Showing posts with label AMS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label AMS. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Fermi Records Lighthouse Effect

John Keats talked of "unweaving the rainbow", suggesting that Newton destroyed the beauty of nature by analysing light with a prism and splitting it into different colours. Keats was being a prat. Physicists also smile when we see rainbows, but our emotional reaction is doubled by our understanding of the deep physics relating to the prismatic effects of raindrops. Similarly, physicists appreciate sunsets more than anybody else, because we can enjoy the myriad colours and at the same time grasp the nuclear physics that created the energy that created the photons that travelled for millions of years to the surface of the Sun, which then travelled eight minutes through space to Earth, which were then scattered by the atmosphere to create the colourful sunset. Understanding physics only enhances the beauty of nature.See:'Keats claimed physics destroyed beauty. Keats was being a prat'

In this illustration, one photon (purple) carries a million times the energy of another (yellow). Some theorists predict travel delays for higher-energy photons, which interact more strongly with the proposed frothy nature of space-time. Yet Fermi data on two photons from a gamma-ray burst fail to show this effect, eliminating some approaches to a new theory of gravity. The animation link below shows the delay scientists had expected to observe. Credit: NASA/Sonoma State University/Aurore Simonnet
See: Fermi Telescope Caps First Year With Glimpse of Space-Time

"This measurement eliminates any approach to a new theory of gravity that predicts a strong energy dependent change in the speed of light," Michelson said. "To one part in 100 million billion, these two photons travelled at the same speed. Einstein still rules."

What I want people to know now is that a question arises about "theoretical conclusions drawn" about joining, "Electromagnetism and Gravity." This basically what their saying?
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We see a pulsar, then, when one of its beams of radiation crosses our line-of-sight. In this way, a pulsar is like a lighthouse. The light from a lighthouse appears to be "pulsing" because it only crosses our line-of-sight once each time it spins. Similarly, a pulsar "pulses" because we see bright flashes every time the star spins. See: Pulsars
Link to tutorial site has been taken down, and belongs to Barb of  http://www.airynothing.com

For some it is not a hard thing to remember when the Sun, or a light has blinded one to seeing what is in front of you, it aligns to the realization, that if one shifts to the right or left, they can come out of the bright directional gaze of emissions from that other time.

M87's Energetic Jet., HST image. The blue light from the jet emerging from the bright AGN core, towards the lower right, is due to synchrotron radiation.

See Also: Light House Keeper as well as Label Lighthouse at bottom of Post entry.
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Simple Jet Model. A simple model for a jet is a relativistic sphere emitting synchrotron radiation. This simple model hides the complexity of a real jet but can still be used to illustrate the principles of relativistic beaming.

Electrons inside the blob(Crab Nebula) travel at speeds just a tiny fraction below the speed of light and are whipped around by the magnetic field. Each change in direction by an electron is accompanied by the release of energy in the form of a photon. With enough electrons and a powerful enough magnetic field the relativistic sphere can emit a huge number of photons, ranging from those at relatively weak radio frequencies to powerful X-ray photons.-(In brackets added by me)See: Relativistic beaming

So the spectrum at this end reveals Gamma ray perspective that when considered under this watchful eye, reveals views of our Sun and views of the Cosmos of very different ranges used in that spectrum, still, shows the Sun.

It is not so difficult to realize then how much energy is directed that one could say that what we had seen in the light effect can help spotters on ships realize the coastlines during those frightful storms at sea.

(click on image for larger viewing)
The bluish glow from the central region of the nebula is due to synchrotron radiation.

Synchrotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation, similar to cyclotron radiation, but generated by the acceleration of ultrarelativistic (i.e., moving near the speed of light) charged particles through magnetic fields. This may be achieved artificially in synchrotronsstorage rings, or naturally by fast electrons moving through magnetic fields in space. The radiation produced may range over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio wavesinfrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. It is distinguished by its characteristic polarization and spectrum.

Saturday, September 12, 2009

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph in Hubble

Credit: NASA

Instrument Overview

COS is designed to study the large-scale structure of the universe and how galaxies, stars and planets formed and evolved. It will help determine how elements needed for life such as carbon and iron first formed and how their abundances have increased over the lifetime of the universe.
As a spectrograph, COS won’t capture the majestic visual images that Hubble is known for, but rather it will perform spectroscopy, the science of breaking up light into its individual components. Any object that absorbs or emits light can be studied with a spectrograph to determine its temperature, density, chemical composition and velocity.

A primary science objective for COS is to measure the structure and composition of the ordinary matter that is concentrated in what scientists call the ‘cosmic web’—long, narrow filaments of galaxies and intergalactic gas separated by huge voids. The cosmic web is shaped by the gravity of the mysterious, underlying cold dark matter, while ordinary matter serves as a luminous tracery of the filaments. COS will use scores of faint distant quasars as ‘cosmic flashlights,’ whose beams of light have passed through the cosmic web. Absorption of this light by material in the web will reveal the characteristic spectral fingerprints of that material. This will allow Hubble observers to deduce its composition and its specific location in space. See: Hubble Space Telescope Service Mission 4- Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

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Cosmic Origins Spectrograph optical path: The FUV and NUV channels initially share a common path. The first optic is either a concave, holographically ruled diffraction grating which directs light to the FUV detector (red) or a concave mirror directing light to the NUV gratings and the NUV detector (purple). The green ray packets represent the FUV optical paths, and blue ray packets represent the NUV optical paths. A wavelength reference and flat field delivery system is shown at top left (orange ray packets) and can provide simultaneous wavelength reference spectra during science observations.
See:Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

Friday, August 01, 2008

Light House Keeper

Some will reconsider the effect that is portrayed here in terms of a mirror directed and reflects to one eyes, can cause an unsettling effect because of the focus of the beam.

IN nature such a thing is an everyday occurrence as we catch such glimpses not only here in our everyday lives, but assign them to a cosmological occurrence as well. Now as illusive as the God nature of particles from space, whose energy considerations may be of value, they are very odd to such glimpses contained, and maybe even called "God particles.":)

There is a limit to the knowledge, you have to remember and what is one to do when they invoke such a statement, to realize our knowledge is indeed limited? We theorize and we built gigantic devices for such measures, as to the certainty of our values assigned to those theoretics. It has to appear in some intellectual form before we can say yes they exist and the dependence on measure is what we are willing to build to become such realistic people.

I tend to think such a thing is a "direct connection to to what the event is saying" not only in our lives as the decay process is the effect of all our psychological actions(emotive intellectual or spiritual), it is also the elemental consideration that such constituents are held together by "such a glue" whose measure is affected, and measured, by such a light.

If light bends, what is it we are to saying about the path such a light has travelled that we would say "the light has an energy valuation to it" and such lensing occurs?

The light then, becomes a gravitational indication of the space it travels through?

Black Hole-Powered Jet of Electrons and Sub-Atomic Particles Streams From Center of Galaxy M87

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Yields Clear View of Optical Jet in Galaxy M87

A NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) view of a 4,000 light-year long jet of plasma emanating from the bright nucleus of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. This ultraviolet light image was made with the European Space Agency's Faint Object Camera (FOC), one of two imaging systems aboard HST. This photo is being presented on Thursday, January 16th at the 179th meeting of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. M87 is a giant elliptical galaxy with an estimated mass of 300 billion suns. Located 52 million light-years away at the heart of the neighboring Virgo cluster of galaxies, M87 is the nearest example of an active galactic nucleus with a bright optical jet. The jet appears as a string of knots within a widening cone extending out from the core of M87. The FOC image reveals unprecedented detail in these knots, resolving some features as small as ten light-years across. According to one theory, the jet is most likely powered by a 3 billion solar mass black hole at the nucleus of M87. Magnetic fields generated within a spinning accretion disk surrounding the black hole, spiral around the edge of the jet. The fields confine the jet to a long narrow tube of hot plasma and charged particles. High speed electrons and protons which are accelerated near the black hole race along the tube at nearly the speed of light. When electrons are caught up in the magnetic field they radiate in a process called synchrotron radiation. The Faint Object Camera image clearly resolves these localized electron acceleration, which seem to trace out the spiral pattern of the otherwise invisible magnetic field lines. A large bright knot located midway along the jet shows where the blue jet disrupts violently and becomes more chaotic. Farther out from the core the jet bends and dissipates as it rams into a wall of gas, invisible but present throughout the galaxy which the jet has plowed in front of itself. HST is ideally suited for studying extragalactic jets. The Telescope's UV sensitivity allows it to clearly separate a jet from the stellar background light of its host galaxy. What's more, the FOC's high angular resolution is comparable to sub arc second resolution achieved by large radio telescope arrays.
See:Hubble Site>

Just to draw further comparison here for consideration in light of this thread I apologize, but it is of importance, just not in that blog posting space.

The significance in our every day life of such a thing "catches the eye,"( thanks again Paul in regards to Snowboarders.) and we do not realize it. To find such cosmological comparisons is really interesting in the unfolding of the events. How significant?


We see a pulsar, then, when one of its beams of radiation crosses our line-of-sight. In this way, a pulsar is like a lighthouse. The light from a lighthouse appears to be "pulsing" because it only crosses our line-of-sight once each time it spins. Similarly, a pulsar "pulses" because we see bright flashes every time the star spins.
See: Pulsars
Link to tutorial site has been taken down, and belongs to Barb of  http://www.airynothing.com
See Also:Pulsars and Cerenkov Radiation

So What Did I mean By Olympics?

Monday, March 31, 2008

What is AMS?



General objectives:To collect precision cosmic ray data at high energies, including 10^10 protons; to discover or rule out certain particles as explanations for dark matter; to study cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy; to search for exotic particles or spectral features among cosmic rays
See:AMS experiment mission overview

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Experiment

AMS is a particle detector for the International Space Station. A group of high-energy physicists are taking their experimental expertise - acquired in thirty years of experience at particle accelerators - into orbit. Space is full of high-energy particles of many types (collectively called "cosmic rays"), many of them originating in supernova explosions in distant galaxies. AMS detects them using a huge superconducting magnet and six highly specialized, ultra-precise detectors. It will sit on the ISS main truss - far above the obscuring atmosphere, and making full use of the ISS's irreplaceable support systems - and gather data for three years.


Long-Awaited Cosmic-Ray Detector May Be ShelvedBy DENNIS OVERBYE Published: April 3, 2007 The New York Times- Spacer and Cosmos

Beyond the experiment itself, the standoff represents a clash between two of the more strong-willed and brilliant leaders of Big Science in America: Dr. Ting of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who is known for his autocratic management style and obsession with detail, and Michael D. Griffin, the NASA administrator, who has shown himself willing to make tough calls in reshaping the space program away from the shuttle and toward the Moon and Mars.


Photographs by The AMS Collaboration

NASA agreed in 1995 to carry the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer to the space station. But now the agency says its remaining shuttle flights are booked.

I have a thought to be considered here, that might spark some ideas about what happened to AMS. The question to my mind was whether this was more then political or money issue?

Think of Dennis Overbye's article of 2007, in face of the current article presented of his.

I thought along the way that this issue was resolved in regards to strangelets, and would had been "the issue" that solved allowed this to languish. But maybe there is more?

Saturday, October 06, 2007

PHENIX Muon Spectrometers




At the RHIC beamline at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the three-story-tall PHENIX muon spectrometers, designed and built by Los Alamos scientists in collaboration with other scientists from around the world, witness collisions between gold ions (red/yellow, approaching from the right) and deuterons (white, coming in from the left). Two doughnut-shaped magnets (green) steer the ions in these 100-GeV-per-nucleon beams, traveling at 0.9999 the speed of light, into head-on collisions. In such high-energy collisions, the quarks and gluons that make up the protons and neutrons of the colliding particles interact directly. The collision shown here releases pions (purple), which are only partially stable; some of them decay into muons (white). Most of the pions are absorbed inside the hadron absorber (the green magnet). The detector panels (brown) track the muons.

By studying the decay products of these collisions and their behavior, we learn about the fundamental physical laws governing the strong interactions in the universe. These laws and their effects were much more obvious in the high-energy state of the very early universe. The same physical laws hold just as much sway today, but their effects are much more subtle in the low-energy states in which we find most matter now. In order to tease out their effects and patterns, we attempt to recreate those earlier, high-energy and high-density conditions at places like RHIC and study them with detectors like the PHENIX
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Muon: An elementary particle with negative electric charge and a spin of ½. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs, longer than any other unstable lepton, meson, or baryon except for the neutron. Because their interactions are very similar to those of the electron, a muon can be thought of as a much heavier version of the electron. Due to their greater mass, muons do not emit as much bremsstrahlung radiation; consequently, they are much more penetrating than electrons.