Showing posts with label Superconductors. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Superconductors. Show all posts

Sunday, December 21, 2014

Numerical Relativity and Consciousness

To model any process that as a BS(Belief System) system,  as in Numerical Relativity,  is to say that such computerization incorporates such photonic principles as to adhere to some aspect of the discovery of consciousness as a basis of that modelling?

The subsystem toward understanding consciousness is then the realization that such modeling is the outcome of projections into the basis of matter orientations. Intent,  as a force has move through such matters so as to gain in matter perspectives?

But if such an entry into such matter projections find significant "scientific value" then it is appropriate to say the understanding that the belief system has become part of the foundational constructive example of our orientations as a consequence? This is what is meant then by "to be lead by science," as a basic premise of understanding the beginnings of the truth with regard to understanding consciousness?

We build in matter? Numerical relativity is such an example. So where to from here?

Spintronics and orientation perhaps, so as to reveal some correspondence toward understanding the basis of the QGP?  This understanding not only with regard to the forward decay chain of this construct, but as a flowing straight through is but to reveal such a path with regard to the use of superconductors and its use in quantum computerization?

So we emulate consciousness you see?


See Also:

Monday, December 15, 2014

Quantum Levitation

Tel-Aviv University demos quantum superconductors locked in a magnetic field ( For an explanation of the physics behind this demonstration, visit­_physics.html.

See Also:

Thursday, October 09, 2014

Majorana Fermions Discovered

A Majorana fermion (/məˈrɒnə ˈfɛərmɒn/[1]), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle. They were hypothesized by Ettore Majorana in 1937. The term is sometimes used in opposition to a Dirac fermion, which describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles.
All of the Standard Model fermions except the neutrino behave as Dirac fermions at low energy (after electroweak symmetry breaking), but the nature of the neutrino is not settled and it may be either Dirac or Majorana. In condensed matter physics, Majorana fermions exist as quasiparticle excitations in superconductors and can be used to form Majorana bound states governed by non-abelian statistics.


Princeton University physicists built a powerful imaging device called a scanning-tunneling microscope and used it to capture an image of an elusive particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter. To avoid vibration, the microscope is cooled close to absolute zero and is suspended like a floating island in the floor above. The setup includes a 40-ton block of concrete, which is visible above the researchers. The research team includes, from left, graduate student Ilya Drozdov, postdoctoral researcher Sangjun Jeon, and professors of physics B. Andrei Bernevig and Ali Yazdani. (Photo by Denise Applewhite, Office of Communications)
Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could eventually enable powerful computers based on quantum mechanics. Capping decades of searching, Princeton scientists observe elusive particle that is its own antiparticle.

 Majorana fermions are predicted to localize at the edge of a topological superconductor, a state of matter that can form when a ferromagnetic system is placed in proximity to a conventional superconductor with strong spin-orbit interaction. With the goal of realizing a one-dimensional topological superconductor, we have fabricated ferromagnetic iron (Fe) atomic chains on the surface of superconducting lead (Pb). Using high-resolution spectroscopic imaging techniques, we show that the onset of superconductivity, which gaps the electronic density of states in the bulk of the Fe chains, is accompanied by the appearance of zero energy end states. This spatially resolved signature provides strong evidence, corroborated by other observations, for the formation of a topological phase and edge-bound Majorana fermions in our atomic chains. Observation of Majorana fermions in ferromagnetic atomic chains on a superconductor



Friday, November 15, 2013

Energy Flow Without Impedance

It has always been of interest to me how one could get energy to flow quite freely without it succumb too the impurities that may have blocked that flow. I mean the correlation in my mind and being the layman that I am, could in itself demonstrate how my noise provided for the ability of someone not to seeing,  so as to just bungle up the message.

The development of superconductors that could be used in real-world applications, particularly power transmission, could transform the U.S. energy landscape. In addition to huge cost-savings, the higher capacity enabled by superconducting cables would help overcome urban power bottlenecks in today’s power grid, reducing the potential for blackouts and other power interruptions. It would also improve the cost-effective control of power flowing across the national grid and extend the operating life of existing high-load power lines. Furthermore, zero-loss transmission would enable the transfer of solar energy generated in parts of the U.S. where sunlight is most abundant to those where it is not, thus making other energy-saving technologies more practical and affordable. Complex Materials Unusual properties may lead to new superconductors

So I paragraph more those whose words who are not mine to see how the issues around that flow may be considered.. I must say a blog spot piece from Scientific American had got me thinking.

Photo Credit: “Superconducting wires by epitaxial grown on SSIFFS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory” taken on July 29, 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy
 Photo Friday: Superconducting wires for long-distance electricity transmission By Melissa C. Lott

So to me I am always looking for processes that make energy flow in such a way, as to be correlated in the cosmos. I am looking for ways that energy can travel through and be described as cosmic particle collisions and subsequent, cosmic spallations that demonstrate the list of the ways in which this energy is being accounted for.

So it is important that the views we may of held in regard to how we see energy leak into unaccountability  had its day,  so as to see the current status of what is no longer counted as the missing energy any more.

Later studies and the investigation of much larger data samples have concluded that the event could not be ascribed to new physics but rather to some odd coincidence of detector effects and rare, but known, standard model processes. The Event From Another World
So what is left for me is this nagging feeling about what is explained as processes we do not quite understand and what we have always herald it as some inexplicable description of an unknown process. Herein,  it still remains a mystery and if you can move forward and make clearer the understanding of these processes in particle examinations then how much clear the impedance that such a mystery brings to our examination of the science behind these energy flows?

Of course these are materialistic version of ones grasp of the realities of things in the objective sense, but there is always more we can correlate in mind that we would have found such processes as similar in their expressions? So yes analogies also have to be most certainly clear as to those demonstrations as well.

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Superconductivity Dance Flash Mob

What can I say people in science seem to like to dance a lot to explain things?:)

Ranging from slime molds to Alzheimer’s Disease, a new online exhibit, Emergent Universe ( aims to encourage young people to learn about “emergence,” complex behaviors that arise from the interaction of simple parts. See: Emergent Universe - an online museum of science.

Created for the online science museum, this dance flash mob illustrates the behavior of electrons in a superconductor. Superconductors are materials which, at very low temperatures, can conduct electric currents without any resistance. That means that the current can flow forever with no energy loss.

The exhibit on superconductivity at will go live this summer, 2011, in honor of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the phenomenon of superconductivity. is sponsored by the Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter (

At "Unlocking the Universe" together with "Hear the Music," it was appealing to me back then as it is now. 


The weird quantum nature of the atomic world challenges us to revise the way we view the world around us. We learn that our everyday world - built out of the myriad superposition of matter waves, has an unexpected capacity for new kinds of behavior and "self organization" that we are only just beginning to fathom. Music of the Quantum World


See Also

    Monday, November 23, 2009

    An Idea: Percolating to the Surface

    If one cannot see the dynamical relation toward "localization of the energy" it will never make sense how such energy can be used to advance sustainability. While they are close in the thinking, the idea, still remains apart from acknowledgement of the substance of the proposal.

    Thin-Film Solar with High Efficiency

    Solexant is printing inorganic solar cells with nanomaterials.

    Solar cells made from cheap nanocrystal-based inks have the potential to be as efficient as the conventional inorganic cells currently used in solar panels, but can be printed less expensively. Solexant, a company in San Jose, CA, is currently manufacturing solar cells to test the technology. In order to compete with other thin-film solar companies, Solexant is banking on simpler, cheaper printing processes and materials, as well as lower initial capital costs to build its plants. The company expects to sell modules for $1 per watt, with efficiencies above 10 percent.
    Nanocrystal solar: The solar cells at top were made on a roll-to-roll printer from an ink consisting of the rod-shaped inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals shown below. The cells were printed on a flexible metal foil and will be topped with a glass plate.
    Credit: Solexant

    The company has licensed methods for growing nanocrystals and making them into inks from Paul Alivisatos, professor of nanotechnology at the University of California, Berkeley and interim director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (Alivisatos is on Solexant's board of directors.) Alivisatos says the advantage of these materials is their potential to combine low cost with high performance. Solar cells made from crystalline silicon are efficient at converting sunlight into electricity, but they're expensive to manufacture. To bring down the cost, companies have been developing thin-film solar cells from semiconductors that don't match crystalline silicon's performance but are much less expensive to make.

    Solexant's goal is to make cheap thin-film solar cells with relatively high efficiencies. It would not disclose what the nanoparticle inks are made of, but the company says they are suspensions of rod-shaped, semiconducting nanocrystals that are four nanometers in diameter and 20 to 30 nanometers long. The Solexant cells are printed on a metal foil as the substrate. Nanocrystal films are simple to print but have poor electrical properties. Electrons tend to get trapped between the small particles. "The trick with these cells is how to deposit the materials on the fly in a way that makes a very conductive surface," which in turn ensures decent light-to-electricity conversion, says Alivisatos. Solexant begins with nanocrystals because they're easier to print, and heats them as they're printed, causing them to fuse together into larger, high-quality microcrystals that don't have as many places for electrons to lose their way.
    The remaining parts of the solar cell, including the electrical contacts and a light-absorbing layer, are also printed on the flexible metal films. This process allows Solexant to print very large areas. When complete, the cells are cut and then topped with a rigid piece of glass.

    I wanted to keep a record of these links for examination so besides the blog posting here, a direct link to the authors of this record keeping.

    Evidence of Solar PV, Battery and Conservation Advancements

    Solar PV

    Batteries and Storage

    Conservation and Efficiency

    Electric Vehicles

    Saturday, September 19, 2009

    Macroscopic Similarities in a Microscopic World

    Berkeley Lab Technology Dramatically Speeds Up Searches of Large DatabasesJon Bashor

    In the world of physics, one of the most elusive events is the creation and detection of “quark-gluon plasma,” the theorized atomic outcome of the “Big Bang” which could provide insight into the origins of the universe. By using experiments that involve millions of particle collisions, researchers hope to find unambiguous evidence of quark-gluon plasma.

    It's not just about "mathematical abstraction" but of seeing what good it can be used for. One can be in denial about the prospects but while it gives perspective to current situations, in that it helps to direct thinking forward instead feeling as if "you are just floating in space without being able to move."

    Helpless are we? Not considering flapping one's wings?

    Imagine indeed then,  trying to orientate direction toward the spacecraft when "floating in space" seems like having to attempt to ride a bicycle for the first time, so one should  know we must balance ourselves while doing the appropriate movements directed to where we want to go. It's something that has to be learn in theoretical enterprise while still held to earth's environ?

    There might be a middle way. String theory's mathematical tools were designed to unlock the most profound secrets of the cosmos, but they could have a far less esoteric purpose: to tease out the properties of some of the most complex yet useful types of material here on Earth.

    Both string theorists and condensed matter physicists - those studying the properties of complex matter phases such as solids and liquids - are enthused by the development. "I am flabbergasted," says Jan Zaanen, a condensed matter theorist from the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. "The theory is calculating precisely what we are seeing in experiments."
    See:What string theory is really good for

    So how has this helped the idea of "minimum length?"

    Using the anti–de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence to relate fermionic quantum critical fields to a gravitational problem, we computed the spectral functions of fermions in the field theory. By increasing the fermion density away from the relativistic quantum critical point, a state emerges with all the features of the Fermi liquid. See:String Theory, Quantum Phase Transitions, and the Emergent Fermi Liquid
    So we have a beginning here for consideration within the frame work of Condense matter theorist state of existence? String theory is working along side of to direct the idea of matter formation?


    Our work is about comparing the data we collect in the STAR detector with modern calculations, so that we can write down equations on paper that exactly describe how the quark-gluon plasma behaves," says Jerome Lauret from Brookhaven National Laboratory. "One of the most important assumptions we've made is that, for very intense collisions, the quark-gluon plasma behaves according to hydrodynamic calculations in which the matter is like a liquid that flows with no viscosity whatsoever."

    Proving that under certain conditions the quark-gluon plasma behaves according to such calculations is an exciting discovery for physicists, as it brings them a little closer to understanding how matter behaves at very small scales. But the challenge remains to determine the properties of the plasma under other conditions.

    "We want to measure when the quark-gluon plasma behaves like a perfect fluid with zero viscosity, and when it doesn't," says Lauret. "When it doesn't match our calculations, what parameters do we have to change? If we can put everything together, we might have a model that reproduces everything we see in our detector."
    See:Probing the Perfect Liquid with the STAR Grid

    Looking back in time toward the beginning of our universe has been one of the things that have been occupying my time as I look through experimental procedures that have been developed. While LHC  provides a template of all the historical drama of science put forward,  it is also a platform in my mind for pushing forward perspective from "a beginning of time scenario" that helps us identify what happens in that formation. Helps us to orientate space and what happens to it.

    It provides for me a place where we can talk about a large scale situation in terms of the universe as to what it contains to help motivate this universe to become what it is.

    Cycle of Birth, Life, and Death-Origin, Indentity, and Destiny by Gabriele Veneziano

    In one form or another, the issue of the ultimate beginning has engaged philosophers and theologians in nearly every culture. It is entwined with a grand set of concerns, one famously encapsulated in an 1897 painting by Paul Gauguin: D'ou venons-nous? Que sommes-nous? Ou allons-nous? "Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going?"
    See here for more information.

    So how did this process help orientate the things that were brought forward under the idea that the universe is a "cosmological box" that people want to talk about, while in my mind ,it became much more flexible topic when Venezianno began to talk about what came before. What existed outside that box. Abstractly, the box had six faces, to which direction of possibilities became part of the depth of this situation. It was a matter indeed of thinking outside the box.

    I know that for some,  why waste one's time, but for me it is the motivator( not God as a creator, but of what actually propels this universe) and to what can exist now that draws my attention. It has been ever so slightly pushed "back in time" to see that the universe began with "microscopic processes that defines the state of the state of the universe in the way it is now." The LHC should be able to answer this although it is still restricted by the energy valuation given to this process.

    A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. Theoretical physicists have now used string theory to describe the quantum-critical state of electrons that can lead to high-temperature superconductivity. (Credit: Mai-Linh Doan / Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) See:

    Physical Reality Of String Theory Shown In Quantum-critical State Of Electrons

    Quantum soup

    But now, Zaanen, together with his colleagues Cubrovic and Schalm, are trying to change this situation, by applying string theory to a phenomenon that physicists, including Zaanen, have for the past fifteen years been unable to explain: the quantum-critical state of electrons. This special state occurs in a material just before it becomes superconductive at high temperature. Zaanen describes the quantum-critical state as a 'quantum soup', whereby the electrons form a collective independent of distances, where the electrons exhibit the same behaviour at small quantum mechanical scale or at macroscopic human scale.
    See  Also:

    Fermions and the AdS/CFT correspondence: quantum phase transitions and the emergent Fermi-liquid

    A central mystery in quantum condensed matter physics is the zero temperature quantum phase transition between strongly renormalized Fermi-liquids as found in heavy fermion intermetallics and possibly high Tc superconductors. Field theoretical statistical techniques are useless because of the fermion sign problem, but we will present here results showing that the mathematics of string theory is capable of describing fermionic quantum critical states. Using the Anti-de-Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to relate fermionic quantum critical fields to a gravitational problem, we compute the spectral functions of fermions in the field theory. Deforming away from the relativistic quantum critical point by increasing the fermion density we show that a state emerges with all the features of the Fermi-liquid. Tuning the scaling dimensions of the critical fermion fields we find that the quasiparticle disappears at a quantum phase transition of a purely statistical nature, not involving any symmetry change. These results are obtained by computing the solutions of a classical Dirac equation in an AdS space time containing a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, where the information regarding Fermi-Dirac statistics in the field theory is processed by quasi-normal Dirac modes at the outer horizon.

    Friday, July 25, 2008

    The Extra Dimensions in the LHC

    String Theorists, for a million bucks, do you think you can answer "the question" and it's applicability?

    Now it should be clear here that while I speak of extra dimensions I am referring to that energy that is not accountable, "after the collision process and particle identifications have been calculated."

    For the first time the LHC reaches temperatures colder than outer space

    Geneva, 10 April 2007. The first sector of CERN1's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be cooled down has reached a temperature of 1.9 K (–271°C), colder than deep outer space! Although just one-eighth of the LHC ring, this sector is the world’s largest superconducting installation. The entire 27–kilometre LHC ring needs to be cooled down to this temperature in order for the superconducting magnets that guide and focus the proton beams to remain in a superconductive state. Such a state allows the current to flow without resistance, creating a dense, powerful magnetic field in relatively small magnets. Guiding the two proton beams as they travel nearly the speed of light, curving around the accelerator ring and focusing them at the collision points is no easy task. A total of 1650 main magnets need to be operated in a superconductive state, which presents a huge technical challenge. "This is the first major step in the technical validation of a full-scale portion of the LHC," explained LHC project leader Lyndon Evans.

    There are three parts to the cool down process, with many tests and intense checking in between. During the first phase, the sector is cooled down to 80 K, slightly above the temperature of liquid nitrogen. At this temperature the material will have seen 90% of the final thermal contraction, a 3 millimetre per metre shrinkage of steel structures. Each of the eight sectors is about 3.3 kilometres long, which means shrinkage of 9.9 metres! To deal with this amount of shrinkage, specific places have been designed to compensate for it, including expansion bellows for piping elements and cabling with some slack. Tests are done to make sure no hardware breaks as the machinery is cooled.

    The second phase brings the sector to 4.5 K using enormous refrigerators. Each sector has its own refrigerator and each of the main magnets is filled with liquid helium, the coolant of choice for the LHC because it is the only element to be in a liquid state at such a low temperature.

    The final phase requires a sophisticated pumping system to help bring the pressure down on the boiling Helium and cool the magnets to 1.9 K. To achieve a pressure of 15 millibars, the system uses both hydrodynamic centrifugal compressors operating at low temperature and positive-displacement compressors operating at room temperature. Cooling down to 1.9 K provides greater efficiency for the superconducting material and helium's cooling capacity. At this low temperature helium becomes superfluid, flowing with virtually no viscosity and allowing greater heat transfer capacity.

    “It's exciting because for more than ten years people have been designing, building and testing separately each part of this sector and now we have a chance to test it all together for the first time,” said Serge Claudet, head of the Cryogenic Operation Team. For more information and to see regular updates, see

    The conditions are now established to allow testing of all magnets in this sector to their ultimate performance.

    I am not going to go into the relevance here but to describe how "I speculate" the "extra energy is lost" while delivering the expected results of the LHC microscope in it's efforts.

    This is based on the Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness that "may be" responsible for this loss. The understanding as I have come to see it is that the QGP by it's very nature is conclusively reached it total state, and that by reaching it, it brought in line, with the Superconductors relations. The principal here that a relativistic conditon is arrived at in the super fluid condition that I perceive is, in relation to the aspect of the Helium used to cool the LHC

    Navier-Stokes Equation

    Waves follow our boat as we meander across the lake, and turbulent air currents follow our flight in a modern jet. Mathematicians and physicists believe that an explanation for and the prediction of both the breeze and the turbulence can be found through an understanding of solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. Although these equations were written down in the 19th Century, our understanding of them remains minimal. The challenge is to make substantial progress toward a mathematical theory which will unlock the secrets hidden in the Navier-Stokes equations.

    Wednesday, June 04, 2008


    MIT physicists create new form of matter by Lori Valigra, Special to MIT News Office June 22, 2005

    A superfluid gas can flow without resistance. It can be clearly distinguished from a normal gas when it is rotated. A normal gas rotates like an ordinary object, but a superfluid can only rotate when it forms vortices similar to mini-tornadoes. This gives a rotating superfluid the appearance of Swiss cheese, where the holes are the cores of the mini-tornadoes. "When we saw the first picture of the vortices appear on the computer screen, it was simply breathtaking," said graduate student Martin Zwierlein in recalling the evening of April 13, when the team first saw the superfluid gas. For almost a year, the team had been working on making magnetic fields and laser beams very round so the gas could be set in rotation. "It was like sanding the bumps off of a wheel to make it perfectly round," Zwierlein explained.

    "In superfluids, as well as in superconductors, particles move in lockstep. They form one big quantum-mechanical wave," explained Ketterle. Such a movement allows superconductors to carry electrical currents without resistance.

    The MIT team was able to view these superfluid vortices at extremely cold temperatures, when the fermionic gas was cooled to about 50 billionths of one kelvin, very close to absolute zero (-273 degrees C or -459 degrees F). "It may sound strange to call superfluidity at 50 nanokelvin high-temperature superfluidity, but what matters is the temperature normalized by the density of the particles," Ketterle said. "We have now achieved by far the highest temperature ever." Scaled up to the density of electrons in a metal, the superfluid transition temperature in atomic gases would be higher than room temperature.

    Now it is important that giving the circumstance with which I hold these views "to be the decomposable limits" on the collision process itself, the, "value of the decay" in initiating such a phase, it was important to me to explain how I thought new physics is to be established around our current value thinking in relation to the universe.

    This picture shows a classical vortex (Hurricane Isabel in summer 2003, NASA image ISS007E14887).

    So while we had done our research on the values of what a scientist means in regards to an image search on Google, I thought what better way but to introduce my efforts, as well to listing the essence of my understanding, by showing posts, that coincided with the prospective that I was and am establishing as a value in context of the acceleration of this universe.

    It is to establish how this universe can contain an "relativistic interpretation" about the "beginning and end" contained in this universe and was of some interest to me, as I charted the course and terms related to the searches for the microscopic blackhole holes and what it can ensue in it's decay.

    Photo credit: Andre Schirotzek (MIT)
    A condensate of Fermion pairs (red) is trapped in the waist of a focussed Laser beam (pink). Two additional Laser beams (green) rotate around the edges to stir the condensate. Current-carrying coils (blue) generate the magnetic field used for axial confinement and to tune the interaction strength by means of a Feshbach resonance. After releasing the atomic cloud from the electromagnetic trap, the cloud expands ballistically and inverts its aspect ratio. Resonant absorption imaging yields a density profile of the atomic cloud containing vortices.

    It was important that such an analogy serve to express that "what has always been" can move from one universe to another, by the interpretation of the false vacuum to the true and, by introducing this element in consideration of the lengths such a collision process can be taken too.

    This has always been of some issue to me about what can take our universe to a "zero point entropy consideration" while understanding that the larger context showing representational for this universe, holds an interesting view, that while large can be taken onto the environs that collisions processes may hold for further introspective views.

    Now I have been watching the interpretations of Inductive and Deductive valuations over at Bee's held in conversation of theBackreaction: The Block Universe and I am not totally satisfied that either party has really explained what "infinite regress means" while looking to the "decomposable element" with which I hold mathematics as a necessary understanding, while we look to explain the very principals and nature of this universe, and it's accelerations currently established.

    Photo credit: Andre Schirotzek (MIT) Vortices in Gases: Shown is a Vortex pattern in bosonic Sodium atoms (green cartoon) in a magnetic trap, Vortices in tightly bound Lithium molecules (red-blue cartoon) and a vortex lattice in loosely bound Fermion pairs created on the "BCS-side" of a Feshbach resonance.

    Just having established a link with backreactions block universe posting with this article, I see Phil has explained nicely what the process is to me, and how "infinite regress and decomposable element" are held in the same breathe. I have to give by example my understanding so that one sees this is not a "vacant thought process" with which I work.

    While one might think I belittle the process it is wholly by my environmental scanning and integrating view that I was able to deduce in regards to the "Plane of Simultaneity" an of "much greater depth" then what is assumed there at Backreaction.

    This statement of "much greater depth," must be seen in relation to what Tom Levenson in his first introductory article on Cosmic Variance, is revealing by, "Inverse Square law" introduction.

    Tom Levenson:....what would make current physical ideas as powerful and as intelligibly strange as Newton was able to make his story of a comet travelling from and to distances with out limit?

    Shadows, are the contention with which "cave views are enlisted" and remain, "in the the box thinkers." You had to know by my reply, that this depth was beyond the 3+1 view held , and pushing further, is the scope and intention of being lead by science, whether one thinks so or not by my representations.

    That, "in the box thinking" has never left the backreaction interpretations. Phenomenological order, must be introduced, in order to establish current scientific experiments with the actual hypothetical processes, where, such a hypothesis will take you too, leading from, "infinite regress and decomposable limits of definition." at the peak of this Aristotlean Arche. What is Self-Evident.

    Savas Dimopoulos:At close encounter the particles can exchange gravitons via the two extra dimensions, which changes the force law at very short distances. Instead of the “Newtonian inverse square law” you’ll have an inverse fourth power law. This signature is being looked for in the ongoing experiments.
    See:Newton's inverse-square (1/r2) law

    This is a inductive/deductive stance that a person assumes in moving through science, as I understood it.

    It is important that this process be established and identified as I reveal the thinking about the current state of the universe and how LHC experimental development, are giving new light, to Galactic communications. Microscopic Blackhole decay.

    Also too,

    The standard model of particle physics is a self-contained picture of fundamental particles and their interactions. Physicists, on a journey from solid matter to quarks and gluons, via atoms and nuclear matter, may have reached the foundation level of fields and particles. But have we reached bedrock, or is there something deeper? Savas Dimopoulos

    Such a question sets the pace for understanding the limits with which we have contained ourselves in regard to General Relativity, and yet, to think that such a result of General Relativity could have ever been embedded as a "beginning and end" in the explanation of the universe, is introduced by time reversals and such?

    Sunday, March 11, 2007

    Polar Flips

    Sometimes it is necessary to see the deep impact a thought could have as we try to understand the implications of a "sphere dropped in a viscously liquid" that we might find another correlation in how we see the photon affected in the gravitational field. Can we grasped the feeling illicitated to say we have some what of a deep impact in remembering to think the strange world of fluids could entertain us?

    Stokes' law

    In 1851, George Gabriel Stokes derived an expression for the frictional force exerted on spherical objects with very small Reynolds numbers (e.g., very small particles) in a continuous viscous fluid by solving the small fluid-mass limit of the generally unsolvable Navier-Stokes equations:


    is the frictional force,
    r is the Stokes radius of the particle,
    η is the fluid viscosity, and
    is the particle's speed.

    If the particles are falling in the viscous fluid by their own weight, then a terminal velocity, also known as the settling velocity, is reached when this frictional force combined with the buoyant force exactly balance the gravitational force. The resulting settling velocity is given by:


    Vs is the particles' settling velocity (cm/sec) (vertically downwards if ρp > ρf, upwards if ρp < ρf),
    r is the Stokes radius of the particle (cm),
    g is the standard gravity (cm/sec2),
    ρp is the density of the particles (g/cm3),
    ρf is the density of the fluid (g/cm3), and
    η is the fluid viscosity (dyne sec/cm2).

    Why are Planets Round?

    Would these fluids act differently on the Moon and at (on) different gravities

    I was loosing the train of thought within this post, and then the thought occurred me.

    Why are planets round. This is a "general question" which leads to how we see the formation of the planets?

    "isostatic adjustment"

    Start there. We also know what a "sphere of water" looks like in space?

    While the sphere was being thought of in regards to Stokes's Theorem, I was also thinking of the earth in relation to how we see gravity in regards to the earth already formed. The vicissitude, in which the earth exists within the cosmos. The moon.

    The rotating superfluid gas of fermions is pierced with the vortices, which are like mini-tornadoes. Image / Andre Schirotzek, MIT

    Bose-Einstein condensation of pairs of fermions that were bound together loosely as molecules was observed in November 2003 by independent teams at the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of Innsbruck in Austria and at MIT. However, observing Bose-Einstein condensation is not the same as observing superfluidity. Further studies were done by these groups and at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, Duke University and Rice University, but evidence for superfluidity was ambiguous or indirect.

    The superfluid Fermi gas created at MIT can also serve as an easily controllable model system to study properties of much denser forms of fermionic matter such as solid superconductors, neutron stars or the quark-gluon plasma that existed in the early universe.

    There is a special class of fluids that are called superfluids. Superfluids have the property that they can flow through narrow channels without viscosity. However, more fundamental than the absence of dissipation is the behavior of superfluids under rotation. In contrast to the example of a glass of water above, the rotation in superfluids is always inhomogeneous (figure). The fluid circulates around quantized vortex lines. The vortex lines are shown as yellow in the figure, and the circulating flow around them is indicated by arrows. There is no vorticity outside of the lines because the velocity near each line is larger than further away. (In mathematical terms curl v = 0, where v(r) is the velocity field.)

    See here for more on Attributes of Superfluids

    It is very possible that the information is inundating my thinking here yet without considering the context of the super fluid what requirements would fit the idea that earth is relevant when it comes to the molten core? Or how you see the magnetic field shifting in relation to the poles?

    Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while vegetable oil is "thick" having a higher viscosity. All real fluids (except superfluids) have some resistance to shear stress, but a fluid which has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal fluid or inviscid fluid (Symon 1971).

    I am quickly posting this and will have more to add. I wanted to speak directly to the idea of the super fluid. How the "irrotational value of the perfect fluid as a whole," could have it's leakages to the surface of the earth, as small vortices created.

    This computer simulation shows the Earth's interior as its magnetic field reverses, perhaps because of changes in the flow of molten iron in the core. Deep inside the Earth, the magnetic field arises as the fluid core oozes with hot currents of molten iron and this mechanical energy gets converted into electromagnetism. It is known as the geodynamo. In a car's generator, the same principle turns mechanical energy into electricity.

    No one knows precisely why the field periodically reverses, but scientists say the responsibility probably lies with changes in the turbulent flows of molten iron, which they envision as similar to the churning gases that make up the clouds of Jupiter.

    In theory, a reversal could have major effects because over the ages many aspects of nature and society have come to rely on the field's steadiness.

    Quasar posted a comment there that immediately made me think what the topic could mean in relation to the post he was commenting on. I thought of the earth's core as the subject was related, and thought how nice it would be to have such a "cylindrical channel that goes from pole to pole?"

    Well the viscosity of the fluid as it traverses this cylinder would give some nature to the charge as it passes through? I do not think it could be that simple, if we thought the iron molten as the viscosity had a direct relation to what we know of our magnetic field? We know the earth core is not so cylindrical, that we could the attribute of the superfluid in this case while looking at the iron molten lava

    So is it the iron in particular that gives us our strength based on it's fluid's nature?

    These changes in Earth’s magnetic fields from 1980 to 2000 may be harbingers of a shift in the magnetic poles

    Saturday, February 11, 2006

    History of the Superfluid: New Physics

    Nice Picture above.

    It is really confusing for me sometimes so I have to revisit the set up, to make sure I have things slotted to the way it is being used to penetrate reductionistic views, that help us understand the new physics that emerges from Gold Ion collisions.

    So what is a color glass condensate? According to Einstein's special theory of relativity, when a nucleus travels at near-light (relativistic) speed, it flattens like a pancake in its direction of motion. Also, the high energy of an accelerated nucleus may cause it to spawn a large number of gluons, the particles that hold together its quarks. These factors--relativistic effects and the proliferation of gluons--may transform a spherelike nucleus into a flattened "wall" made mostly of gluons. This wall, 50-1000 times more dense than ordinary nuclei, is the CGC (see Brookhaven page for a letter-by-letter explanation of the CGC's name). How does the gluon glass relate to the much sought quark-gluon plasma? The QGP might get formed when two CGC's collide

    So you say that the particles are supported by the HE4 Superfluid, then how does that energy leak off into the extra dimensions? Hmmmm. As thread unfolds below? What are these strangelets that are catapulted beyond the collider? Porous induced shell casing?

    As well as bringing the accelerator's counter-rotating beams together, LHC insertion magnets also have to separate them after collision. This is the job of dedicated separators, and the US Brookhaven Laboratory is developing superconducting magnets for this purpose. Brookhaven is drawing on its experience of building the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which like the LHC is a superconducting machine. Consequently, these magnets will bear a close resemblance to RHIC's main dipoles. Following a prototyping phase, full-scale manufacture has started at Brookhaven and delivery of the first superconducting separator magnets to CERN is foreseen before the end of the year.

    Bose Nova revisited

    I wanted to bring this to the surface again for inspection, as this comes out of the work another fellow and I had discussed at length as we shared perspective on the nature and dynamics geometrically inclined.

    Accretion Disk

    Sometimes, if one does not realized what is governing the thought process, why and how would such things not make some kind of sense. As we move our perceptions ever deeper into the workings of the reductionistic world and find, that these results are being meet in a theoretical sense, as developing well along experimental one too.

    As a layman these views are important to me ,more then the cyncism that pervades the supposed debate on model assumption. While the cynic provides no service other then being that. I have learn to see where the patience and developemental attitude requires a more conducive field of opportunity to bring out the best in each of those scientist that very quickly, the desired approach, is being gone after.

    So herein lies a little history, and the synoptic event that is holding my thoughts today.

    Do the Bosenova

    To set a BEC swirling Ketterle's team shone a rotating laser beam on it while holding it in place with strong magnets. The experiment is like "stroking a ping-pong ball with a feather until it starts spinning," muses Ketterle. The surprising thing was that suddenly, a regular array of whirlpools appeared in the BEC. "It was a breathtaking experience when we saw those vortices," recalls Ketterle. Researchers had seen such whirlpools before (in liquid helium and in BECs) but never so many at once. This array of superfluid whirlpools was exactly the kind of storm system astronomers predicted would swirl beneath the iron crust of a neutron star.

    Evidence for the swirling depths of neutrons stars is based on the fact that some neutron stars are pulsars - the emit a powerful beam of radiation as they spin - like a cosmic lighthouse. The pulses are very regular but occasionally there is a glitch and a pulse might come slightly too early or too late and it is these glitches that are thought to be due to superfluid vortices hammering into the inside of the neutron star's crust.

    Ketterle adds that attractions between atoms in a BEC could parallel the collapse of a neutron star so emulating the distant and massive in the laboratory too. The explosive collapse of a BEC, dubbed a "Bosenova" (pronounced "bose-a-nova") by Wieman releases only a tiny quantity of energy, just enough to raise the temperature of the BEC by 200 billionths of a degree. Supernovae release many times the energy.

    So while I had drawn attention to the process afew years ago that we had discussed, it was important that the very idea of a geometrical process that encompass all the information we currently have, has been filed to specific areas for consideration.

    While the tidbits placed our perspectives all over the map, and held the idealization of the geometry to Feynman's toy models, a greater implication existed that few of realized as we can read about Dirac and the way in which he sees. While I had not been blessed with such a mathematical mind, it seems my vision of things are quite capable, while speaking about reductionistic proceses intuitive roads that lead to the developmental understanding of the nature of the supefuid. A place in which flatspacetime geometry would allow you to consider properties that ask us to explain what this emergent property might be.

    So, if such supersymmetrical idealization was to exist what was this place to say about what began here, or there, in the expression of our universe? Something had to be created that was new to us in our assessment as "new physics." So what was produced? Where did this avenue and funnel allow such an expression that we would look at the bose nova expressing itself, in a model approach.

    Whirling atoms dance into physics textbooks

    Superconductivity is superfluidity for charged particles instead of atoms. High-temperature superconductivity is not fully understood, but the MIT observations open up opportunities to study the microscopic mechanisms behind this phenomenon.

    "Pairing electrons in the same way as our fermionic atoms would result in room-temperature superconductors," Ketterle explained. "It is a long way to go, but room-temperature superconductors would find many real-world applications, from medical diagnostics to energy transport." Superfluid Fermi gas might also help scientists test ideas about other Fermi systems, like spinning neutron stars and the primordial soup of the early universe.

    Historical Perspective
  • Eric Cornell

  • Carl Wieman

  • Wolfgang Ketterle

  • 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics

  • Neutron star

  • M. Coleman Miller

  • Today and the New Physics

    So now that you see that this process is a interesting one, it is necessary to see how such comparative views on a cosmological scale could have been ever immersed in the microperspective.

    This has been my attempt at bringing the place for persepctve into line so that such "new physics" woud have captured the layman's mind. Found the seed bed for new maths, to have created a visionary world that could have arisen from this point on the brane, that such circles, had a greater meaning then one could have ever realized.

    What was happening outside of our colliders that we could speak to what was happening inside of the colliders? This is amazing story, as we now see that events happening with high energy particles, have made themself known in our immediate envirnment to have said what can exist here now in such weak field manifestations, that we had graduated from the normal gravity wave perception GR lead us from, and sent us too?

    Many Holes?

    So now that a cosmological event has captured our mind, the big bang taken us to the first microseconds of our universe, the supersymmetrical view realized, what say we see the possiblility in those new bubbles that arise from Dirac's Sea?

    Each hole while existing within the frame work of a supefluid state madeit possible for us to realize that such expressions would have happen at such micro levels that we had been thinking about how we send our measures to such levels? The new physics is what had been strange to our normal way of thinking and now?

    It would have been my hope that bringing five different people together in the Cosmic Variance scheme of things, would have created the perfect group, as to bringing persepctive and varied opinion together in perception into the family and said how nice that these different perspectives were really one aspect of the whole picture?