Showing posts with label Grace Satellite. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Grace Satellite. Show all posts

Wednesday, June 08, 2016

Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

View of amplified effects of a + polarized gravitational wave (stylized) on eLISA laser beams / arms paths.
Detector noise curves for LISA and eLISA as a function of frequency. They lie in between the bands for ground-based detectors like Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and pulsar timing arrays such as the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). The characteristic strain of potential astrophysical sources are also shown. To be detectable the characteristic strain of a signal must be above the noise curve.[27]

Simplified operation of a gravitational wave observatory
Figure 1: A beamsplitter (green line) splits coherent light (from the white box) into two beams which reflect off the mirrors (cyan oblongs); only one outgoing and reflected beam in each arm is shown, and separated for clarity. The reflected beams recombine and an interference pattern is detected (purple circle).
Figure 2: A gravitational wave passing over the left arm (yellow) changes its length and thus the interference pattern.
Like every modern gravitational wave observatory, eLISA is based on laser interferometry technique. Its three satellites form a giant Michelson interferometer in which two "slave" satellites play the role of reflectors and one "master" satellite the one of source and observer. While a gravitational wave is passing through the interferometer, lengths of the two eLISA arms are varying due to space-time distortions resulting from the wave. Practically, it measures a relative phase shift between one local laser and one distant laser by light interference. Comparison between the observed laser beam frequency (in return beam) and the local laser beam frequency (sent beam) encodes the wave parameters. See: Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

See Also:

Friday, December 14, 2012

It's Final Endgame for GRAIL's Twin Spacecraft

The mountain where the two spacecraft will make contact is located near a crater named Goldschmidt. Both spacecraft have been flying in formation around the moon since Jan. 1, 2012. They were named by elementary school students in Bozeman, Mont., who won a contest. The first probe to reach the moon, Ebb, also will be the first to go down, at 2:28:40 p.m. PST. Flow will follow Ebb about 20 seconds later. See: NASA Probes Prepare for Mission-Ending Moon Impact

GRAIL's Final Resting Spot
These maps of Earth's moon highlight the region where the twin spacecraft of NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission will impact on Dec. 17, marking the end of its successful endeavor to map the moon's gravity. The two washing-machine-sized spacecraft, named Ebb and Flow, will impact at an unnamed mountain near the moon's North Pole. These maps are from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

See Also:

Saturday, December 08, 2012

GRAIL's Gravity Tour of the Moon

Embedded video from
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology
This movie shows the variations in the lunar gravity field as measured by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) during the primary mapping mission from March to May 2012.

Thursday, October 25, 2012


Gravity map of the Southern Ocean around the Antarctic continent
This gravity field was computed from sea-surface height measurements collected by the US Navy GEOSAT altimeter between March, 1985, and January, 1990. The high density GEOSAT Geodetic Mission data that lie south of 30 deg. S were declassified by the Navy in May of 1992 and contribute most of the fine-scale gravity information.
The Antarctic continent itself is shaded in blue depending on the thickness of the ice sheet (blue shades in steps of 1000 m); light blue is shelf ice; gray lines are the major ice devides; pink spots are parts of the continent which are not covered by ice; gray areas have no data.

Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field. Gravimetry may be used when either the magnitude of gravitational field or the properties of matter responsible for its creation are of interest. The term gravimetry or gravimetric is also used in chemistry to define a class of analytical procedures, called gravimetric analysis relying upon weighing a sample of material.

 See Also:
Atom interferometry: In light-pulse atom interferometers, atomic matter waves are split and recombined using pulses of laser light. The splitting occurs because when an atom interacts with the photons of a laser beam, it exchanges the momentum of a number of photons. The atom may thus continue on either of two spatially separate paths, the interferometer arms. When the paths are recombined, the probability that the atom is found depends upon the phase difference between them, which determines whether the matter waves will add or cancel. This phase is shifted by the atom’s coupling to electromagnetic fields, gravity, inertial forces, and other influences. By selecting the geometry of the interferometer, the atomic species, and its quantum state, one can maximize the wanted influence and minimize others. Advances in the control of the quantum state of atoms and photons have led to an extraordinary sensitivity and accuracy.


Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Grail At the Moon

 Grail Recovery and Interior Labratory
NASA's Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL)-A spacecraft successfully completed its planned main engine burn at 2 p.m. PST (5 p.m. EST) today. As of 3 p.m. PST (6 p.m. EST), GRAIL-A is in a 56-mile (90-kilometer) by 5,197-mile (8,363-kilometer) orbit around the moon that takes approximately 11.5 hours to complete.

Visualisation of the “Geoid” of the Moon

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Space Geodesy

 Project manager Stephen Merkowitz talks about his work with NASA's Space Geodesy Project, including a brief overview of the four fundamental techniques of space geodesy: GPS, VLBI, SLR, and DORIS.

Learn more about space geodesy at:

This video is public domain and can be downloaded at:

Space Geodesy provides positioning, navigation, and timing reference systems and Earth system observations
Geodesy is the science of the Earth’s shape, gravity and rotation, including their evolution in time. A number of different techniques are used to observe the geodetic properties of the Earth including the space-geodetic techniques of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) like the US Global Positioning System (GPS), and the French Doppler Orbitography and Radio-Positioning by Integrated Satellite (DORIS) system. These space-geodetic observations also provide the basis for the reference frame that is needed in order to assign coordinates to points and objects and thereby determine how those points and objects move over time. See SGP Science

See Also:

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Core Optics

A pair of polished Advanced LIGO end mirrors (ETM's)
Core optics are the 40-kg masses that form the heart of a LIGO detector. A core optic is manufactured from fused silica, polished to a few nanometers of smoothness and coated with dozens of layers of optical coatings. The result is a tuning of the balance of reflection and transmission of the mirror at the parts per million level. See: Advanced LIGO

Tuesday, March 06, 2012

Geodesy and geophysics

Mean Gravity Field

Anomalies by definition would require that we understand something about our selves that we did not know before, in that the whole history of you, is a large synopsis of everything that thinks and breath? Imagine indeed that such a vast resource could defined you as in some book to know that what would come next would be the unfolding of what you have been to what you shall become.

So I veered away from this act of who you are, toward a question of our relationship with understanding the world around us. What can exist in nature as some anomaly is really our inability to describe something in nature that awes us and had never gone deeper then then on the surface observance of who we are and where we live.

Map of free-air gravity anomalies around Britain and Ireland
Variations in the strength of gravity occur from place to place according to the density distribution of the rocks beneath the surface. Such gravity anomalies have been mapped across the British Isles and the surrounding seas and they reveal aspects of these islands’ geological structure.

(Bouguer) gravity anomaly map of the state of New Jersey (USGS)
 The Bouguer anomalies usually are negative in the mountains because of isostasy: the rock density of their roots is lower, compared with the surrounding earth's mantle. Typical anomalies in the Central Alps are −150 milligals (−1.5 mm/s²). Rather local anomalies are used in applied geophysics: if they are positive, this may indicate metallic ores. At scales between entire mountain ranges and ore bodies, Bouguer anomalies may indicate rock types. For example, the northeast-southwest trending high across central New Jersey (see figure) represents a graben of Triassic age largely filled with dense basalts. Salt domes are typically expressed in gravity maps as lows, because salt has a low density compared to the rocks the dome intrudes. Anomalies can help to distinguish sedimentary basins whose fill differs in density from that of the surrounding region - see Gravity Anomalies of Britain and Ireland for example.

Bouguer Anomaly Map of Belgium and Surrounding areas

The anomalies are calculated using a uniform Bouguer reduction density of 2.67 gr/cm3 the grid was obtained by Krigging, cell size : 5 km, search radius : 30 km. The French data are copyrighted by BRGM (France).

While the examples above help to shed light on how we can perceive earth in a way that we are not accustomed too, this idea of gravity is important to understand the way in which gravitationally we my look at the world/earth. In our early years abstractly the idea of curvature was something that did not make sense until one moved beyond the Euclidean lines of understanding to a Non Euclidean view?

To that point we did not understand what the earth look like in its pearl form in space without having left the confines of earth?

I want you too look at space as well to understand what may be conceivable even though we may talk about an anomaly in nature that to this point we did not necessarily understand until we were presented with the examples as to confront and require an explanation. So you have the earth and space to contend with here.


So we graduate with the understanding with how we have seen the earth in observatory implicitness to have it detailed in a more "ugly definition of its composed parts?" To me it's not really that ugly at all,  although as you venture to take in the color representation of the component parts of our earth's geological structure,  you learn to understand the concreteness of our definitions.

Sunday, January 01, 2012

Grail: Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory

GRAIL Spacecraft Logo

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, spacecraft logo is emblazoned on the first stage of a United Launch Alliance Delta II launch vehicle, now secured in the gantry at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 17B.

Image credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

Mission Overview

The GRAIL mission will place two spacecraft into the same orbit around the Moon. As they fly over areas of greater and lesser gravity, caused both by visible features such as mountains and craters and by masses hidden beneath the lunar surface, they will move slightly toward and away from each other. An instrument aboard each spacecraft will measure the changes in their relative velocity very precisely, and scientists will translate this information into a high-resolution map of the Moon's gravitational field. 

This gravity-measuring technique is essentially the same as that of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), which has been mapping Earth's gravity since 2002. See: Grail: Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory

See Also: Time-Variable Gravity Measurements

Mean Gravity Field

Who of us could forget what the earth looks like after it has been mapped.

 On planet Earth, we tend to think of the gravitational effect as being the same no matter where we are on the planet. We certainly don't see variations anywhere near as dramatic as those between the Earth and the Moon. But the truth is, the Earth's topography is highly variable with mountains, valleys, plains, and deep ocean trenches. As a consequence of this variable topography, the density of Earth's surface varies. These fluctuations in density cause slight variations in the gravity field, which, remarkably, GRACE can detect from space.

Our views in terms of the gravity field becomes part and parcel of our assessment as we venture out into space. So why not the Moon.

Image Credit: NASA/Goddard

Early assessment of Clementine along with LCROSS paints a interesting feature of our Moon as we look to understand the matter constituent makeup of the moon,  along with what it's gravity field.

Here at Dialogos of Eide I am concerned about this relationship. Such mapping not only becomes useful in the determination of the gravity field but it also heightens the understanding of relating to the elemental.

Future moon missions will need to understand the elemental makeup (while quantum gravity and relativity have not been joined experimentally) in order to use the elements to assist the colony in providing the tools necessary for it's survival there. With a Treaty established such claims to the moon become a societal move beyond earth's domain and truly moves us to civilization that will habitat the stars.

Part of this move into the cosmos will be the need to understand "something spiritual about ourselves and while ethereal in it's assessment this relationship to gravity."  It is also necessary to go "even deeper" to understand our ability to manipulate the force of gravity as a product of the mechanism of the Higg's field as we move through our own psychological underpinnings with the way in which we choose to live. (I know we have yet to proof this connection).

I give some inkling with the four links below. This is my assessment of the relationship toward "my gravity"  as I choose to live in the world of reality.

Sunday, November 14, 2010

The Lunar Far Side: The Side Never Seen from Earth

                                                            Mass concentration (astronomy)

This figure shows the topography (top) and corresponding gravity (bottom) signal of Mare Smythii at the Moon. It nicely illustrates the term "mascon". Author Martin Pauer

While article is from Tuesday, June 22, 2010 9:00 PM it still amazes me how we see the moon in context of it's coloring.
Topography when seen in context of landscape, how we measure aspects of the gravitational field supply us with a more realistic interpretation of the globe as a accurate picture of how that sphere(isostatic equilibrium)  looks.

Image Credit: NASA/Goddard
Ten Cool Things Seen in the First Year of LRO

Tidal forces between the moon and the Earth have slowed the moon' rotation so that one side of the moon always faces toward our planet. Though sometimes improperly referred to as the "dark side of the moon," it should correctly be referred to as the "far side of the moon" since it receives just as much sunlight as the side that faces us. The dark side of the moon should refer to whatever hemisphere isn't lit at a given time. Though several spacecraft have imaged the far side of the moon since then, LRO is providing new details about the entire half of the moon that is obscured from Earth. The lunar far side is rougher and has many more craters than the near side, so quite a few of the most fascinating lunar features are located there, including one of the largest known impact craters in the solar system, the South Pole-Aitken Basin. The image highlighted here shows the moon's topography from LRO's LOLA instruments with the highest elevations up above 20,000 feet in red and the lowest areas down below -20,000 feet in blue.

Learn More About Far side of the Moon

 Credit: NASA/Goddard/MIT/Brown

Figure 4: A lunar topographic map showing the Moon from the vantage point of the eastern limb. On the left side of the Moon seen in this view is part of the familiar part of the Moon observed from Earth (the eastern part of the nearside). In the middle left-most part of the globe is Mare Tranquillitatis (light blue) the site of the Apollo 11 landing, and above this an oval-appearing region (Mare Serenitatis; dark blue) the site of the Apollo 17 landing. Most of the dark blue areas are lunar maria, low lying regions composed of volcanic lava flows that formed after the heavily cratered lunar highlands (and are thus much less cratered). The topography is derived from over 2.4 billion shots made by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The large near-circular basins show the effects of the early impacts on early planetary crusts in the inner solar system, including the Earth. 

 Author and Image Credit: Mark A. Wieczorek
Radial gravitational anomaly at the surface of the Moon as determined from the gravity model LP150Q. The contribution due to the rotational flattening has been removed for clarity, and positive anomalies correspond to an increase in magnitude of the gravitational acceleration. Data are presented in two Lambert azimuthal equal area projections.
The major characteristic of the Moon's gravitational field is the presence of mascons, which are large positive gravity anomalies associated with some of the giant impact basins. These anomalies greatly influence the orbit of spacecraft about the Moon, and an accurate gravitational model is necessary in the planning of both manned and unmanned missions. They were initially discovered by the analysis of Lunar Orbiter tracking data,[2] since navigation tests prior to the Apollo program experienced positioning errors much larger than mission specifications.

Saturday, April 24, 2010


oscopelabs July 29, 2008 Irena Salina's award-winning documentary investigation into what experts label the most important political and environmental issue of the 21st Century - The World Water Crisis.

Salina builds a case against the growing privatization of the world's dwindling fresh water supply with an unflinching focus on politics, pollution, human rights, and the emergence of a domineering world water cartel.

Interviews with scientists and activists intelligently reveal the rapidly building crisis, at both the global and human scale, and the film introduces many of the governmental and corporate culprits behind the water grab, while begging the question 'CAN ANYONE REALLY OWN WATER?'

Beyond identifying the problem, FLOW also gives viewers a look at the people and institutions providing practical solutions to the water crisis and those developing new technologies, which are fast becoming blueprints for a successful global and economic turnaround.

Sept. 12
New York - Angelika Film Center
Los Angeles - Laemmle Sunset 5
See: F.L.O.W - For Love of Water

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

GOCE delivering data for best gravity map ever

30 September 2009
Following the launch and in-orbit testing of the most sophisticated gravity mission ever built, ESA’s GOCE satellite is now in ‘measurement mode’, mapping tiny variations in Earth’s gravity in unprecedented detail.

The ‘Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer’ (GOCE) satellite was launched on 17 March from northern Russia. The data now being received will lead to a better understanding of Earth’s gravity, which is important for understanding how our planet works.

It is often assumed that gravity exerts an equal force everywhere on Earth. However, owing to factors such as the rotation of the planet, the effects of mountains and ocean trenches, and density variations in Earth’s interior, this fundamental force is not quite the same all over.


Over two six-month uninterrupted periods, GOCE will map these subtle variations with extreme detail and accuracy. This will result in a unique model of the ‘geoid’ – the surface of an ideal global ocean at rest.

A precise knowledge of the geoid is crucial for accurate measurement of ocean circulation and sea-level change, both of which are influenced by climate. The data from GOCE are also much-needed to understand the processes occurring inside Earth. In addition, by providing a global reference to compare heights anywhere in the world, the GOCE-derived geoid will be used for practical applications in areas such as surveying and levelling.See More here and here

See:Plato's Nightlight Mining Company is claiming Aristarchus Crater and Surrounding Region and the rest is history:)

Monday, April 20, 2009

Mapping Weather Changes

Plato Said:
More to the truth then.

A device, that reveals what "color of gravity" means as you display your patronage in thought. More to the "signature of your soul being," that while thinking genome, it's more what you like to do with this physiological makeup and brain, that reveals the true nature of the individual in full regalia.

A lie detector. No. Something much more substantial in this device as the defendant sits under sworn testimony.
See also:Yes, but are you a prime-number?

Uniqueness of the soul arising from it's beginning, is that each life is "an identification unique" of what can be manifested as a circle if you like, and identified to each quadrant as "an image to explain," what and why you came into this life and the purpose.

It begins and one travels clockwise for consideration. This once existed, yet does not now. Such memories can be contained to mandalas of a sort, while you contend to produce mind maps for containment in this life as models that are not so different to see that such a thing can become an identifier of what you are motivated to do and carry over into this life. Energy packet that can awake into what has been done previously now provided a time when such a capsule explodes into awareness.

But the truth is, the Earth's topography is highly variable with mountains, valleys, plains, and deep ocean trenches. As a consequence of this variable topography, the density of Earth's surface varies. These fluctuations in density cause slight variations in the gravity field, which, remarkably, GRACE can detect from space.

I wanted to write this post with the understanding that while we define ourselves in terms of the body, earth, there is a "weather that surrounds us" that is not so different then what surrounds the earth.

So below is a scientific analysis, while I speculated as to the measures that would require such a device for existence to be thought of, in much the same way. "So chaotic" that such a realization exists in mind that the detection of the truer color palettes, can be turbulent above, while underneath, such weather disturbances detour those same color factors held too, in body mind solidified.

This device is also used to dial into the history and memory of a soul and their functions of the past, as they are revealed through this screen.

Two experiments harness cosmic rays to help monitor and predict weather. On the surface, COSMOS detectors clock the speeds of neutrons that are generated when cosmic rays penetrate the ground. This yields a measure of soil moisture, an important factor in precipitation and crop yields. And half a mile underground, muons coming into the MINOS detector were used to take the temperature of the lower stratosphere. This could help validate readings from satellites and weather balloons. Illustration: Sandbox StudioSee:Cosmic weather gauges By Glennda Chui and Tona Kunz

Saturday, February 07, 2009

Fulleranes and Allotropes

"Composition VI", 1913, Wassily Kandinsky

The term "Composition" can imply a metaphor with music. Kandinsky was fascinated by music's emotional power. Because music expresses itself through sound and time, it allows the listener a freedom of imagination, interpretation, and emotional response that is not based on the literal or the descriptive, but rather on the abstract quality that painting, still dependent on representing the visible world, could not provide.On Wassily Kandinsky and Music

How is it one is to picture the emotive content that surrounds us , and in a comparative view assign it to the emotive quality of Earth's Environ. It's storms and raining waters that cleanse, bring tears to the eyes, and in a moments release, all that is pent up rains from the cloud of distress.

So chaotic then one is to perceive the reality they live in. Such uncertainty at levels that create a haze of any time valued determination becomes the clouded colour of reason, that is baseless and motivated by the fires in the heart of anger and revealed in the pain of a lesson.

Held to the Earth's Environ according to our placement of the materials in the expressive nature of some inspirational phase change that holds seeds of the entropic balanced of order.To make Earth more human. It's peaceful places of waterfalls and it's deserts, devoid of the greenery. How dry and taxing this distress hidden in the winds.


Novel Fulleranes

The basic expanded network structure of the icosahedral water cluster is mechanically strong, having close to tetrahedrally-positioned bonds, and could be found in the, as yet undiscovered, alkane C280H120; made up of twenty C14 tetrahedral sub-structures. Using the AMBER force-field, the average C-C and C-H bond lengths and bond angles were 1.533 Å (SD 0.014 Å), 1.091 Å (SD 0.0001 Å) and 109.46° (SD 1.47°) respectively.
See: Water Structure and Science

Icosahedral super cluster

A super cluster of thirteen water icosahedra, showing the tessellation ability. Thirteen complete but overlapping icosahedral clusters form this super-icosahedral structure (an icosahedron of interpenetrating icosahedra; that is, a tricontahedron) containing 1820 water molecules (an outer shell of an additional 360 water molecules is also shown). This structure is for illustrative purposes only of the type of superclustering possible. It is not likely to be a preferred minimum-energy structure due to the increased strain on full tessellation [295]; However the icosahedral structures can form part of fully tessellated clathrate I-type structures.



See Also:
  • Allotropes and the Ray of Creation
  • Mendeleev's Table in a New Light
  • Trademarks of the Geometer II
  • Sunday, March 09, 2008

    Brain Matters

    Felix Christian Klein1849 - 1925
    "Thus, in a sense, mathematics has been most advanced by those who distinguished themselves by intuition rather than by rigorous proofs."

    We know the substance of the matters that house our thinking minds. How much more ethereal is the "thinking mind" if it is only subject to the neuronic thinking brain? The "field of endeavours and thoughts" could be moved to geometrical thinking of a kind that would measure the surface of abstract thinking model Earth?

    The dimensional thinking here shows the depth of the thinking mind from it's matter to that of something more profound. Einstein revealed this thinking in an accumulative effect of incorporation, not only the Gaussian Arcs, but of what our thinking could mean in terms of the "lensing quality of planets in space."

    So you look at the earth in a new way. This elevation of thinking is what general relativity has done when we think of the abstract geometrical modelling produced for our consumption. Sets the mind to thinking in terms of new paradigms.

    Klein's Ordering of Geometries
    A theorem which is valid for a geometry in this sequence is automatically valid for the ones that follow. The theorems of projective geometry are automatically valid theorems of Euclidean geometry. We say that topological geometry is more abstract than projective geometry which is turn is more abstract than Euclidean geometry.

    It is the elevation in thought of what gravity can mean when it is very strong, that, what was satisfiable in the euclidean realm, is not so good anymore for looking at what the non-euclidean could represent. Then, a progression of the geometries into new realms of thinking. How so, if gravity is so strong inside the blackhole? There currently no geometries at present that can speak to the nature of the blackhole?

    On planet Earth, we tend to think of the gravitational effect as being the same no matter where we are on the planet. We certainly don't see variations anywhere near as dramatic as those between the Earth and the Moon. But the truth is, the Earth's topography is highly variable with mountains, valleys, plains, and deep ocean trenches. As a consequence of this variable topography, the density of Earth's surface varies. These fluctuations in density cause slight variations in the gravity field, which, remarkably, GRACE can detect from space.Gravity 101

    So the journey here is to define the space of thinking mind that while ethereal in it's production of matter orientated functioning, is subject to a much finer mode of measure.

    For instance energy at any one point could have been define on the basis of 1R, but on a surface what value this energy if it does not describe that surface in space as a dynamical feature beyond the matter s defined?

    See:Time-Variable Gravity Measurements

    Friday, January 18, 2008

    MESSENGER Reveals Mercury’s Geological History

    Stefan of Backreaction posted a blog entry called,"Mercury looks like the Moon, nearly... that brought me up to speed on what the planet actually looks like.

    His article provides for the links here in this entry, as well sets the stage for the culminating vision I have of our solar system. Looking at the solar system in the processes I outline are important point of seeing the gravitational aspects of the universe as we have come to know it.

    I had never considered what the actual surface of Mercury would look like, other then what I had thought it to be, when told as a child. A molten surface.

    Using the laser altimeter, MESSENGER will verify the presence of a liquid outer core in Mercury by measuring the planet's libration. Libration is the slow 88-day wobble of the planet around its rotational axis.

    Seeing Mercury the way it is below provides for some thought about Mercury facing toward the Sun. It's surface looking at the picture below, I was wondering if facing directly in opposition to the Sun would showing brighter spots as we look to the right of this image.

    This also raised an interesting question on my mind about how the uniformity of the surface could retain it's moon like look while undergoing the passage of "increased heat" as it faced the sun at anyone time through it's rotation.

    Question 4 : What is the structure of Mercury's core?

    Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

    More recently, Earth-based radar observations of Mercury have also determined that at least a portion of the large metal core is still liquid to this day! Having at least a partially molten core means that a very small but detectable variation in the spin-rate of Mercury has a larger amplitude because of decoupling between the solid mantle and liquid core. Knowing that the core has not completely solidified, even as Mercury has cooled over billions of years since its formation, places important constraints on the thermal history, evolution, and core composition of the planet.

    Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

    This MESSENGER image was taken from a distance of about 18,000 kilometers (11,000 miles) from the surface of Mercury, at 20:03 UTC, about 58 minutes after the closest approach point of the flyby. The region shown is about 500 kilometers (300 miles) across, and craters as small as 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) can be seen in this image.

    The Gravity Field

    Clementine color ratio composite image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon. This 42 km diameter crater is located on the corner of the Aristarchus plateau, at 24 N, 47 W. Ejecta from the plateau is visible as the blue material at the upper left (northwest), while material excavated from the Oceanus Procellarum area is the reddish color to the lower right (southeast). The colors in this image can be used to ascertain compositional properties of the materials making up the deep strata of these two regions. (Clementine, USGS slide 11)

    This is always of interest to be because it is an accumulation of the synthesis of views we gain as we come to understand not only the views of on the Window of the universe, as we look at the Sun under information obtain in the neutrino laboratory's and information modelling of how we can now look at the sun with this new view.

    But the truth is, the Earth's topography is highly variable with mountains, valleys, plains, and deep ocean trenches. As a consequence of this variable topography, the density of Earth's surface varies. These fluctuations in density cause slight variations in the gravity field, which, remarkably, GRACE can detect from space.

    Well, by adding the label of Grace and Grace satellite systems, it is important to me that not only is gravity considered in context of the exploration of space in terms of Lagrangian, but of viewing how we map the earth and the views we obtain of that new gravity model of earth. This application then becomes of interest as we understand how we see the gravity model of Mercury and how the geological structure of Mercury will be reflected in that gravity model.

    The Culminating Vision

    Fig. 1. Story line showing the principle of least action sandwiched between relativity and quantum mechanics See A call to action

  • The Periodic Table of the Moon's Strata
  • Time-Variable Gravity Measurements

  • Andrew Wiles and Fermat
  • Tuesday, December 11, 2007

    The Other Side of the Coin

    Susan Holmes- Statistician Persi Diaconis' mechanical coin flipper.

    In football's inaugural kickoff coin toss, the coin is not caught but allowed to bounce on the ground. That introduces an extra complication, one mathematicians have yet to sort out.

    Persi Diaconis See here.

    The Ground State

    There is always an "inverse order to Gravity" that helps one see in ways that we are not accustom too. The methods of "prospective measurements" in science have taken a radical turn? Satellites as a measure, have focused our views.

    While one may now look at the "sun in a different way" it had to first display itself across the "neutrino Sudbury screen" before we knew to picture the sun now in the way we do. It was progressive, in the way the sun now forms a picture of what we now know in measure.

    So you try and bring it all together under this "new way of seeing" and hopefully your account of "the way reality is," is shared by others who now understand what the heck I am doing?

    To get a simple physical understanding of what the acoustic oscillations are, it may be helpful to change the perspective. Normally, the common way of presenting the phenomenon has been in terms of standing waves where the analysis is done in Fourier space. But the baryon-photon fluid really is just carrying sound waves, and the dispersion relation is even pretty linear. So let’s instead think of things in terms of traveling waves in real spacehttp:// Observatory, University of Arizona
    c 2005

    "Uncertainty" has this way of rearing it's head once we reduce our perspective to the microscopic principals(sand), yet, on the other side of the coin, how is it that only 5% of mass determination allows us to see the universe mapped in the way it has in regards to the CMB?

    There is this "entropic valuation" and with it, temperature. Some do not like the porridge "to hot or to cold," with regards to "living in a place" within the universe.

    So I'll repeat the blog comment entry here in this blog so one can gather some of what I mean.

    At 2:56 AM, December 11, 2007, Plato said...
    As a lay person with regards to the complexity of the language(sound)and universe, it is sometimes reduced to "seeing in ways that are much easier to deal with," although of course, it may not be the same for everyone?:)

    :)Something good science people "do not want to hear?"

    Good link in html.

    The launching of the sound waves is very similar to dropping a rock in a pond and seeing the circular wave come off (obviously that a gravity wave, not a compressional wave, but I’m focusing on the geometry). The difference here is that the area where the “rock” entered is still the most likely region to form galaxies; the spherical shell that it produced is only carrying 5% of the mass.

    Hopefully, this demystifies the effect: we’re seeing the imprint of spherical sound waves launched from the sites of dark matter overdensities in the early universe. But also I hope it makes it more clear as to why this effect is so robust: the propagation of sound in the baryon-photon plasma is very simple, and all we’re doing is measuring how far it got.

    "Mapping," had to begin somewhere. Whatever that may mean,one may think of Mendeleeev or Newlands.

    Generally Grouping Order increases the density of objects within a frame of reference, resulting in a more pronounced single object.

    "Sand with pebbles" on a beach? It had to arise from someplace?

    The other side of the Coin is?

    This recording was produced by converting into audible sounds some of the radar echoes received by Huygens during the last few kilometres of its descent onto Titan. As the probe approaches the ground, both the pitch and intensity increase. Scientists will use intensity of the echoes to speculate about the nature of the surface.

    and not to be undone.

    Mass results in an increase in the gravitational force exerted by an object. Density fluctuations on the surface of the Earth and in the underlying mantle are thus reflected invariations in the gravity field.As the twin GRACE satellites orbit the Earth together, these gravity field variations cause infinitesimal changes in the distance between the two. These changes will be measured with unprecedented accuracy by the instruments aboard GRACE leading to a more precise rendering of the gravitational field than has ever been possible to date.

    Layman pondering.

    So now that you have this "comprehensive view" I have gained on the way I am seeing the universe. You can "now see" how diverse the application of sound in analogy is. It is helping me to develop the "Colour of Gravity" as a artistic endeavour. I refrain from calling it "scientific" and be labelled a crackpot.

    A Synesthesic View on Life.

    Who knows how I can put these things together and come up with what I do. Yet, it had not gone unnoticed that such concepts could merge into one another, and come out with some tangible result as a "artistic effort." Some may be used to the paintings of Kandinsky(abstract), yet the plethora of imaging that unfolds in the conceptual framework might have been self evident, from such a chaotic mess of the layman's view here?

    Saturday, November 03, 2007

    Minature Satellites in Space

    KC-135 Flight Experiments
    The Reduced Gravity Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center provides the unique "weightless" or "zero-g" environment of space flight using a specially modified KC-135A. The KC flies parabolic arcs to produce weightless periods of 20 to 25 seconds. This capability is ideal for the development and verification of space hardware, experiments, crew training and basic research.

    Flight tests of the SPHERES testbed onboard NASA's KC-135 accomplished two objectives: (1) establish the functionality of testbed systems and subsystems and (2) perform limited formation flight experiments. Flight experiments were conducted over two separate weeks in early 2000, once in mid-February and again in late March. The time between flights was used to refine operations protocols, improve testbed systems, and develop more complicated experiments using lessons learned from the first week of flights.

    There is a always a history to such developments and to me not ever knowing of this process about the spheres, I find it very satisfying to have some "correlation of cognition."

    Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient Experimental Satellites

    The MIT Space Systems Laboratory developed the SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) laboratory environment to provide DARPA, NASA, and other researchers with a long term, replenishable, and upgradable testbed for the validation of high risk metrology, control, and autonomy technologies for use in formation flight and autnomous docking, rendezvous and reconfiguration algorithms. These technologies are critical to the operation of distributed satellite and docking missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Orbital Express.

    Most would not understand the significance of this posting.

    For me it is the correlation of insight that I had in a dream sometime ago, about my future. Most would not of thought that we would be capable as human beings to have this ability, to be able to project people we will become, to a people who are working in relation to what is developing and was developed in this post.

    In my dream I am releasing a satellite, a Christmas tree design one without all the bells and lights.

    Monday, March 12, 2007

    Isostatic Adjustment is Why Planets are Round?

    Conclusion:The state of mind of the observer plays a crucial role in the perception of time.Einstein
    See here.

    If we thought of the "Colour of Gravity" posted here, what values could you assign any materials that arise from the centre out? Gravity would have it's way with these materials for us to assign them to their unique ordering?

    The Power of Myth With Bill Moyers, by Joseph Campbell , Introduction that Bill Moyers writes,

    "Campbell was no pessimist. He believed there is a "point of wisdom beyond the conflicts of illusion and truth by which lives can be put back together again." Finding it is the "prime question of the time." In his final years he was striving for a new synthesis of science and spirit. "The shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric world view," he wrote after the astronauts touched the moon, "seemed to have removed man from the center-and the center seemed so important...

    That we may say, the minerals on the moon have been assigned their valuation too? I would say it's the colour of gravity that we had assigned all of humanities thoughts and where is man/woman's centre?

    Image: NASA/JPL-
    Planets are round because their gravitational field acts as though it originates from the center of the body and pulls everything toward it. With its large body and internal heating from radioactive elements, a planet behaves like a fluid, and over long periods of time succumbs to the gravitational pull from its center of gravity. The only way to get all the mass as close to planet's center of gravity as possible is to form a sphere. The technical name for this process is "isostatic adjustment."

    With much smaller bodies, such as the 20-kilometer asteroids we have seen in recent spacecraft images, the gravitational pull is too weak to overcome the asteroid's mechanical strength. As a result, these bodies do not form spheres. Rather they maintain irregular, fragmentary shapes.

    By using Grace here, and the way we look at earth now, we get a better sense of what the actual shape of the earth is. WE had all thought it looked so round from space, that under a "time variable measure" we knew better. We knew that the variations in topographical locations would reveal something unique in relation to gravity. It took Grace to do that

    Our work is about comparing the data we collect in the STAR detector with modern calculations, so that we can write down equations on paper that exactly describe how the quark-gluon plasma behaves," says Jerome Lauret from Brookhaven National Laboratory. "One of the most important assumptions we've made is that, for very intense collisions, the quark-gluon plasma behaves according to hydrodynamic calculations in which the matter is like a liquid that flows with no viscosity whatsoever."
    See more here

    The Moon Clementine-Color ratio image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon-Clementine color ratio composite image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon. This 42 km diameter crater is located on the corner of the Aristarchus plateau, at 24 N, 47 W. Ejecta from the plateau is visible as the blue material at the upper left (northwest), while material excavated from the Oceanus Procellarum area is the reddish color to the lower right (southeast). The colors in this image can be used to ascertain compositional properties of the materials making up the deep strata of these two regions. (Clementine, USGS slide 11)

    It is not so far fetched for the mind to think of the planet in question, as to it's roundness, or, the moon in relation to how we see those impact craters on it's surface. "The moon" quite revealing in the mineralogical decor for us. So there are two things to consider here.

    From the "boundary" of the planet "inward" and from the "centre" of the planet "outward."