin of mass in most everything around us.

  • Experimentalists probe the structure of the proton by scattering electrons (white line) off quarks which interact by exchanging a quantum of light (wavy line) known as a photon.

    Remember that the age is determined by the dark matter density. Mathematically, the length is roughly the geometric mean of the mean free path and the distance light can travel without obstruction (the horizon scale).
  • Wednesday, April 27, 2005

    The Calorimetric View?

    The Title, might seem somewhat strange, but a issue has developed for me that I see raised in the scourge of other intellectuals, who disavow the extra dimension scenario.

    So you have this view and you have this idea of missing energy? Where did it go and where did it come from? Pierre Auger linked previously and the Oh my god particle, raise this idea more in line with the vaster layout of this possibilty.

    You see these things are happening around us now, and you needed a much comprehensive view of this compacted dynamcial world? So the methods seen for determination help us to see what is happening in relation not only to particle reductionistic views, but of the relationship happening with Earth and the Sun. Our other Cosmic relations, that move here in the vast network of spacetime contortions that signal informative views from earlier times

    ATLAS and the LHC
    Describing the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in terms of gauge theories, the Standard Model (SM) of fundamental particles and their interactions has successfully explained and predicted many aspects of high-energy particle interactions. However, despite its tremendous successes, it remains theoretically unsatisfactory. The SM cannot answer what is the origin of particle masses, contains a large number of arbitrary parameters, and does not explain why there are so many types of quarks and leptons, among other questions. Perhaps as much as theoretical breakthroughs are needed in order to improve the SM, so are experimental observations on phenomena which can further constrain the SM or may reveal physics beyond it.

    The question I raised was in looking at where the missing energy had gone? This is a important question, becuase it speaks to what energy gone in/out, as not being equal? I take it, that all particle reductionistic interpretations would have surmized it's energy value, and then, had something left over that is accoutable? How would you know it's missing?

    Now I was looking a Cabi's ole post and from it, this lead me to look at the title of the connected paper for consideration.

    A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS

    Part of the counterpart of looking at particle creation would have been able to understand the part of the calorimeters that are used to measure the evidence produced. IN this context, it lead me to the Atlas information held at CERN. It also made me think of Glast determinations of early universe indications from the calorimeter located in the Glast satelitte. See the Looking Glast

    A Higgs Mechanism for Gravity, by Ingo Kirsch

    In this paper we elaborate on the idea of an emergent spacetime which arises due to the dynamical breaking of diffeomorphism invariance in the early universe. In preparation for an explicit symmetry breaking scenario, we consider nonlinear realizations of the group of analytical diffeomorphisms which provide a unified description of spacetime structures. We find that gravitational fields, such as the affine connection, metric and coordinates, can all be interpreted as Goldstone fields of the diffeomorphism group. We then construct a Higgs mechanism for gravity in which an affine spacetime evolves into a Riemannian one by the condensation of a metric. The symmetry breaking potential is identical to that of hybrid inflation but with the non-inflaton scalar extended to a symmetric second rank tensor. This tensor is required for the realization of the metric as a Higgs field. We finally comment on the role of Goldstone coordinates as a dynamical fluid of reference.

    Now I have not gone into in detail because I am somewhat slow and a bottom feeder trying very hard to gain perspective of the world these fellows like to deal with.

    So the water symbolically speaking, sound manifest, with those inhabiting a dynamical world, speak about the nature of matter constitutions. That come from some state of existance? Here the idea, that it could emerse from nothing (where do the graviton perceptions reside?), is again hard to swallow becuase, "preconstitutional states," had allowed such manifestations to emerge from something? It just seemed logical? Non!

    When you think this is going to be the end of it, I thought, I would recap, because I have given the containment(calorimetric) that such particle views, or early universe connections, might have brought forward in detectors methods?

    This would have satisfied Peter Woit I am sure, but this view is far from over. The rules have defined a greater context to the issue that points us to the deeper issue of what Gerard 't Hooft might have said was comprehensible features of computerized information consistancies. This would have been far from the truth. Blackhole particle production, would have said hold on? To have this comprehensive view, you needed to include a completed version of the standard model? Without the grvaiton in cvomputerized versions you see where the picture is far completed and you se where the extra dimensiona would have certain features that would have incorporated graviton perceptions in the bulk?

    The horizon would have been far from complete had the standard model not included this into the the energy in/out version. This would have been the thread(string) that connected the innner space of the blackhole with the particle production that would have dissipated/exploded in view? How would computerization meet this demand? LIGO?

    Tuesday, April 26, 2005

    The Holographical Mapping of the Standard Model onto the Blackhole Horizon

    New paper that came out yesterday written by Gerard 't Hooft

    Interactions between outgoing Hawking particles and ingoing matter are determined by gravitational forces and Standard Model interactions. In particular the gravitational interactions are responsible for the unitarity of the scattering against the horizon, as dictated by the holographic principle, but the Standard Model interactions also contribute, and understanding their effects is an important first step towards a complete understanding of the horizon’s dynamics. The relation between in- and outgoing states is described in terms of an operator algebra. In this paper, the first of a series, we describe the algebra induced on the horizon by U(1) vector fields and scalar fields, including the case of an Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism, and a more careful consideration of the transverse vector field components.

    But before I entertain this idea, I wanted to gain some perspective. I was immediately struck by something here that changes the way we have been doing things? Recognizing the blackhole evaporation and standard model production, we are saying that indeed these things already existed in the horizon?

    Would M theory have then found it's experimental counterpart? The Bose Nova and Jet idea from collapsing bubbles has been part of the vision I speculated in what Heisenberg saw in the geometrodynamics of a nuclear explosion. See, not only were we detonating a nuclear reaction(gravitational collapse), but we were doing something beyond the perception, by going to the heart of these particle collisions.

    What makes it diffuclt for me is that having seen the blackhole dynamics in relation to bubble technlogies, that I like to use as analogies, relate too, and contain the elements of the standard model without ever entering the blackhole? How is this possible and still see the three blane collapse of the blackhole here?

    Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity by Gerard 't Hooft

    The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean variables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving with time. This observation, deduced from not much more than unitarity, entropy and counting arguments, implies severe restrictions on possible models of quantum gravity. Using cellular automata as an example it is argued that this dimensional reduction implies more constraints than the freedom we have in constructing models. This is the main reason why so-far no completely consistent mathematical models of quantum black holes have been found.

    Essay dedicated to Abdus Salam.

    Gerard "t Hooft:No 'Quantum Computer' will ever be able to out perform a 'scaled up classical computer.'

    Holding onto the sanity of why such computerization program will run into difficulties, has not undermined the position to included and create opportunities for seeing what is happening at such reductionistic levels? To have wondered, will we gain a dynamcial visulaization of what is happening within the context of the universe as it came into being?

    With more computer power, scientists can also include more elements of the Earth's climate system, such as the oceans, the atmosphere, their chemistry and the carbon cycle.

    This should make forecasts of future temperature rises more reliable. Keiko Takahashi, who works at the Earth Simulator Centre, says they have already carried out several experiments that look 50 years ahead.

    There is difficulties with doing this, and like LIGO or a SEti work in progress, how shall this information allows us to see the interactions in a consistent model? So dealing with these difficulties has been part of Gerard 't Hoofts analysis to see that others too, work hard to deal with issues of information paradox?

    Part of this difficulty in computerized model application, would have been transfer rates of information from such quantum levels. Lubos gives some insight here. Although it has been very nice that such visualization techiques could be applied to this data transfer, from what we understand of particle reductionsism. Within context of the larger universe, how detailed shall has our observations become of the world around us?

    These images contrast the degree of interaction and collective motion, or "flow," among quarks in the predicted gaseous quark-gluon plasma state (Figure A, see mpeg animation) vs. the liquid state that has been observed in gold-gold collisions at RHIC (Figure B, see mpeg animation). The green "force lines" and collective motion (visible on the animated version only) show the much higher degree of interaction and flow among the quarks in what is now being described as a nearly "perfect" liquid. (Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory)

    The goal of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is to link roughly 6,000 scientists so they can perform large-scale experiments and simulations to help the world better understand subatomic particles. The grid will ultimately link more than 200 research institutions.

    "This service challenge is a key step on the way to managing the torrents of data anticipated from the LHC," Jamie Shiers, manager of the service challenges at CERN, said in a statement. "When the LHC starts operating in 2007, it will be the most data-intensive physics instrument on the planet, producing more than 1,500 megabytes of data every second for over a decade."

    Gerard 't Hooft recognized this problem and when we see such scattering ideas from blackhole standard model production particles, how shall we see this event in terms of what is sent back for examination? It would mean considering the context of Gerard's paper there is no information loss? No missing energy events?

    Thus the consistent model frame, from blackhole production underlying framework would disavow any ideas relating to energy in and energy out imbalance held in context of gravitonic production as part of the standard model production? The horizon area would become a balanced view?

    Using the ideas of Clementine and the graduation to Grace, it seemed that I was leading to a good comprehensive view of the bubble technicalities as they contained the missing energy, but moving too "this view of Gerard's" might endanger how we approximate the whole view of this missing energy, with the easy removal of that missing energy scenario? Would this be consistent with the overall encompassed view that the grvaiton has emerged from the extension of this standard model to say oh, it's okay we can remove this and fnd comfort with the existing framework without other contentions issues like missing energy to deal with this?

    Do we have Proof of this Missing Energy? If the answer is yes, then the issue has not been resolved?