Showing posts with label Tesla. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tesla. Show all posts

Thursday, April 10, 2014

More on Quantum Biology

If you push perspective into the area of quantum biology you will be very surprised.

 QUANTUM CHLOROPHYLL: Sunlight triggers wave-like motion in green chlorophyll, embedded in a protein structure, ........ that guides its function. GREGORY ENGEL




Early visions of wireless power actually were thought of by Nikola Tesla basically about 100 years ago. The thought that you wouldn't want to transfer electric power wirelessly, no one ever thought of that. They thought, "Who would use it if you didn't?" And so, in fact, he actually set about doing a variety of things. Built the Tesla coil. This tower was built on Long Island back at the beginning of the 1900s. And the idea was, it was supposed to be able to transfer power anywhere on Earth. We'll never know if this stuff worked. Actually, I think the Federal Bureau of Investigation took it down for security purposes, sometime in the early 1900s.See: http://www.ted.com/talks/eric_giler_demos_wireless_electricity.html


I think people have been behind the times a bit here on what may have been a interesting proposal in order to help the recharging system. Think of Photosynthesis and then think of nano-particulates and you will see they are quite advanced in terms of using this proposal in a varied productive means and not just with solar panels. I know of companies using this approach in shingle application.

But the one that I had thought of was one has its applicability toward helping electric cars is my favorite. You want to know? Do not have time and money to do development but I know the process is being explored and probably at this point being worked towards an application. Interested? Any developers here?:)

Nanocrystal solar: The solar cells at top were made on a roll-to-roll printer from an ink consisting of the rod-shaped inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals shown below. The cells were printed on a flexible metal foil and will be topped with a glass plate.
Credit: Solexant

An Idea: Percolating to the Surface




As well you might have understood why I claimed  Aristarchus Crater and Surrounding Region that since thinking beyond the boundaries on the planet it is important that quantum processes are used to develop the energy that is needed to survive on the moon?:)

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Charging Stations

Public charging stations in San Francisco 2009
Some of these special charging stations provide one or a range of heavy duty or special connectors and/or charging without a physical connection using parking places equipped with inductive charging mats.

Okay you see those extension cords extending into charging units? Well it will not be need with the current technology that is being developed in terms of wireless energy transference. I think most who follow this blog will know why. Perhaps while oscillator that exist in car and oscillators that exists in parking spot  are embedded in pavement, will increase the calculated range if this becomes common? At traffic light along  the corridor, or perhaps in the traffic light itself?

Inductive Charging. The primary coil in the charger induces a current in the secondary coil in the device being charged.
Greater distances between sender and receiver coils can be achieved when the inductive charging system uses resonant inductive coupling.

But how will cities recoup the parking spot meter time and adjust for the cost of electricity? Why not throw in your cells phone too since it too can have a oscillator whose charge will be rejuvenated in the electrical presence of the car?  Oh,  you see how Tesla would have been happy, and it really has nothing to do with communism, but more of what should have already been enviable to people to create a much more productive society with out paying a mortgage for electricity.

Basic transmitter and receiver circuits, Rs and Rr are the resistances and losses in the associated capacitors and inductors. Ls and Lr are coupled by small coupling coefficient, usually below 0.2

Resonant inductive coupling or electrodynamic induction is the near field wireless transmission of electrical energy between two coils that are tuned to resonate at the same frequency. The equipment to do this is sometimes called a resonant or resonance transformer. While many transformers employ resonance, this type has a high Q and is often air cored to avoid 'iron' losses. The two coils may exist as a single piece of equipment or comprise two separate pieces of equipment.

Resonant transfer works by making a coil ring with an oscillating current. This generates an oscillating magnetic field. Because the coil is highly resonant, any energy placed in the coil dies away relatively slowly over very many cycles; but if a second coil is brought near it, the coil can pick up most of the energy before it is lost, even if it is some distance away. The fields used are predominately non-radiative, near field (sometimes called evanescent waves), as all hardware is kept well within the 1/4 wavelength distance they radiate little energy from the transmitter to infinity.

One of the applications of the resonant transformer is for the CCFL inverter. Another application of the resonant transformer is to couple between stages of a superheterodyne receiver, where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by tuned transformers in the intermediate-frequency amplifiers.[1] Resonant transformers such as the Tesla coil can generate very high voltages with or without arcing, and are able to provide much higher current than electrostatic high-voltage generation machines such as the Van de Graaff generator.[2] Resonant energy transfer is the operating principle behind proposed short range wireless electricity systems such as WiTricity and systems that have already been deployed, such as passive RFID tags and contactless smart cards.

See once you know this and understand what has happen with our current governments in terms of capitalized systems of cost then you see where the 180 degree turn could have helped all countries in the world benefit from not only communications but a resurgence of the adaptations of technologies that would provide still manufacturing base in order to produce product and stimulate economies? The world may have seemed a different place then it is today.

Thursday, January 17, 2013

The Observer

Thomas Kuhn


However, the incommensurability thesis is not Kuhn's only positive philosophical thesis. Kuhn himself tells us that “The paradigm as shared example is the central element of what I now take to be the most novel and least understood aspect of [The Structure of Scientific Revolutions]” (1970a, 187). Nonetheless, Kuhn failed to develop the paradigm concept in his later work beyond an early application of its semantic aspects to the explanation of incommensurability. The explanation of scientific development in terms of paradigms was not only novel but radical too, insofar as it gives a naturalistic explanation of belief-change. Naturalism was not in the early 1960s the familiar part of philosophical landscape that it has subsequently become. Kuhn's explanation contrasted with explanations in terms of rules of method (or confirmation, falsification etc.) that most philosophers of science took to be constitutive of rationality. Furthermore, the relevant disciplines (psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence) were either insufficiently progressed to support Kuhn's contentions concerning paradigms, or were antithetical to them (in the case of classical AI). Now that naturalism has become an accepted component of philosophy, there has recently been interest in reassessing Kuhn's work in the light of developments in the relevant sciences, many of which provide corroboration for Kuhn's claim that science is driven by relations of perceived similarity and analogy to existing problems and their solutions (Nickles 2003b, Nersessian 2003). It may yet be that a characteristically Kuhnian thesis will play a prominent part in our understanding of science.



Anomaly and the Emergence of Scientific Discoveries Kuhn now moves past his initial topic of paradigm to scientific discovery saying that in order for there to be a discovery, an anomaly must be detected within the field of study. He discusses several different studies and points out the anomaly that invoked the scientific discovery. Later in the chapter he begins to discuss how the anomaly can be incorporated into the discovery to satisfy the scientific community.

There are three different characteristics of all discoveries from which new sorts of phenomena emerge. These three characteristics are proven through an experiment dealing with a deck of cards. The deck consisted of anomalous cards (e.g. the red six of spades shown on the previous page) mixed in with regular cards. These cards were held up in front of students who were asked to call out the card they saw, and in most cases the anomaly was not detected.
(link now dead)


See if you recognize the validity of what I am saying, then you would have to know something a little bit more about the person who uses the name of Plato. Is to understand, that I was already given an anomalous event within my own life. It rocked the very foundation in face of all that science has given me.






 The Observer. I never gave it much thought other then to see that while it is very subjective in the terms that I  may explore consciousness There is a obvious meaning of the term in the sciences that  needed to be explained. I do understand that context in terms of measure,  but I understand as well,  that any subjective state asks how it is that in the chaos of these subjective symbolisms,  how is one to be able to make sense of the language used? It is obviously not the language of mathematics and physics.

In quantum mechanics, "observation" is synonymous with quantum measurement and "observer" with a measurement apparatus and observable with what can be measured. Thus the quantum mechanical observer does not necessarily present or solve any problems over and above the (admittedly difficult) issue of measurement in quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical observer is also intimately tied to the issue of observer effect.
A number of interpretations of quantum mechanics, notably "consciousness causes collapse", give the observer a special role, or place constraints on who or what can be an observer. For instance, Fritjof Capra writes:
"The crucial feature of atomic physics is that the human observer is not only necessary to observe the properties of an object, but is necessary even to define these properties. ... This can be illustrated with the simple case of a subatomic particle. When observing such a particle, one may choose to measure — among other quantities — the particle's position and its momentum" [1]
However, other authorities downplay any special role of human observers
"Of course the introduction of the observer must not be misunderstood to imply that some kind of subjective features are to be brought into the description of nature. The observer has, rather, only the function of registering decisions, i.e., processes in space and time, and it does not matter whether the observer is an apparatus or a human being; but the registration, i.e., the transition from the "possible" to the "actual," is absolutely necessary here and cannot be omitted from the interpretation of quantum theory."[2]
Critics of the special role of the observer also point out that observers can themselves be observed, leading to paradoxes such as that of Wigner's friend; and that it is not clear how much consciousness is required ("Was the wave function waiting to jump for thousands of millions of years until a single-celled living creature appeared? Or did it have to wait a little longer for some highly qualified measurer - with a PhD?"[3]).



In science, the term observer effect refers to changes that the act of observation will make on a phenomenon being observed. This is often the result of instruments that, by necessity, alter the state of what they measure in some manner. A commonplace example is checking the pressure in an automobile tire; this is difficult to do without letting out some of the air, thus changing the pressure. This effect can be observed in many domains of physics.

The observer effect on a physical process can often be reduced to insignificance by using better instruments or observation techniques. However in quantum mechanics, which deals with very small objects, it is not possible to observe a system without changing the system, so the observer must be considered part of the system being observed.



"Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." - Thomas Alva Edison, Harper's Monthly (September 1932)


Thomas Edison's first successful light bulb model, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879




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Thursday, January 03, 2013

Eric Giler demos wireless electricity


Early visions of wireless power actually were thought of by Nikola Tesla basically about 100 years ago. The thought that you wouldn't want to transfer electric power wirelessly, no one ever thought of that. They thought, "Who would use it if you didn't?" And so, in fact, he actually set about doing a variety of things. Built the Tesla coil. This tower was built on Long Island back at the beginning of the 1900s. And the idea was, it was supposed to be able to transfer power anywhere on Earth. We'll never know if this stuff worked. Actually, I think the Federal Bureau of Investigation took it down for security purposes, sometime in the early 1900s.See: http://www.ted.com/talks/eric_giler_demos_wireless_electricity.html

Wednesday, January 02, 2013

Nikola Tesla - Wardenclyffe Tower


Nikola Tesla - Wardenclyffe Tower With financial support from J.P. Morgan, Tesla designed and erected a unique electric magnifying tower known as Wardenclyffe on Long Island, New York as means to transmit free energy and communications without wires. It was based on a successful smaller model that was built in Colorado Springs. The Wardenclyffe team tested their tower a handful of times during construction, and the results were very encouraging; however construction came to an abrupt halt in 1906 when J.P. Morgan withdrew his funding, when he discovered Tesla's Plan of using the Wardenclyffe to supply free electrical energy. "How can we get money from the electricity which Tesla is supplying to every part of the world." J.P. Morgan. Morgan purposefully scuttled any future ways Tesla could raise money. See: 1st place winner of 2010 History Channel Student Video Competition
As well,Saving Nikola Tesla's Laboratory - Special Report VVH-TV News

 


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Sunday, December 30, 2012

General Thoughts About Schuman Response

The Tesla coil wireless transmitter
U.S. Patent 1,119,732


There might have been some confusion around what was implied here with regard to BB's(Binaural Beats) and the affective causation suggested by what I see as  inherent on a global level with regard to consciousness. I wrote," While it is of biological significance the BB's are in question here as one might wonder about schumann response on a global level. "


The first documented observations of global electromagnetic resonance were made by Nikola Tesla at his Colorado Springs laboratory in 1899. This observation led to certain conclusions about the electrical properties of the Earth, and which made the basis for his idea for wireless energy transmission.[6]

I mentioned  "the principal" as to imply historical content as to the idea of resource management attributions when it came to the realization that capital could be induced by fragmentation and allotting packets. These as salable items to the general public. This application,  is the basis of some of my complaints about what was already inherent and free in society. It only became a product once it was thought to being compartmentalize.

 With wireless power, efficiency is the more significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical

In this sense, electrical generation, other then use of wire transmission, was at the time, the only means as to the metering capable of being sold as a packet.

1904 image of Wardenclyffe Tower located in Shoreham, Long Island, New York. The 94 by 94 ft (29 m) brick building was designed by architect Stanford White.[1]



PURPOSE: To show the two-dimensional standing waves on the surface of a square or circular plate.

If we had seen and understood the early formation that begins with the understanding that all human beings are cross-wired before they modulate their existence within the framework of the reality. As given then,  one must assume such modulation is a frequency for the idea for such matters?



 See: Cymatics and the Heart Song 

Now before I begin here I want t share some understanding of the chaldni plates had one ever come across them,  as to imply that such resonances are activators for the current patterns inherent in the structure that one might see as demonstrated by bow, string and metal plate.

Herein too, I also supply the idea that there is "the agent,"  an affective idea that materialized from one of my journeys,  as to a time where effective polymerization "could have have been used" to set associative responses in the architecture of buildings. These were to correlate in the idea of this "harmonization structure" as seen as in BB's  choice entrainment,  as brain wave matter states.




Cell-Phone Technology

While considering transmission towers, the idea of energy being used to power has it's basis in the use of antenna to help boost the signal.

While this application is separate from the idea and use of electrical transmission,  it is of consequence that such companies in the use of their "fractal antennas" have specific frequencies with which they operate? Customers that are satisfied according to the plans you use.

If there was a consideration of the White Space that was free for our use in the television broadcasting system,  why was it not mandated that the public remain as a top priority in the access to information as a free and viable enhancement to our knowledge base?

 Access to books in the electric medium, as one would walk to the local library? Google,  it was a good plan.

Now in order to get to our local library,  transportation has been divvied up,  even to the ether as a viable means of charging for such transport.  It should have been a given that such pathways are and must remain a viable source of knowledge enhancement for the public and it's rise above the current constrictions that society has been contained too, by rulings of the international body on the internet?

Lubos, this is also for you just so you know where I am coming from. It is really not that scary once you've figured it out. You don't have to be a communist as to figure that what you can do as a scientist for the public is as if taken the oath as a medical doctor to do all you can do for your patient/individual in society. This is but to help bring society into the state of awareness that knowledge could lift any of us out of our ignorance.

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Friday, December 28, 2012

Putting the Pieces Together

Okay, so here's the thing.

 I am not one to see benefit by using drugs in the personal exploration of attributes of consciousness. But, I do not deter myself from examining technically,  what is used,  as already being in existence,  to help with that exploration.

When thinking of Timothy Leary,  while I may not like his chemical journeys,  Leary using the, " Tibetan Book of the Dead as a guide book for LSD sessions."  I do like the idea of the deeper exploration of what has been handed down to us so as to examine consciousness as an experience in the telling of the Tibetan Book of the Dead reveals about life. The connotation when using the term death is to realize that consciousness is capable even in life to be foretelling about the journey we will all face one day.

While it may sound suspect that I have some bias towards life after death let's put that aside for the more critical examination of the experiences you have already had. I am not trying to substitute anything other then to consider the potential that already exists within our own selves.  About our present examinations and tallies of the day to day, and where we are going with the future in the examination of our own lives.

Also, while I may see to use technical means in order to deduce subjective states of existence,  it does not mean that what I have already experienced on my own is invalidated.  These technical means are simply used in order to reach "similar states" that are and have been experienced by me. Hopefully.

By identifying brain wave information and examining correlative information deduced from such states, it is of course of relevance to the times that such information is forth coming. By drawing correlative experiences by talking about "the Park" or, "Focus level states,"  this is to show that such states have relevance to the examination I am placing on brain waves states.

Also a link to examine "the Intent in the Actualized," to examine more deeply the correlative state that consciousness can experience by delving deeper into the meaning of one's dreams. What you are able to draw from it information wise. In that sense I explored the idea of time travel, as a means of identifying aspects of consciousness that I believe is capable of moving back in time to examine historical correlates. I am not saying it is true just that from a creative standpoint such explorations can be useful fodder for the examination of written material for a story perhaps. A story that you are inherently strongly attached too, as it arises from your exploration.

So in this sense,  I am using Binaural Beats to emphasize one such technical means to use in the exploration of consciousness.








In view of this apparent misappropriation of credit, it is worthwhile to take a careful chronological look at the superheterodyne, to see precisely how it was invented and how it was introduced into practice.Who Invented the Superheterodyne?



See:


  •  Heterodyning is a radio signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden, in which new frequencies are created by combining or mixing two frequencies.[1][2][3] Heterodyning is useful for frequency shifting signals into a new frequency range, and is also involved in the processes of modulation and demodulation.[2][4] The two frequencies are combined in a nonlinear signal-processing device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode, usually called a mixer.[2] In the most common application, two signals at frequencies f1 and f2 are mixed, creating two new signals, one at the sum f1 + f2 of the two frequencies, and the other at the difference f1 − f2.[3] These new frequencies are called heterodynes. Typically only one of the new frequencies is desired, and the other signal is filtered out of the output of the mixer. Heterodynes are closely related to the phenomenon of "beats" in music.
Binaural beat  are heard when the right ear listens to a slightly different tone than the left ear. Here, the tones do not interfere physically, but are summed by the brain in the olivary nucleus. This effect is related to the brain's ability to locate sounds in three dimensions.
 In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. They contain the olivary nuclei.



See Also:
 Comment At-

RBM- BB's are not a causative agent but a aid to an inherent ability.
I do not disagree with this.....in fact I am gathering other ways in which to help in that effort as they are being discovered.

Focus 15: A state of "no time" in which you explore beyond the constraints of time and place. Opportunities are abundant for establishing communication with larger aspects of self.

Focus 15 and the Park are specific as to the realization implied, by recognizing these attributes in self as possible.

There are others methods that are being gathered that may help in this understanding, as a means to an end as well.

In its original form, a dreamachine is made from a cylinder with slits cut in the sides. The cylinder is placed on a record turntable and rotated at 78 or 45 revolutions per minute. A light bulb is suspended in the center of the cylinder and the rotation speed allows the light to come out from the holes at a constant frequency of between 8 and 13 pulses per second. This frequency range corresponds to alpha waves, electrical oscillations normally present in the human brain while relaxing.[2]

This understanding has it's basis in what Tesla had to offer about wireless transmission in terms of "the principal."  A resonator, and what is attach to devices that come within the field. While it is of biological significance the BB's are in question here as one might wonder about schumann response on a global level.

Wednesday, June 06, 2012

Schumann resonance

At any given moment about 2,000 thunderstorms roll over Earth, producing some 50 flashes of lightning every second. Each lightning burst creates electromagnetic waves that begin to circle around Earth captured between Earth's surface and a boundary about 60 miles up. Some of the waves - if they have just the right wavelength - combine, increasing in strength, to create a repeating atmospheric heartbeat known as Schumann resonance. This resonance provides a useful tool to analyze Earth's weather, its electric environment, and to even help determine what types of atoms and molecules exist in Earth's atmosphere.

The waves created by lightning do not look like the up and down waves of the ocean, but they still oscillate with regions of greater energy and lesser energy. These waves remain trapped inside an atmospheric ceiling created by the lower edge of the "ionosphere" - a part of the atmosphere filled with charged particles, which begins about 60 miles up into the sky. In this case, the sweet spot for resonance requires the wave to be as long (or twice, three times as long, etc) as the circumference of Earth. This is an extremely low frequency wave that can be as low as 8 Hertz (Hz) - some one hundred thousand times lower than the lowest frequency radio waves used to send signals to your AM/FM radio. As this wave flows around Earth, it hits itself again at the perfect spot such that the crests and troughs are aligned. Voila, waves acting in resonance with each other to pump up the original signal.

While they'd been predicted in 1952, Schumann resonances were first measured reliably in the early 1960s. Since then, scientists have discovered that variations in the resonances correspond to changes in the seasons, solar activity, activity in Earth's magnetic environment, in water aerosols in the atmosphere, and other Earth-bound phenomena. See: Schumann resonance animation








The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere.

 

Contents

 

Description


This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonances occur because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide. The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by electric currents in lightning. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the electromagnetic spectrum[1] beginning at 3  Hz and extend to 60 Hz,[2] and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.86 (fundamental),[3] 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.[4][5]

In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. This lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.86 Hz, but this frequency can vary slightly from a variety of factors, such as solar-induced perturbations to the ionosphere, which comprises the upper wall of the closed cavity[citation needed]. The higher resonance modes are spaced at approximately 6.5 Hz intervals[citation needed], a characteristic attributed to the atmosphere's spherical geometry. The peaks exhibit a spectral width of approximately 20% on account of the damping of the respective modes in the dissipative cavity. The eighth overtone lies at approximately 59.9 Hz.[citation needed]

Observations of Schumann resonances have been used to track global lightning activity. Owing to the connection between lightning activity and the Earth's climate it has been suggested that they may also be used to monitor global temperature variations and variations of water vapor in the upper troposphere. It has been speculated that extraterrestrial lightning (on other planets) may also be detected and studied by means of their Schumann resonance signatures. Schumann resonances have been used to study the lower ionosphere on Earth and it has been suggested as one way to explore the lower ionosphere on celestial bodies. Effects on Schumann resonances have been reported following geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances. More recently, discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous eventssprites, elves, jets, and other upper-atmospheric lightning. A new field of interest using Schumann resonances is related to short-term earthquake prediction.

 

History


The first documented observations of global electromagnetic resonance were made by Nikola Tesla at his Colorado Springs laboratory in 1899. This observation led to certain peculiar conclusions about the electrical properties of the Earth, and which made the basis for his idea for wireless energy transmission.[6]

Tesla researched ways to transmit power and energy wirelessly over long distances (via transverse waves and longitudinal waves). He transmitted extremely low frequencies through the ground as well as between the Earth's surface and the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. He received patents on wireless transceivers that developed standing waves by this method. Making mathematical calculations based on his experiments, Tesla discovered that the resonant frequency of the Earth was approximately 8 hertz (Hz).[citation needed] In the 1950s, researchers confirmed that the resonant frequency of the Earth's ionospheric cavity was in this range (later named the Schumann resonance).

The first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, was made by Heaviside and Kennelly in 1902.[7][8] It took another twenty years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925,[9] were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere.

Although some of the most important mathematical tools for dealing with spherical waveguides were developed by G. N. Watson in 1918,[10] it was Winfried Otto Schumann who first studied the theoretical aspects of the global resonances of the earth–ionosphere waveguide system, known today as the Schumann resonances. In 1952–1954 Schumann, together with H. L. König, attempted to measure the resonant frequencies.[11][12][13][14] However, it was not until measurements made by Balser and Wagner in 1960–1963[15][16][17][18][19] that adequate analysis techniques were available to extract the resonance information from the background noise. Since then there has been an increasing interest in Schumann resonances in a wide variety of fields.

 

Basic theory


Lightning discharges are considered to be the primary natural source of Schumann resonance excitation; lightning channels behave like huge antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy at frequencies below about 100 kHz.[20] These signals are very weak at large distances from the lightning source, but the Earth–ionosphere waveguide behaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies.[20]

In an ideal cavity, the resonant frequency of the n-th mode f_{n} is determined by the Earth radius a and the speed of light c.[11]

f_{n} =\frac{c}{2 \pi a}\sqrt{n(n+1)}

The real Earth–ionosphere waveguide is not a perfect electromagnetic resonant cavity. Losses due to finite ionosphere electrical conductivity lower the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in the cavity, resulting in a resonance frequency that is lower than would be expected in an ideal case, and the observed peaks are wide. In addition, there are a number of horizontal asymmetries – day-night difference in the height of the ionosphere, latitudinal changes in the Earth magnetic field, sudden ionospheric disturbances, polar cap absorption, etc. that produce other effects in the Schumann resonance power spectra.

 

Measurements


Today Schumann resonances are recorded at many separate research stations around the world. The sensors used to measure Schumann resonances typically consist of two horizontal magnetic inductive coils for measuring the north-south and east-west components of the magnetic field, and a vertical electric dipole antenna for measuring the vertical component of the electric field. A typical passband of the instruments is 3–100 Hz. The Schumann resonance electric field amplitude (~300 microvolts per meter) is much smaller than the static fair-weather electric field (~150 V/m) in the atmosphere. Similarly, the amplitude of the Schumann resonance magnetic field (~1 picotesla) is many orders of magnitude smaller than the Earth magnetic field (~30–50 microteslas).[21] Specialized receivers and antennas are needed to detect and record Schumann resonances. The electric component is commonly measured with a ball antenna, suggested by Ogawa et al., in 1966,[22] connected to a high-impedance amplifier. The magnetic induction coils typically consist of tens- to hundreds-of-thousands of turns of wire wound around a core of very high magnetic permeability.

 

Dependence on global lightning activity


From the very beginning of Schumann resonance studies, it was known that they could be used to monitor global lightning activity. At any given time there are about 2000 thunderstorms around the globe.[23] Producing ~50 lightning events per second,[24] these thunderstorms create the background Schumann resonance signal.

Determining the spatial lightning distribution from Schumann resonance records is a complex problem: in order to estimate the lightning intensity from Schumann resonance records it is necessary to account for both the distance to lightning sources as well as the wave propagation between the source and the observer. The common approach is to make a preliminary assumption on the spatial lightning distribution, based on the known properties of lightning climatology. An alternative approach is placing the receiver at the North or South Pole, which remain approximately equidistant from the main thunderstorm centers during the day.[25] One method not requiring preliminary assumptions on the lightning distribution[26] is based on the decomposition of the average background Schumann resonance spectra, utilizing ratios between the average electric and magnetic spectra and between their linear combination. This technique assumes the cavity is spherically symmetric and therefore does not include known cavity asymmetries that are believed to affect the resonance and propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in the system.

 

Diurnal variations


The best documented and the most debated features of the Schumann resonance phenomenon are the diurnal variations of the background Schumann resonance power spectrum.

A characteristic Schumann resonance diurnal record reflects the properties of both global lightning activity and the state of the Earth–ionosphere cavity between the source region and the observer. The vertical electric field is independent of the direction of the source relative to the observer, and is therefore a measure of global lightning. The diurnal behavior of the vertical electric field shows three distinct maxima, associated with the three "hot spots" of planetary lightning activity: 9 UT (Universal Time) peak, linked to the increased thunderstorm activity from south-east Asia; 14 UT peak associated with the peak in African lightning activity; and the 20 UT peak resulting for the increase in lightning activity in South America. The time and amplitude of the peaks vary throughout the year, reflecting the seasonal changes in lightning activity.
 
"Chimney" ranking

In general, the African peak is the strongest, reflecting the major contribution of the African "chimney" to the global lightning activity. The ranking of the two other peaks – Asian and American – is the subject of a vigorous dispute among Schumann resonance scientists. Schumann resonance observations made from Europe show a greater contribution from Asia than from South America. This contradicts optical satellite and climatological lightning data that show the South American thunderstorm center stronger than the Asian center.,[24] although observations made from North America indicate the dominant contribution comes from South America. The reason for such disparity remains unclear, but may have something to do with the 60 Hz cycling of electricity used in North America (60 Hz being a mode of Schumann Resonance). Williams and Sátori[27] suggest that in order to obtain "correct" Asia-America chimney ranking, it is necessary to remove the influence of the day/night variations in the ionospheric conductivity (day-night asymmetry influence) from the Schumann resonance records. On the other hand, such "corrected" records presented in the work by Sátori et al.[28] show that even after the removal of the day-night asymmetry influence from Schumann resonance records, the Asian contribution remains greater than American. Similar results were obtained by Pechony et al.[29] who calculated Schumann resonance fields from satellite lightning data. It was assumed that the distribution of lightning in the satellite maps was a good proxy for Schumann excitations sources, even though satellite observations predominantly measure in-cloud lightning rather than the cloud-to-ground lightning that are the primary exciters of the resonances. Both simulations – those neglecting the day-night asymmetry, and those taking this asymmetry into account, showed same Asia-America chimney ranking. As for today, the reason for the "invert" ranking of Asia and America chimneys in Schumann resonance records remains unclear and the subject requires further, targeted research.
 
Influence of the day-night asymmetry

In the early literature the observed diurnal variations of Schumann resonance power were explained by the variations in the source-receiver (lightning-observer) geometry.[15] It was concluded that no particular systematic variations of the ionosphere (which serves as the upper waveguide boundary) are needed to explain these variations.[30] Subsequent theoretical studies supported the early estimations of the small influence of the ionosphere day-night asymmetry (difference between day-side and night-side ionosphere conductivity) on the observed variations in Schumann resonance field intensities.[31]

The interest in the influence of the day-night asymmetry in the ionosphere conductivity on Schumann resonances gained new strength in the 1990s, after publication of a work by Sentman and Fraser.[32] Sentman and Fraser developed a technique to separate the global and the local contributions to the observed field power variations using records obtained simultaneously at two stations that were widely separated in longitude. They interpreted the diurnal variations observed at each station in terms of a combination of a diurnally varying global excitation modulated by the local ionosphere height. Their work, which combined both observations and energy conservation arguments, convinced many scientists of the importance of the ionospheric day-night asymmetry and inspired numerous experimental studies. However, recently it was shown that results obtained by Sentman and Fraser can be approximately simulated with a uniform model (without taking into account ionosphere day-night variation) and therefore cannot be uniquely interpreted solely in terms of ionosphere height variation.[33]

Schumann resonance amplitude records show significant diurnal and seasonal variations which in general coincide in time with the times of the day-night transition (the terminator). This time-matching seems to support the suggestion of a significant influence of the day-night ionosphere asymmetry on Schumann resonance amplitudes. There are records showing almost clock-like accuracy of the diurnal amplitude changes.[28] On the other hand there are numerous days when Schumann Resonance amplitudes do not increase at sunrise or do not decrease at sunset. There are studies showing that the general behavior of Schumann resonance amplitude records can be recreated from diurnal and seasonal thunderstorm migration, without invoking ionospheric variations.[29][31] Two recent independent theoretical studies have shown that the variations in Schumann resonance power related to the day-night transition are much smaller than those associated with the peaks of the global lightning activity, and therefore the global lightning activity plays a more important role in the variation of the Schumann resonance power.[29][34]

It is generally acknowledged that source-observer effects are the dominant source of the observed diurnal variations, but there remains considerable controversy about the degree to which day-night signatures are present in the data. Part of this controversy stems from the fact that the Schumann resonance parameters extractable from observations provide only a limited amount of information about the coupled lightning source-ionospheric system geometry. The problem of inverting observations to simultaneously infer both the lightning source function and ionospheric structure is therefore extremely underdetermined, leading to the possibility of nonunique interpretations.

 

The "inverse problem"


One of the interesting problems in Schumann resonances studies is determining the lightning source characteristics (the "inverse problem"). Temporally resolving each individual flash is impossible because the mean rate of excitation by lightning, ~50 lightning events per second globally, mixes up the individual contributions together. However, occasionally there occur extremely large lightning flashes which produce distinctive signatures that stand out from the background signals. Called "Q-bursts", they are produced by intense lightning strikes that transfer large amounts of charge from clouds to the ground, and often carry high peak current.[22] Q-bursts can exceed the amplitude of the background signal level by a factor of 10 or more, and appear with intervals of ~10 s,[26] which allows to consider them as isolated events and determine the source lightning location. The source location is determined with either multi-station or single-station techniques, and requires assuming a model for the Earth–ionosphere cavity. The multi-station techniques are more accurate, but require more complicated and expensive facilities.

 

Transient luminous events research


It is now believed that many of the Schumann resonances transients (Q bursts) are related to the transient luminous events (TLEs). In 1995 Boccippio et al.[35] showed that sprites, the most common TLE, are produced by positive cloud-to-ground lightning occurring in the stratiform region of a thunderstorm system, and are accompanied by Q-burst in the Schumann resonances band. Recent observations[35][36] reveal that occurrences of sprites and Q bursts are highly correlated and Schumann resonances data can possibly be used to estimate the global occurrence rate of sprites.[37]

 

Global temperature


Williams [1992][38] suggested that global temperature may be monitored with the Schumann resonances. The link between Schumann resonance and temperature is lightning flash rate, which increases nonlinearly with temperature.[38] The nonlinearity of the lightning-to-temperature relation provides a natural amplifier of the temperature changes and makes Schumann resonance a sensitive "thermometer". Moreover, the ice particles that are believed to participate in the electrification processes which result in a lightning discharge[39] have an important role in the radiative feedback effects that influence the atmosphere temperature. Schumann resonances may therefore help us to understand these feedback effects. A strong link between global lightning and global temperature has not been experimentally confirmed as of 2008.

 

Upper tropospheric water vapor


Tropospheric water vapor is a key element of the Earth’s climate, which has direct effects as a greenhouse gas, as well as indirect effect through interaction with clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. Upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) has a much greater impact on the greenhouse effect than water vapor in the lower atmosphere,[40] but whether this impact is a positive, or a negative feedback is still uncertain.[41] The main challenge in addressing this question is the difficulty in monitoring UTWV globally over long timescales. Continental deep-convective thunderstorms produce most of the lightning discharges on Earth. In addition, they transport large amount of water vapor into the upper troposphere, dominating the variations of global UTWV. Price [2000][42] suggested that changes in the UTWV can be derived from records of Schumann Resonances. According to the effective work made by the Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor (( UTWV )), we should highlight that the percentage of UTWV in normal condition of the Air mass can be meauserd as a minimal quantity, so that its influence can be considered very very low; in fact the higher percentage of it can be only found in the lower Tropspheric layers. But in the case of a high quantity of UTWV in the highest level of Troposphere, due to a warmer air mass of atlantic origins, for istance, the Water vapor, due to the low air temperature ((about minus 60 Degrees )) it turns into ice cristal, becoming clouds as Cirrus or Cirrus Stratus: no Water vapour exists as gas with so low temperature. So, we can say that the affirmation that Water vapor interacts with cloud, can be considered wrong as the clouds both those of low level of ((Atmosphere)) and those of higher levels of it are made of condensed or cristallised Water Vapor.

 

Schumann resonances on other planets


The existence of Schumann-like resonances is conditioned primarily by two factors: (1) a closed, planetary-sized spherical[dubious ] cavity, consisting of conducting lower and upper boundaries separated by an insulating medium. For the earth the conducting lower boundary is its surface, and the upper boundary is the ionosphere. Other planets may have similar electrical conductivity geometry, so it is speculated that they should possess similar resonant behavior. (2) source of electrical excitation of electromagnetic waves in the ELF range. Within the Solar System there are five candidates for Schumann resonance detection besides the Earth: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and its moon Titan.

Modeling Schumann resonances on the planets and moons of the Solar System is complicated by the lack of knowledge of the waveguide parameters. No in situ capability exists today to validate the results, but in the case of Mars there have been terrestrial observations of radio emission spectra that have been associated with Schumann resonances.[43] The reported radio emissions are not of the primary electromagnetic Schumann modes, but rather of secondary modulations of the nonthermal microwave emissions from the planet at approximately the expected Schumann frequencies, and have not been independently confirmed to be associated with lightning activity on Mars. There is the possibility that future lander missions could carry in situ instrumentation to perform the necessary measurements. Theoretical studies are primarily directed to parameterizing the problem for future planetary explorers.

The strongest evidence for lightning on Venus comes from the impulsive electromagnetic waves detected by Venera 11 and 12 landers. Theoretical calculations of the Schumann resonances at Venus were reported by Nickolaenko and Rabinowicz [1982][44] and Pechony and Price [2004].[45] Both studies yielded very close results, indicating that Schumann resonances should be easily detectable on that planet given a lightning source of excitation and a suitably located sensor.

On Mars detection of lightning activity has been reported by Ruf et al. [2009].[43] The evidence is indirect and in the form of modulations of the nonthermal microwave spectrum at approximately the expected Schumann resonance frequencies. It has not been independently confirmed that these are associated with electrical discharges on Mars. In the event confirmation is made by direct, in situ observations, it would verify the suggestion of the possibility of charge separation and lightning strokes in the Martian dust storms made by Eden and Vonnegut [1973][46] and Renno et al. [2003].[47] Martian global resonances were modeled by Sukhorukov [1991],[48] Pechony and Price [2004][45] and Molina-Cuberos et al. [2006].[49] The results of the three studies are somewhat different, but it seems that at least the first two Schumann resonance modes should be detectable. Evidence of the first three Schumann resonance modes is present in the spectra of radio emission from the lightning detected in Martian dust storms.[43]

It was long ago suggested that lightning discharges may occur on Titan,[50] but recent data from Cassini–Huygens seems to indicate that there is no lightning activity on this largest satellite of Saturn. Due to the recent interest in Titan, associated with the Cassini–Huygens mission, its ionosphere is perhaps the most thoroughly modeled today. Schumann resonances on Titan have received more attention than on any other celestial body, in works by Besser et al. [2002],[51] Morente et al. [2003],[52] Molina-Cuberos et al. [2004],[53] Nickolaenko et al. [2003][54] and Pechony and Price [2004].[45] It appears that only the first Schumann resonance mode might be detectable on Titan.

Jupiter is the only planet where lightning activity has been optically detected. Existence of lightning activity on that planet was predicted by Bar-Nun [1975][55] and it is now supported by data from Galileo, Voyagers 1 and 2, Pioneers 10 and 11 and Cassini. Saturn is also expected to have intensive lightning activity, but the three visiting spacecrafts – Pioneer 11 in 1979, Voyager 1 in 1980 and Voyager 2 in 1981, failed to provide any convincing evidence from optical observations. The strong storm monitored on Saturn by the Cassini spacecraft produced no visible lightning flashes, although electromagnetic sensors aboard the spacecraft detected signatures that are characteristic of lightning. Little is known about the electrical parameters of Jupiter and Saturn interior. Even the question of what should serve as the lower waveguide boundary is a non-trivial one in case of the gaseous planets. There seem to be no works dedicated to Schumann resonances on Saturn. To date there has been only one attempt to model Schumann resonances on Jupiter.[56] Here, the electrical conductivity profile within the gaseous atmosphere of Jupiter was calculated using methods similar to those used to model stellar interiors, and it was pointed out that the same methods could be easily extended to the other gas giants Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Given the intense lightning activity at Jupiter, the Schumann resonances should be easily detectable with a sensor suitably positioned within the planetary-ionospheric cavity.

Speculation about Schumann resonance effects in non-geophysics domains

Interest in Schumann resonances extends beyond the domain of geophysics where it initially began, to the fields of bioenergetics[57] and acupuncture.[57] Critics[who?] claim that the studies that support these applications are inconclusive and that further studies are needed.

A small study in Japan found that blood pressure was lowered by the Schumann resonance, with the effects on human health needing to be investigated further.[58]

See also

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