Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Muon Detection


An image of the shadow of the Moon in muons as produced by the 700m subterranean Soudan 2 detector in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. The shadow is the result of approximately 120 muons missing from a total of 33 million detected in Soudan 2 over its 10 years of operation. The cross denotes the actual location of the Moon. The shadow of the Moon is slightly offset from this location because cosmic rays are electrically charged particles and were slightly deflected by the Earth's magnetic field on their journey to the upper atmosphere. The shadow is produced due to the shielding effect the Moon has on galactic and cosmic rays, which stream in from all directions. The cosmic rays normally strike atoms high in the upper atmosphere, producing showers of muons and other short lived particles.

Just an update here while looking at Sean Carroll's blog post article, entitled," Scientists Confirm Existence of Moon." While we understand the need for confirmation of the existence of things, seeing how our perception is used in order to make such a statement,  is a statement of such a measure then as to what is real.

 We report on the observation of a significant deficit of cosmic rays from the direction of the Moon with the IceCube detector. The study of this "Moon shadow" is used to characterize the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the detector. The detection is based on data taken in two periods before the completion of the detector: between April 2008 and May 2009, when IceCube operated in a partial configuration with 40 detector strings deployed in the South Pole ice, and between May 2009 and May 2010 when the detector operated with 59 strings. Using two independent analysis methods, the Moon shadow has been observed to high significance (> 6 sigma) in both detector configurations. The observed location of the shadow center is within 0.2 degrees of its expected position when geomagnetic deflection effects are taken into account. This measurement validates the directional reconstruction capabilities of IceCube. See: Observation of the cosmic-ray shadow of the Moon with IceCube,

So I have spent some time here looking at how this measure is used in term sof such clarifications and this to me is an exciting off shoot of what particle research has done for us. The skies the limit then as to our use of such a measure then is seen and understood in the post written by Sean Carroll.

Sunday, November 17, 2013

The Third Dimension of Cassiopeia A

There are certain advancements when one sees in a geometrical sense as to understand the Supernova in all it's glory. So there are many materialistic things with which we can identify as to the course and direction with regard to it's evolution.

Image credit: NASA/CXC/SAO

One of the most famous objects in the sky - the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant - will be on display like never before, thanks to NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and a new project from the Smithsonian Institution. A new three-dimensional (3D) viewer, being unveiled this week, will allow users to interact with many one-of-a-kind objects from the Smithsonian as part of a large-scale effort to digitize many of the Institutions objects and artifacts.

Scientists have combined data from Chandra, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, and ground-based facilities to construct a unique 3D model of the 300-year old remains of a stellar explosion that blew a massive star apart, sending the stellar debris rushing into space at millions of miles per hour. The collaboration with this new Smithsonian 3D project will allow the astronomical data collected on Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, to be featured and highlighted in an open-access program -- a major innovation in digital technologies with public, education, and research-based impacts. See: Exploring the Third Dimension of Cassiopeia A
See Also:

Cassiopeia A: Exploring the Third Dimension of Cassiopeia A



The value of non-Euclidean geometry lies in its ability to liberate us from preconceived ideas in preparation for the time when exploration of physical laws might demand some geometry other than the Euclidean. Bernhard Riemann

The concept of dimension is not restricted to physical objects. High-dimensional spaces occur in mathematics and the sciences for many reasons, frequently as configuration spaces such as in Lagrangian or Hamiltonian mechanics; these are abstract spaces, independent of the physical space we live in.


More on Spherical Cows


Hubble Heritage Project

Of course I am always drawn toward the reason for why the universe does certain things and I greatly appreciate how a scientist might explain this to me in the most simplest form, which leaves no doubts. But I do not think they can do that without explaining the basis of the reasoning but through symbolic representation in the form of an approximate.


Scientists strive to discover simple rules which underlie complex natural phenomena. For example, when making a model of some complex object a scientist may make some pretty extreme assumptions. For example, when asked to find the force of gravity produced by a complicated object like a galaxy, astronomers will usually start by assuming that it acts like a sphere, which in this and many other cases allows one to make approximate first solutions to complicated problems.
This tendancy to simplify gave rise to the joke of a science professor who begins a lecture, "Consider a spherical cow..." Since Wisconsin is well known to have a large population of dairy cows, it is not too surprising that the University of Wisconsin astronomers and astrophyscists selected this picture of a spherical cow made by Ingrid Kallick as their symbol for a recent national meeting of astronomers in Madison. Hubble Heritage Gallery Page

So herein lies the framework with which I had already envisioned so that I may understand the evolution of the Supernova as to ascertain what drove it to become what it is today in the universe.That evolution leaves it's tale in the history of our universe, and together,  with other local regions to me are contributors to what said the universe must expand all together in it's own way.

There’s absolutely no reason why a non-scientist shouldn’t be able to follow why dark energy makes the universe accelerate, given just a bit of willingness to think about it. Dark energy is persistent, which imparts a constant impulse to the expansion of the universe, which makes galaxies accelerate away. See: Why Does Dark Energy Make the Universe Accelerate?

So the issuance of a contributor would make it so much easier to suggest that what we do not see in the form of dark energy, yet, can be explained particle wise as to suggest it operates within a certain parameter of energies? For any continued expansion to exist, the derivative of that evolution spherically approximated too should be described by some correlation? To suggest the fluid nature is calming to me.:)




See Also:

Friday, November 15, 2013

Energy Flow Without Impedance

It has always been of interest to me how one could get energy to flow quite freely without it succumb too the impurities that may have blocked that flow. I mean the correlation in my mind and being the layman that I am, could in itself demonstrate how my noise provided for the ability of someone not to seeing,  so as to just bungle up the message.

The development of superconductors that could be used in real-world applications, particularly power transmission, could transform the U.S. energy landscape. In addition to huge cost-savings, the higher capacity enabled by superconducting cables would help overcome urban power bottlenecks in today’s power grid, reducing the potential for blackouts and other power interruptions. It would also improve the cost-effective control of power flowing across the national grid and extend the operating life of existing high-load power lines. Furthermore, zero-loss transmission would enable the transfer of solar energy generated in parts of the U.S. where sunlight is most abundant to those where it is not, thus making other energy-saving technologies more practical and affordable. Complex Materials Unusual properties may lead to new superconductors

So I paragraph more those whose words who are not mine to see how the issues around that flow may be considered.. I must say a blog spot piece from Scientific American had got me thinking.



Photo Credit: “Superconducting wires by epitaxial grown on SSIFFS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory” taken on July 29, 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy
 Photo Friday: Superconducting wires for long-distance electricity transmission By Melissa C. Lott

So to me I am always looking for processes that make energy flow in such a way, as to be correlated in the cosmos. I am looking for ways that energy can travel through and be described as cosmic particle collisions and subsequent, cosmic spallations that demonstrate the list of the ways in which this energy is being accounted for.

So it is important that the views we may of held in regard to how we see energy leak into unaccountability  had its day,  so as to see the current status of what is no longer counted as the missing energy any more.

Later studies and the investigation of much larger data samples have concluded that the event could not be ascribed to new physics but rather to some odd coincidence of detector effects and rare, but known, standard model processes. The Event From Another World
So what is left for me is this nagging feeling about what is explained as processes we do not quite understand and what we have always herald it as some inexplicable description of an unknown process. Herein,  it still remains a mystery and if you can move forward and make clearer the understanding of these processes in particle examinations then how much clear the impedance that such a mystery brings to our examination of the science behind these energy flows?

Of course these are materialistic version of ones grasp of the realities of things in the objective sense, but there is always more we can correlate in mind that we would have found such processes as similar in their expressions? So yes analogies also have to be most certainly clear as to those demonstrations as well.