Pages

Showing posts with label Quark Confinement. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Quark Confinement. Show all posts

Friday, November 15, 2013

Energy Flow Without Impedance

It has always been of interest to me how one could get energy to flow quite freely without it succumb too the impurities that may have blocked that flow. I mean the correlation in my mind and being the layman that I am, could in itself demonstrate how my noise provided for the ability of someone not to seeing,  so as to just bungle up the message.

The development of superconductors that could be used in real-world applications, particularly power transmission, could transform the U.S. energy landscape. In addition to huge cost-savings, the higher capacity enabled by superconducting cables would help overcome urban power bottlenecks in today’s power grid, reducing the potential for blackouts and other power interruptions. It would also improve the cost-effective control of power flowing across the national grid and extend the operating life of existing high-load power lines. Furthermore, zero-loss transmission would enable the transfer of solar energy generated in parts of the U.S. where sunlight is most abundant to those where it is not, thus making other energy-saving technologies more practical and affordable. Complex Materials Unusual properties may lead to new superconductors

So I paragraph more those whose words who are not mine to see how the issues around that flow may be considered.. I must say a blog spot piece from Scientific American had got me thinking.



Photo Credit: “Superconducting wires by epitaxial grown on SSIFFS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory” taken on July 29, 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy
 Photo Friday: Superconducting wires for long-distance electricity transmission By Melissa C. Lott

So to me I am always looking for processes that make energy flow in such a way, as to be correlated in the cosmos. I am looking for ways that energy can travel through and be described as cosmic particle collisions and subsequent, cosmic spallations that demonstrate the list of the ways in which this energy is being accounted for.

So it is important that the views we may of held in regard to how we see energy leak into unaccountability  had its day,  so as to see the current status of what is no longer counted as the missing energy any more.

Later studies and the investigation of much larger data samples have concluded that the event could not be ascribed to new physics but rather to some odd coincidence of detector effects and rare, but known, standard model processes. The Event From Another World
So what is left for me is this nagging feeling about what is explained as processes we do not quite understand and what we have always herald it as some inexplicable description of an unknown process. Herein,  it still remains a mystery and if you can move forward and make clearer the understanding of these processes in particle examinations then how much clear the impedance that such a mystery brings to our examination of the science behind these energy flows?

Of course these are materialistic version of ones grasp of the realities of things in the objective sense, but there is always more we can correlate in mind that we would have found such processes as similar in their expressions? So yes analogies also have to be most certainly clear as to those demonstrations as well.

Monday, October 22, 2012

Professor Graham Ross: Quarks and gluons


Professor Graham Ross from the University of Oxford, winner of the 2012 Dirac Medal awarded by the Institute of Physics for his work in developing the standard model of particles and forces that has led to many new insights into the origins and nature of the universe.  See: Gold Metal Winners

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

The Belle B Factory Experiment

Existing standard hadrons and exotic hadrons. At the B Factory experiment, a series of new exotic mesons containing charm quarks (c) have been discovered. Unlike these exotic mesons, the newly discovered Zb particles contain bottom quarks (b) and have an electric charge. If only one bottom quark and one anti-bottom quark ( b ) are contained, the resulting particle is electrically neutral. Thus, the Zb must also contain at least two more quarks (e.g., one up quark (u) and one anti-down quark ( d )).



The Belle B Factory experiment, which began in 1999 with the aim of elucidating the origin of particle-anti-particle symmetry breaking (CP violation), has contributed to the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2008 awarded to Drs. Kobayashi and Maskawa. Moreover, data obtained from electron--positron collisions with the world's highest luminosity achieved at the KEKB accelerator have resulted in a series of unexpected discoveries of exotic hadrons, opening a new research frontier in particle physics. Data taking at the Belle Experiment has already been completed, but a vast amount of data is still awaiting detailed analysis. Moreover, an upgraded version of the KEKB/Belle Experiment, called SuperKEKB/Belle II is currently being prepared. Belle II aims to collect 50 times more data than the earlier experiment......... See: Belle Discovers New Heavy 'Exotic Hadrons'
Also See:

 ***

The Belle experiment is a particle physics experiment conducted by the Belle Collaboration, an international collaboration of more than 400 physicists and engineers investigating CP-violation effects at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

The Belle detector, located at the collision point of the ee+ asymmetric-energy collider (KEKB), is a multilayer particle detector. Its large solid angle coverage, vertex location with precision on the order of tens of micrometres (provided by a silicon vertex detector), good pionkaon separation at the momenta range from 100 MeV/c till few GeV/c (provided by a novel Cherenkov detector), and few-percent precision electromagnetic calorimetry (CsI(Tl) scintillating crystals) allow for many other scientific searches apart from CP-violation. Extensive studies of rare decays, searches for exotic particles and precision measurements of B mesons, D mesons, and tau particles have been carried out and have resulted in almost 300 publications in physics journals.

Highlights of the Belle experiment so far include

  • the first observation of CP-violation outside of the kaon system (2001)
  • observation of: B \to K^* l^+ l^- and b \to s l^+ l^-
  • measurement of ϕ3 using the B \to D K, D \to K_S \pi^+ \pi^- Dalitz plot
  • measurement of the CKM quark mixing matrix elements | Vub | and | Vcb |
  • observation of direct CP-violation in B^0 \to \pi^+ \pi^- and B^0 \to K^- \pi^+
  • observation of b \to d transitions
  • evidence for B \to \tau \nu
  • observations of a number of new particles including the X(3872)

The Belle experiment operated at the KEKB accelerator, the world's highest luminosity machine. The instantaneous luminosity exceeded 2.11×1034 cm−2·s−1. The integrated luminosity collected at the ?(4S) resonance mass is ~710 fb−1 (corresponds to 771 million BB meson pairs). Most data is recorded on the ?(4S) resonance, which decays to pairs of B mesons. About 10% of the data is recorded below the ?(4S) resonance in order to study backgrounds. In addition, Belle has carried out special short runs at the ?(5S) resonance to study B
s
mesons
as well as on the ?(3S) resonance to search for evidence of Dark Matter and the Higgs Boson.

The Belle II B-factory, an upgraded facility with two orders of magnitude more luminosity, has been approved in June 2010.[1] The design and construction work is ongoing.

 See also

 External links

 References

  1. ^ KEK press release

Thursday, November 10, 2011

Asymptotic freedom

 Witten: One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist's suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics.

***
In physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes interactions between particles to become arbitrarily weak at energy scales that become arbitrarily large, or, equivalently, at length scales that become arbitrarily small (at the shortest distances).

Asymptotic freedom is a feature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory of the nuclear interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental constituents of nuclear matter. Quarks interact weakly at high energies, allowing perturbative calculations by DGLAP of cross sections in deep inelastic processes of particle physics; and strongly at low energies, preventing the unbinding of baryons (like protons or neutrons with three quarks) or mesons (like pions with two quarks), the composite particles of nuclear matter.

Asymptotic freedom was discovered by Frank Wilczek, David Gross, and David Politzer who in 2004 shared the Nobel Prize in physics.

***


Bag Model of Quark Confinement

In dealing with the nature of quark confinement, one visualization is that of an elastic bag which allows the quarks to move freely around, as long as you don't try to pull them further apart. But if you try to pull a quark out, the bag stretches and resists.

***

Robert Laughlin:The true origin of these rules is the tendancy of natural systems to organize themselves according to collective principles. Many phenomena in nature are like pointillist paintings. Observing the fine details yields nothing but meaningless fact. To correctly understand the painting one must step back and view it as a whole. In this situation a huge number of imperfect details can add up to larger entities of great perfection. We call this effect in the physical world emergence.

Article linked in quote is only a snapshot now?  But links work to specific pages. Maybe you will find appropriate quote?:) So it is nice to see the memory of things if if you try to erase them.

Friday, November 04, 2011

Jet Manifestation: A World Unto Itself.

The Landscape Again and again....

***

(September 20, 2010) Leonard Susskind gives a lecture on the string theory and particle physics. He is a world renown theoretical physicist and uses graphs to help demonstrate the theories he is presenting.

String theory (with its close relative, M-theory) is the basis for the most ambitious theories of the physical world. It has profoundly influenced our understanding of gravity, cosmology, and particle physics. In this course we will develop the basic theoretical and mathematical ideas, including the string-theoretic origin of gravity, the theory of extra dimensions of space, the connection between strings and black holes, the "landscape" of string theory, and the holographic principle.

This course was originally presented in Stanford's Continuing Studies program.

Stanford University:
http://www.stanford.edu/

Stanford Continuing Studies Program:
http://csp.stanford.edu/

Stanford University Channel on YouTube:
http://www.youtube.com/stanford

 Playlist

***
Quarks, gluons and anti-quarks are the constituents of protons, neutrons and (by definition) other hadrons.  It is a fascinating aspect of the physics of our world that when one of these particles is kicked out of the hadron that contains it, flying out with high motion-energy, it is never observed macroscopically. Instead, a high-energy quark (or gluon or anti-quark) is transformed into a spray of hadrons [particles made from quarks, antiquarks and gluons].  This spray is called a “jet.” [Note this statement applies to the five lighter flavors of quark, and not the top quark, which decays to a W particle and a bottom quark before a jet can form.] See: Jets: The Manifestation of Quarks and Gluons

***

See Also:

Thursday, November 18, 2010

QGP Research Advances

“We can say that the system definitely flows like a liquid,” says Harris.


One of the first lead-ion collisions in the LHC as recorded by the ATLAS experiment on November 8, 2010. Image courtesy CERN.

***
Scientists from the ALICE experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider have publicly revealed the first measurements from the world’s highest energy heavy-ion collisions. In two papers posted today to the arXiv.org website, the collaboration describes two characteristics of the collisions: the number of particles produced from the most head-on collisions; and, for more glancing blows, the flow of the system of two colliding nuclei.
Both measurements serve to rule out some theories about how the universe behaves at its most fundamental, despite being based on a relatively small number of collisions collected in the first few days of LHC running with lead-ion beams.
In the first measurement, scientists counted the charged particles that were produced from a few thousand of the most central lead-ion collisions—those where the lead nuclei hit each other head-on. The result showed that about 18,000 particles are produced from collisions of lead ions, which is about 2.2 times more particles than produced in similar collisions of gold ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
See: ALICE experiment announces first results from LHC’s lead-ion collisions

Sunday, January 18, 2009

The Pringles Potato Chip

....a higher dimensional version of the Pringle's potato chip. Brian Greene, The Fabric of the Cosmos, pg 483, Para 2, line 29


Again I try remind good scientists that I have nothing to offer other then trying to keep pace with their thinking, and to find myself in world's of abstraction that I really find interesting. Of course, their metaphors too.

You see for me there are interesting correlations of thought that wake me up to the understanding of such abstract thinking, and what purposes it serves. I quote the Pringle Potato Chip to spell out the earlier realization of Maldacena, as well, the idea I have about, the Birth of Approximation. I was trying to tangle with such thoughts in a cosmological sense and here they speak to it in mathematical illustrations.

***


IN their figure 2. Hyperbolic space, and their comparative relation to the M.C.Escher's Circle Limit woodcut, Klebanov and Maldacena write, " but we have replaced Escher's interlocking fish with cows to remind readers of the physics joke about the spherical cow as an idealization of a real one. In anti-de Sitter/conformal theory correspondence, theorists have really found a hyperbolic cow."

Click on image for larger version. See:Solving quantum field theories via curved spacetimes by Igor R. Klebanov and Juan M. Maldacena

Thank you, too "Just Learning" andDavid Berenstein for the information about the article above.

***


See Also:
  • Spherical Cows and their X-ray Sources and related links in article
  • Friday, January 19, 2007

    No Extra Dimensions Yet?

    Turning back to gravity, the extra-dimensions model stems from theoretical research into (mem)brane theories, the multidimensional successors to string theories (April 1999 p13). One remarkable property of these models is that they show that it is quite natural and consistent for electromagnetism, the weak force and the inter-quark force to be confined to a brane while gravity acts in a larger number of spatial dimensions.
    The requirement of correctly reproducing Newton's constant, G, at long distances leads to the size of the extra dimensions in which gravity is free to act being related to the number of extra dimensions.



    New physics experience might reveal more dimensions in the Universe than meets the eyeSee Here

    Amazing isn't it that EOT-WASH GROUP would consider themselves as challenging the experimental basis of string theory thinking. If one did not see into the nature of that "dynamical world" what value would have ever been reached if there was no separation in the value of the "r distance?" No "varying energy valuation" in the strong force.


    Fig. 1. In quantum chromodynamics, a confining flux tube forms between distant static charges. This leads to quark confinement - the potential energy between (in this case) a quark and an antiquark increases linearly with the distance between them.See Here.

    If a "Q to Q" measure is considered and a "active consideration evident" in this exchange of a "r value," then why would they think the gravitational considerations would not have ever made sense in the distances of extra dimensions of 44 micrometres or larger?

    By increasing this distance, the gravitational considerations are very important in terms of the energy valuation given as the "q to q" is moved apart. The energy is directly relate to the gravitational considerations?


    Image: EOT-WASH GROUP, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

    Discovering extra dimensions with the relatively huge size of a few micrometers would offer spectacular confirmation for string theory, the still unproved body of equations that may unify gravity with the normally incompatible realm of quantum physics. "Even though we haven't seen anything, these results put boundaries on what people can legitimately propose," says experimental physicist and study author Eric Adelberger of the University of Washington. "Testing the inverse square law [meaning Newton's law of gravity] is the bombproof way to look for extra dimensions.
    "


    some physicists proposed that string theory might cause gravity to grow stronger at such distances if the universe came with relatively big extra dimensions of micrometers in width......Sundrum says that if extra dimensions failed to turn up at that distance, it would likely prune off that branch of string theory.

    Tuesday, January 16, 2007

    Newton's inverse-square (1/r2) law

    The standard model of particle physics is a self-contained picture of fundamental particles and their interactions. Physicists, on a journey from solid matter to quarks and gluons, via atoms and nuclear matter, may have reached the foundation level of fields and particles. But have we reached bedrock, or is there something deeper? Savas Dimopoulos


    While in the post previous to this I gave some indication of the gravity from the cosmological point of view, I then took it down to the particle collisions. I again reiterate this, in this post as well.


    Source-detector configuration for the 1-m 1/r2 test
    Newton's inverse-square (1/r2) law is a cornerstone of General Relativity. However, this law has been challenged by many modern theories of gravity and particle physics. The supergravity and unified field theories often run into a new short-range force, with an accompanying new particle, which should appear as a violation of the 1/r2 law. More recently, a possible violation of the 1/r2 law in the range below 1 mm was suggested by string theories with extra dimensions.



    Gravity: Another Example of a 1/R2 Law
    Two masses at a given distance place equal and opposite forces of attraction on one another. The magnitude of this force of attraction is given by:




    where G is the universal gravitation constant (6.67 X 10-11 Nm2/kg2), m1 is the mass of the first object in kilograms, m2 is the mass of the second object in kilograms, and r is the distance between the centers of the two masses, in meters.


    It is not without thinking here that what you thought of the "microstate blackhole," could have found it's relevance in the temperatures reached, when seen at this level?


    Fig. 1. In quantum chromodynamics, a confining flux tube forms between distant static charges. This leads to quark confinement - the potential energy between (in this case) a quark and an antiquark increases linearly with the distance between them.
    The ideal experimental test of this new feature of QCD would be to study the flux tube of figure 1 directly by anchoring a quark and antiquark several femtometres apart and examining the flux tube between them. In such ideal circumstances, one of the characteristics of the gluonic flux tube would be the model-independent spectrum shown in figure 2. The excitation energy is p/r because the flux tube's mass is entirely due to its stored energy. There are two initially excited longest wavelength vibrations with identical energies because the motion of the flux tube is in the two symmetrical dimensions perpendicular to its length.


    You ever hear of the term, "you can't hit the broad side of a barn?" WEll lets think about this when it comes to the measures of femtometres and such. Classically old, it was not witout some direction in thinking that one could be taken down to certain measures for those same considerations. Barn Yard?

    Origin of the (classified) barn

    In the luminosity lexicon, a picobarn is one trillionth (10-12) of a barn, and a femtobarn is one quadrillionth (10-15) of a barn... but what's a barn? The distinctive and amusing term originated with two Purdue University physicists working on the Manhattan Project in 1942—and it was classified information by the US government until after World War II.

    A History of Physics at Purdue (Gartenhaus, Tubis, Cassidy, and Bray) cites the July 1972 issue of Physics Today in which Marshall Halloway and Charles Baker write of tossing around ideas over dinner until arriving at "barn" to describe the typical nuclear cross section of 10-24 cm2, the effective target area that a nuclear particle represents in a collision. Dining in the Purdue Memorial Union, back in Lafayette, Indiana, Halloway and Baker dismissed "Oppenheimer" and "Bethe" as candidates, then considered John Manley, director of the Purdue group at Los Alamos. They decided "Manley" was too long, and then, as the authors put it in the Physics Today article to:


    So here we are looking at what the EOT-WASH GROUP is doing? What is "compactification" in line with any thinking, that the world around us from a cosmological point of view is large(large circle), and that amidst it's reality, exists this finer world of particulars that "we'd only imagine" while the measures to it's finest(small circle) was produce and then energies assigned.

    It would be as if you looked at the cosmos and never thought about it constituents "bits and pieces," which make up those cosmological processes. Yet, for me, "circles within circles" would have made me wonder which circle represented which part of the views at any one time, whilst we speak about these energies from one perspective to the next.

    Savas Dimopoulos:At close encounter the particles can exchange gravitons via the two extra dimensions, which changes the force law at very short distances. Instead of the "Newtonian inverse square law" you’ll have an inverse fourth power law. This signature is being looked for in the ongoing experiments.


    .....and more here for how perspectve can change once you give a direction in which to think about.

    Savas Dimopoulos:At first we faced denial. We had deliberately used the word "sub-millimeter" in our first paper. Physicists were surprised, to say the least, that such a thing was not already excluded experimentally. I remember a stage in 1998 when colleagues wondered if we had not forgotten some crucial experiment. We were not discouraged. No! We gave talks on the ideas, and by July 1998 had analyzed the laboratory and cosmological constraints. That paper marked a sea-change in opinion: physicists began to think this was an interesting idea. By the fall of 1998 we were showing how to do real physics. Now several study groups are taking us very seriously: the high citation rates speak for themselves.
    Personally I am not surprised by the reaction. Revolutionary ideas go through a cycle: denial, followed by "okay it is consistent but can you do anything with it?" and finally, once you show how to do real physics, you may get the third phase where many physicists become interested in the field. The same thing happened to me and Giorgi back in 1981 when we first proposed the supersymmetric extension of the standard model of particle physics. Initially there were the usual skeptics but now it is completely accepted.
    Oddly, for me, the major competitor to these proposals for extra dimensions is the supersymmetry extension. But let's recall some of the disadvantages of the standard model. First, it shuts out gravity. Second, it has 18 free parameters, many of them very small. Third, the vacuum energy is 120 orders of magnitude larger than what you would naively guess from the standard model.
    Proposing extra dimensions to space is a drastic step. But once you have the extra space you can attribute the smallness of some quantities to the statement that their origin is somewhere far away inside space, just as an astronomer might attribute the faintness of a galaxy to its large distance. For example, maybe the smallness of the electron mass arises because its origin is far away inside the extra dimensions.
    My view is that both of the big ideas I have worked on are testable in the next decade by LHC. The two frameworks have complementary features. I'm greatly looking forward to the outcome


    Make sure you look at the "compactification" label to the right index

    Thursday, February 23, 2006

    History of the Universe and the Standard Model

    Who would of thought the history of the universe could have ever been contained in this one moment? While it had been translated to 13.7 billions years, what is the value of recognizing this vast history, to what is contained in that one specific moment held in context of the collisions, we have in the colliders? What takes place between high energy particles, and what this process helps us to understand, as we see neutrino effects, talked about in ICECUBE.



    So while we ponder this momenet in time, some things became apparnet as one reads words retro spect, that help to clarify what had been going on in my mind, while never really undertanding that what had been transpiring in my thinking, had been more or less, described from another perspectve as well.

    I talked about "correlation of cognition," becuase it is important that we understnd intuitive development. That we build confidence in ourselves, as we move through the informtaion and see that what we had been learning, had taken us to another level of comprehension, as if, having digested the model in question, whatever that may be.


    Fig. 1. In quantum chromodynamics, a confining flux tube forms between distant static charges. This leads to quark confinement - the potential energy between (in this case) a quark and an antiquark increases linearly with the distance between them.



    The Four Fundamental Forces

    Electromagnetism causes like-charged objects to repel each other and oppositely charged objects to attract each other. The electromagnetic force binds negative electrons to the positive nuclei in atoms and underlies the interactions between atoms. Its force carrier particle is a photon.

    The strong force binds quarks together. While the electromagnetic force works to repel the positively charged protons in the nucleus of an atom, the strong force is stronger and overrides these effects. The particle that carries the strong force is called a gluon, so-named because it so tightly "glues" quarks together into larger particles like protons and neutrons. The strong force is also responsible for binding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus.

    Gravity is the phenomenon by which massive bodies, such as planets and stars, are attracted to one another. The warps and curves in the fabric of space and time are a result of how these massive objects influence one another through gravity. Any object with mass exerts a gravitational pull on any other object with mass. You don't fly off Earth's surface because Earth has a gravitational pull on you. Gravity is thought to be carried by the graviton, though so far no one has found evidence for its existence.

    The weak force is responsible for different types of particle decays, including a process called beta decay. This can occur when an atom's nucleus contains too many protons or too many neutrons -- a neutron that turns into a proton undergoes beta minus decay; a proton that changes into a neutron experiences beta plus decay. This weak force is mediated by the electri- cally charged W- and W+ force carrier particles and the neutral Z0 force carrier particle.




    Reductionistic Views

    Part of this discription is important from the understanding, that how we see, and talk about things that we do in let's say Q<-->Q measure and distance, have some relation to what we are talking about and discribing in collision states. So this entry here helps to this degree, to maintain some cohesion and understanding, while differences in model and experimental conceptions are explored.


    Cosmic Rays


    Conservatively the idealization, is the progression from the understanding of Unifying forces, and progression to conceptual understanding found and revealled in the world of natural processes. Who would have ever thought that platonic forms could have been capture in the mind of a Gellman, while a Feynman help to introduce us to the interactions?

    Fig. 1. The four forces (or interactions) of Nature, their force carrying particles and the phenomena or particles affected by them. The three interactions that govern the microcosmos are all much stronger than gravity and have been unified through the Standard Model
    .


    This is what I like to do. Summations while they be ill time to a better comprehension demanded, I found this a wonderfiul idealization in moving intuitively perception to a clearer understanding, as I looked at ICECUBE. All that I am encountering through exploration of principles embued in experimental observations, according to what "new" physics might be revealled.

    While the experimental situation has been set up( who determine what experiments would be challenged?) All the worker bees ready to do their parts. How well had they understood this process, to potentially reveal a better insight into what will come next?

    There had to be evidence of your theoretical positions in nature.

    Would you be so hesitant to just sit and wait, while the opportunity exists for you to unite these experimental procedures? Into a pciture of a complete scenario, as you understood it in nature. How energy of the particle collisons within our environ and the resulting particle dissipation, revealled as the neutrino base experiment given to signs as what?

    So what is this unifying concept, that we could see the strong force, to the weak being explained, while we had paid attention and witness to many things going on with earth, as an observatory, in it's completeness?

    At this moment then the division and valuation of experimental cross sectioning of fundamental forces( experiments respectively), would have been placement of "all aspects of the unifying forces" as it's measure. That we could have correlated across the map, all aspects united in some unique translation, as LIGO, or Pierre Auger, or Collider experiments, along with Ice CUbe, paints a extremely interesting picture for us.

    What "new math" will be borne in the minds with "new concepts and models" to bring analogy into context as natures way?

    See:

  • Mathematical Enlightenment
  • Wednesday, December 28, 2005

    Laval Nozzle and the Blackhole

    Often times model changes help perspective, where previously idealization will be contained. Moving beyond the experimental grasp for new ways in which to interpret, require a mode and offensive into producing new variations of ole thngs held in context? Ths is why such models like string that began in one mode in terms of quark confinement have now bloossomed into modes cocnerned with quantum gravity.



    Discovering new dimensions at LHC

    More dramatically still, the LHC could produce fundamental string relations of our familiar particles, such as higher-spin relatives of electrons or photons. There is also a possibility that, owing to the now much stronger gravitational interactions, microscopically tiny black holes could be produced with striking signals.


    Once idealization and understanding developed in quark Confinement, it is understood the shift to the metric and the idealization of that measure became a property I found in the way we now deal with the perceptions containing dimensional significance? Strng Theory, that had graduade from the model apprehensions early on, here to a more fundamental pursuate of how we see in those extra dimensions, compact as they may be?

    Acoustic Metric (29 Dec 2005 Wiki)

    In mathematical physics, a metric (mathematics) describes the arrangement of relative distances within a surface or volume, usually measured by signals passing through the region – essentially describing the intrinsic geometry of the region. An acoustic metric will describe the signal-carrying properties characteristic of a given particulate medium in acoustics, or in fluid dynamics. Other descriptive names such as sonic metric are also sometimes used, interchangeably.

    Since "acoustic" behaviour is intuitively familiar from everyday experience, many complex "acoustic" effects can be confidently described without recourse to advanced mathematics. The rest of this article contrasts the "everyday" properties of an acoustic metric with the more intensely studied and better-documented "gravitational" behaviour of general relativity


    On the Universality of the Hawking Effectby William G. Unruh and Ralf Schutzhold

    Addressing the question of whether the Hawking effect depends on degrees of freedom at ultra-high (e.g., Planckian) energies/momenta, we propose three rather general conditions on these degrees of freedom under which the Hawking effect is reproduced to lowest order. As a generalization of Corley’s results, we present a rather general model based on non-linear dispersion relations satisfying these conditions together with a derivation of the Hawking effect for that model. However, we also demonstrate counter-examples, which do not appear to be unphysical or artificial, displaying strong deviations from Hawking’s result. Therefore, whether real black holes emit Hawking radiation remains an open question and could give non-trivial information about Planckian physics.


    It is important that when thinking about this universality that the derivations of such thinking is understood by me so I ahve to lay it out in a sequence that suports the end part of this post so that it is brought togher in a nice way. I bold mark thos epoints that help greatly in my understanding.

    Acoustic_theory(28 Dec 2005 Wiki)

    Acoustic theory is the field relating to mathematical description of sound waves. It is derived from fluid dynamics. See acoustics for the engineering approach.

    The propagation of sound waves in air can be modeled by an equation of motion (conservation of momentum) and an equation of continuity (conservation of mass). With some simplifications, in particular constant density, they can be given as follows:


    where is the acoustic pressure and is the acoustic fluid velocity vector, is the vector of spatial coordinates x,y,z, t is the time, ρ0 is the static density of air and c is the speed of sound in air.



    Fluid Dynamics (28 Dec 2005 Wiki)

    Fluid dynamics offers a mathematical structure, which underlies these practical discipines, that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws, derived from flow measurement, used to solve practical problems. The solution of a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating for various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as functions of space and time


    So these ideas in terms of analogies help to push forarwd understanding where we might have been limited in our views before. I know, they certainly help me.

    "Analogue Gravity"
    by Carlos Barceló and Stefano Liberati and Matt Visser

    Abstract

    Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).


    and here......


    Parentani showed that the effects of the fluctuations of the metric (due to the in-going flux of energy at the horizon) on the out-going radiation led to a description of Hawking radiation similar to that obtained with analogue models. It would be interesting to develop the equivalent formalism for quantum analogue models and to investigate the different emerging approximate regimes.


    I am always interested in how science might take these analogies in concert with how we understand blackhole horizon abilites. To exemplify the understanding of where "this place of virtual reality might issue from such a ground state" might be, in terms of what might flow one way, and what will flow in another, as photon pairs do from around the blackhole.

    How far can this be taken as we look to understand Hawking radiation? How would such constrictions pave the way for sound emitted and held in context of Hawking Radiation, flowing through a pipe? We've had our lessons from Cosmic Variance on this, but would it have ever been taken this far?

    Well, I still like to think about the gravitational comparisons here, so I would be very happy to have found some geometrical propensities towards how the horizon would have given us a good picture of what "first principle" might be as we look at the nature of hawking radiation, and how the standard model is featured from that horizon. So of course I am thinking deeply about all the things I have been learning.

    I hope one day a comprehensive picture forms so that I can finally understand what is going on?

    Further "Analogy" sought by me to help my perspective.

  • Bubble World and Geometrodynamics

  • Tiny Bubbles
  • Monday, August 22, 2005

    What Lies Beneath

    The Bottom up approach?

    R.B.Laughlin:
    The paper by Senthil et al. [9] is an attempt to address this issue mathematically. It deals specifically with a suspicion many of us have had that quark confinement, one of the most cherished features of the standard model, may be a collective effect that emerges at a phase transition and thus not fundamental at all. The paper is complicated, an unfortunate side effect of the difficulty of the task, for it is not generally possible to deduce emergent phenomena from first principles. The best one can do is postulate them and then demonstrate plausibility by showing that small corrections get smaller as the measurement scale increases. Such convoluted arguments are ripe with opportunities for mistakes, regardless of how careful the authors have been, so the test of emergent universality that counts is always experimental. This, in turn, forces the theory to address not quark confinement itself but an allegory of it one might hope to test in a table-top experiment. The logic is maddeningly indirect, but unfortunately the only approach that is legitimately scientific.



    Fig. 1. In quantum chromodynamics, a confining flux tube forms between distant static charges. This leads to quark confinement - the potential energy between (in this case) a quark and an antiquark increases linearly with the distance between them.



    In the Q<->Q measure, the understanding of this distance in the metric was understandable?


    Now this is March of 2000.


    What Lies Beneath?



    Still as a layman, such general talks need better clarification? If you set the stage from planck length, then how indeed does LQG arise here?

    Here's another view.

    Witten:One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist's suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics.

    http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/kitp25/witten/oh/10.html

    Robert Laughlin:The true origin of these rules is the tendancy of natural systems to organize themselves according to collective principles. Many phenomena in nature are like pointillist paintings. Observing the fine details yields nothing but meaningless fact. To cor rectly understand the painting one must step back and view it as a whole. In this situation a huge number of imperfect details can add up to larger entities of great perfection. We call this effect in the physical world emergence.

    http://large.stanford.edu/rbl/lectures/index.htm

    Thursday, June 30, 2005

    String Connection?

    The possibility of a connection between string theory and RHIC collisions is unexpected and exhilarating,” Dr. Orbach said. “String theory seeks to unify the two great intellectual achievements of twentieth-century physics, general relativity and quantum mechanics, and it may well have a profound impact on the physics of the twenty-first century.”


    In this narrow class of theories, the hot plasma in the 4D theory corresponds to a black hole in the 10D equivalent description, which matches very well with Stephen Hawking's prediction that black holes have temperature. Moreover, there is a direct relationship between vibrations in the plasma, such as sound waves, and vibrations of the black-hole horizon. For example, when an object is dropped into the black hole in 10D, the equivalent picture in 4D is a hot, expanding region that dissolves into a plasma. Using this equivalence, various theorists, including the present author, have deduced that if such plasmas were real, they would be almost perfect liquids.

    Since Maldacena's conjecture does not apply to QCD, however, the viscosity of the real quark-gluon plasma cannot be computed via string theory. This makes the RHIC announcement that the viscosity of its plasma is comparable to the values one finds from string-theory calculations even more surprising. If this is true, the quark-gluon plasma created at RHIC could be the most perfect fluid in nature. This in itself is an interesting fact, but it could also indicate that string theory has some relation to real QCD. However, we first need more quantitative evidence from RHIC, such as an upper bound on the viscosity.


    Blackholes at RHIC


    A statement from RHIC theoretical nuclear physicist Dmitri Kharzeev:


    Alice



    The existence of such a phase and its properties are key issues in QCD for the understanding of confinement and of chiral-symmetry restoration. For this purpose, we intend to carry out a comprehensive study of the hadrons, electrons, muons and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Alice will also study proton-proton collisions both as a comparison with lead-lead collisions in physics areas where Alice is competitive with other LHC experiments

    Friday, December 03, 2004

    Inverse Fourth Power Law

    By moving our perceptions to fifth dimenisonal views of Kaluza and KLein, I looked at methods that would help me explain that strange mathematical world that I had been lead too geometrically. If such a bulk existed, then how would we percieve scalable features of the energy distributed within the cosmo?

    The angular movements needed to signal the presence of additional dimensions are incredibly small — just a millionth of a degree. In February, Adelberger and Heckel reported that they could find no evidence for extra dimensions over length scales down to 0.2 millimetres (ref. 11). But the quest goes on. The researchers are now designing an improved instrument to probe the existence of extra dimensions below 0.1 mm. Other physicists, such as John Price of the University of Colorado and Aharon Kapitulnik of Stanford University in California, are attempting to measure the gravitational influence on small test masses of tiny oscillating levers.


    In previous posts I have outline the emergence and understanding of hyperdimensional realities that we were lead too. Our early forbearers(scientifically and artistic embued with vision) as they moved through the geometrical tendencies, that if followed , made me wonder about that this strange mathematical world. How would we describe it, and how would it make sense?


    Our new picture is that the 3-D world is embedded in extra dimensions," says Savas Dimopoulos of Stanford University. "This gives us a totally new perspective for addressing theoretical and experimental problems.


    Quantitative studies of future experiments to be carried out by LHC show that any signatures of missing energy can be used to probe the nature of gravity at small distances. The predicted effects could be accessible to the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab, but the higher energy LHC has the better chance.
    These colliders are still under construction, but results also have consequences for "table-top" experiments, being carried out here at Stanford, as well as the University of Washington and the University of Colorado. Here’s the basic idea: imagine there are two extra dimensions on a scale of a millimeter. Next, take two massive particles separated by a meter, at which distance they obviously behave according to the well-known rules of 3-D space. But if you bring them very close, say closer than one millimeter, they become sensitive to the amount of extra space around. At close encounter the particles can exchange gravitons via the two extra dimensions, which changes the force law at very short distances. Instead of the Newtonian inverse square law you’ll have an inverse fourth power law. This signature is being looked for in the ongoing experiments
    .


    As you look at the issue of two points(introduction to hyperdimensional realites of quark confinement as a example), it is well understood, by this point that such emergence had to be geometriclaly consistent on many levels. That such royal roads leading too, culminate in some realistic measure? In that mathematical realm, we had left off, and in recognition of the fifth postulate of euclid. By acceptance and creation of this extra dimension, it was well apparent, that such tendencies were developing along side with the physics as well.

    But we had to determine where this mathematical realm had taken us, in terms of measure? We are quckly reminded of the place in which such measures become the constant rallying point around important questions of these views.



    Physics at this high energy scale describes the universe as it existed during the first moments of the Big Bang. These high energy scales are completely beyond the range which can be created in the particle accelerators we currently have (or will have in the foreseeable future.) Most of the physical theories that we use to understand the universe that we live in also break down at the Planck scale. However, string theory shows unique promise in being able to describe the physics of the Planck scale and the Big Bang.

    It wasn't a game anymore, that we did not suspect that reductionism might have taken us as far as the energy we could produce could take us? So we had to realize there was limitations to what we could percieve at such microscopic levels.

    High energy particles have extremely small wavelengths and can probe subatomic distances: high energy particle accelerators serve as supermicroscopes:

    To see What?

    The structure of matter

    (atoms/nuclei/nucleons/quarks)


    Faced by these limitations and newly founded conceptual views based on the quantum mechanical discription of spacetime as strings, how would we be able to look at the cosmos with such expectancy? To know, that the views energetically described, would allow further developement of the theoretcial positons now faced with in those same reductionistic views?

    What has happened as a result of considering the GR perspective of blackholes, that we had now assigned it relevance of views in cosmological considerations? Such joining of quantum mechanical views and GR, lead us to consider the sigificance of these same events on a cosmological scale. This view, had to be consistent, geometrically lead too?

    If we discover the Planck scale near the TeV scale, this will represent the most profound discovery in physics in a century, and black hole production will be the most spectacular evidence of that new discovery

    Wednesday, December 01, 2004

    Mapping Quark Confinement and The Energy

    As I moved through the thinking of those extra dimensions it became apparent to me that the conceptualization of that distance scale was a strange world indeed. How, if we had accept the move to non-euclidean views could we not of accepted the consequences of this move?




    Dazzled with the amazing properties of this new mathematical realm, everything seemed a bit magical, as if, experiencing for the first time a taste that is strange indeed? How would I recognize this strange dynamical world, if I had not understood this move to include the geometry that Kaluza and Klien adopted, to gather together another reality of photon engagement with that of gravity?



    Fig. 1. In quantum chromodynamics, a confining flux tube forms between distant static charges. This leads to quark confinement - the potential energy between (in this case) a quark and an antiquark increases linearly with the distance between them.

    So at the same time you had this distant measure, how could we resolve what was happening between those two points?

    Without some supersymmetrical reality(supergravity) how could any point emerge from the brane if it did not recognize the evolution of those dimensions?



    So how does this point expand? This is a simple enough question?

    A theorem which is valid for a geometry in this sequence is automatically valid for the ones that follow. The theorems of projective geometry are automatically valid theorems of Euclidean geometry. We say that topological geometry is more abstract than projective geometry which is turn is more abstract than Euclidean geometry.

    In the above picture Michael Duff draws our attention too, I was drawn to the same principals that Klein demonstrated in his ideas of projective geometry, as the dimensions are revealed?

    IN this effort and recognition of appropriate geometry, I had wondered, that if the same consistancy with which these two had demonstrated the principals, euclidean
    postulates fell in line, as a basis of this method of applicabilty? Does one now see this thread that runs through the geometry?

    Having accepted the road travelled to GR we have come to recognize the royal road has lead us to a strange world indeed. First it was Reimann with Gauss looking over his shoulder, and Maxwell joining Faraday in this celebration, with Einstein bringing all the happy go lucky, into a fine example of what has been implied by the harmonious nature, structure of strings in concert?



    But I am not happy yet. If one could not see what was happening between those two points, what's the use of talking any math, without the co-existance of the physics?


    The distance a particle can travel before reaching its initial position is said to be the size of the dimension. This, in fact, also gives rise to quantization of charge, as waves directed along a finite axis can only occupy discrete frequencies. (This occurs because electromagnetism is a U(1) symmetry theory and U(1) is simply the group of rotations around a circle).