Schultze/Ossiander

Smallest sliver of time yet measured sees electrons fleeing atom: Ultrafast lasers have measured how long electrons take to be booted from a helium atom with zeptosecond precision – trillionths of a billionth of a second
Schultze/Ossiander

Powers of Ten takes us on an adventure in magnitudes. Starting at a picnic by the lakeside in Chicago, this famous film transports us to the outer edges of the universe. Every ten seconds we view the starting point from ten times farther out until our own galaxy is visible only a s a speck of light among many others. Returning to Earth with breathtaking speed, we move inward into the hand of the sleeping picnicker with ten times more magnification every ten seconds. Our journey ends inside a proton of a carbon atom within a DNA molecule in a white blood cell. POWERS OF TEN © 1977 EAMES OFFICE LLC (Available at www.eamesoffice.com)See Also: Astronomy Picture of the Day
Powers of Ten Blog 
Figure 0.1 Snapshots of the Universe at a selection of length scales from the smallest to the largest scale. 
If not fundamental, though, quark nuggets zipping around the galaxy would still be an amazing addition. And perhaps even more amazing, in the end, than any technically strange  or just generally bizarre  particles burrowing through the ground would be the fact that the planet is no longer just a block of dumb rock in their path. It is an ever better wired planet, monitored and thought about in ever more ingenious ways; it is a datasphere ever more sensitive to its surroundings and its own processes, from flashes in the upper atmosphere to rumblings in the core. We have made it a planet that notices things. We have made it an observant Earth.
Strangelets are small fragments of strange matter. They only exist if the "strange matter hypothesis" is correct, in which case they are the true ground state of matter, and nuclei are actually metastable states with a very long lifetime.
"For in 1938, I showed the presence in primary cosmic rays of particles of a million Gigavolts  a million times more energetic than accelerators of that day could produce. Even now, when accelerators have far surpassed the Gigavolt mark, they still have not attained the energy of 1020eV, the highest observed energy for cosmic rays. Thus, cosmic rays have not been dethroned as far as energy goes, and the study of cosmic rays has a bright future, if only to learn where these particles come from and how they are accelerated. You know that Fermi made a very interesting proposal that particles are progressively accelerated by bouncing off moving magnetic fields, gaining a little energy each time. In this way, given a certain number of "kicks," one could perhaps account for particles of 1018  1020 electron volts. As yet, however, we have no good theory to explain the production of the veryhighenergy particles that make the air showers that my students and I discovered in 1938 at Jean Perrin's laboratory on a ridge of the Jungfrau."
 Pierre Auger, Journal de Physique, 43, 12, 1982
This summer, CERN gave the starting signal for the longdistance neutrino race to Italy. The CNGS facility (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso), embedded in the laboratory's accelerator complex, produced its first neutrino beam. For the first time, billions of neutrinos were sent through the Earth's crust to the Gran Sasso laboratory, 732 kilometres away in Italy, a journey at almost the speed of light which they completed in less than 2.5 milliseconds. The OPERA experiment at the Gran Sasso laboratory was then commissioned, recording the first neutrino tracks.
The Pythagoreans were called mathematikoi, which means "those that study all"
In mathematics, a power of two is any of the nonnegative integer powers of the number two; in other words, two multiplied by itself a certain number of times. Note that one is a power (the zeroth power) of two. Written in binary, a power of two always has the form 10000...0, just like a power of ten in the decimal system.
Because two is the base of the binary system, powers of two are important to computer science. Specifically, two to the power of n is the number of ways the bits in a binary integer of length n can be arranged, and thus numbers that are one less than a power of two denote the upper bounds of integers in binary computers (one less because 0, not 1, is used as the lower bound). As a consequence, numbers of this form show up frequently in computer software. As an example, a video game running on an 8bit system, might limit the score or the number of items the player can hold to 255 — the result of a byte, which is 8 bits long, being used to store the number, giving a maximum value of 28−1 = 255.
In mathematics, a Mersenne number is a number that is one less than a power of two.
Mn = 2n − 1.
A Mersenne prime is a Mersenne number that is a prime number. It is necessary for n to be prime for 2n − 1 to be prime, but the converse is not true. Many mathematicians prefer the definition that n has to be a prime number.
For example, 31 = 25 − 1, and 5 is a prime number, so 31 is a Mersenne number; and 31 is also a Mersenne prime because it is a prime number. But the Mersenne number 2047 = 211 − 1 is not a prime because it is divisible by 89 and 23. And 24 1 = 15 can be shown to be composite because 4 is not prime.
Throughout modern times, the largest known prime number has very often been a Mersenne prime. Most sources restrict the term Mersenne number to where n is prime, as all Mersenne primes must be of this form as seen below.
Mersenne primes have a close connection to perfect numbers, which are numbers equal to the sum of their proper divisors. Historically, the study of Mersenne primes was motivated by this connection; in the 4th century BC Euclid demonstrated that if M is a Mersenne prime then M(M+1)/2 is a perfect number. In the 18th century, Leonhard Euler proved that all even perfect numbers have this form. No odd perfect numbers are known, and it is suspected that none exist (any that do have to belong to a significant number of special forms).
It is currently unknown whether there is an infinite number of Mersenne primes.
The binary representation of 2n − 1 is n repetitions of the digit 1, making it a base2 repunit. For example, 25 − 1 = 11111 in binary
Distances shorter than 1 Âµm 1 micrometre (micron)
Items with lengths between 110 Âµm (microns)
1.55 Âµm — wavelength of light used in optical fibre
6 Âµm — anthrax spore
68 Âµm — diameter of a human red blood cell
7 Âµm — diameter of the nucleus of typical eukaryotic cell
7 Âµm — width of strand of spider web
110 Âµm — diameter of typical bacterium
about 10 Âµm — size of a fog, mist or cloud water droplet
Kandinsky, himself an accomplished musician, once said Color is the keyboard, the eyes are the harmonies, the soul is the piano with many strings. The artist is the hand that plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul. The concept that color and musical harmony are linked has a long history, intriguing scientists such as Sir Isaac Newton. Kandinsky used color in a highly theoretical way associating tone with timbre (the sound's character), hue with pitch, and saturation with the volume of sound. He even claimed that when he saw color he heard music.
Tone color is also often used as a synonym. People who experience synesthesia may see certain colors when they hear particular instruments. Helmholtz used the German Klangfarbe (tone color), and Tyndall proposed its English translation, clangtint. But both terms were disapproved of by Alexander Ellis who also discredits register and color for their preexisting English meanings (Erickson 1975, p.7).
Sometimes we might need visual aids. So, I thought I would add this in relation to the question, on how would we see these dimensions, if we accept the gravitons in the bulk? Aug 7, 2004 3:46 pm
But nothing afflicted Marcellus so much as the death of Archimedes, who was then, as fate would have it, intent upon working out some problem by a diagram, and having fixed his mind alike and his eyes upon the subject of his speculation, he never noticed the incursion of the Romans, nor that the city was taken. In this transport of study and contemplation, a soldier, unexpectedly coming up to him, commanded him to follow to Marcellus; which he declining to do before he had worked out his problem to a demonstration, the soldier, enraged, drew his sword and ran him through. Others write that a Roman soldier, running upon him with a drawn sword, offered to kill him; and that Archimedes, looking back, earnestly besought him to hold his hand a little while, that he might not leave what he was then at work upon inconclusive and imperfect; but the soldier, nothing moved by his entreaty, instantly killed him. Others again relate that, as Archimedes was carrying to Marcellus mathematical instruments, dials, spheres, and angles, by which the magnitude of the sun might be measured to the sight, some soldiers seeing him, and thinking that he carried gold in a vessel, slew him. Certain it is that his death was very afflicting to Marcellus; and that Marcellus ever after regarded him that killed him as a murderer; and that he sought for his kindred and honored them with signal favors.
Many physical quantities span vast ranges of magnitude. Figures 0.1 and 0.2 use images to indicate the range of lengths and times that are of importance in physics.
Archimedes met an untimely death while deep in thought, pondering a figure he had drawn in the sand. He did not see the Roman soldier approach, sword in hand. The mosaic portrays this historical event
A space is a collection of entities called points. Both terms are undefined but their relation is important: space is superordinate while point is subordinate. Our everyday notion of a point is that it is a position or location in a space that contains all the possible locations. Since everything doesn't happen in exactly the same place, we live in what can rightly be called a space, but points need not be pointlike. Any kind of object can be a point. Other geometric objects, for instance, are totally acceptable (lines, planes, circles, ellipses, conic sections) as are algebraic entities (functions, variables, parameters, coefficients) or physical measurements (time, speed, temperature, index of refraction). Even socalled "real" things can be points in a space: people are points in the space of a nation's population, nations are points in the global political space, and telephones are points in the space of a telecommunications network.
According to the basic laws of physics, every wavelength of electromagnetic radiation corresponds to a specific amount of energy. The NIST/ILL team determined the value for energy in the Einstein equation, E = mc2, by carefully measuring the wavelength of gamma rays emitted by silicon and sulfur atoms.
Everyone knows that human societies organize themselves. But it is also true that nature organizes itself, and that the principles by which it does this is what modern science, and especially modern physics, is all about. The purpose of my talk today is to explain this idea.
Many physical quantities span vast ranges of magnitude. Figures 0.1 and 0.2 use images to indicate the range of lengths and times that are of importance in physics.
The theorem has been known in many cultures, by many names, for many years. Pythagoras, for whom the theorem is named, lived in ancient Greece, 2500 years ago. It is believed that he learned the theorem during his studies in Egypt. The Egyptians probably knew of the relationship for a thousand years before Pythagoras. The Egyptians knew of this relationship for a triangle with sides in the ratio of 3  4  5".
COMPUTING is about to hit a problem. In each new generation the components are smaller than they were in its predecessor, and the speed at which this miniaturisation is happening means that within 15 years or so a fundamental limit will be reached. At that point, not only will the strange effects of quantum mechanics hold sway, the components themselves will be on the scale of atoms and no further sizereduction will be possible. Which is why scientists and engineers are seeking new ways of building computers.
One route they are exploring, which was discussed at a meeting held recently at the Royal Society in London, is called quantum computing. Instead of trying to overcome quantum weirdness, this technique embraces and exploits it. The thing that distinguishes a quantum computer from the sort in use today is the number of calculations it can do in parallel. Both sorts of computer use binary arithmetic, but they do so in rather different ways. A classical computer employs bits—binary digits, either zero or one—to process and store information. But a bit must be one or the other; it cannot be both at the same time. A quantum computer does not suffer from this restriction.
Tabula rasa >(Latin: "scraped tablet", though often translated "blank slate") is the notion that individual human beings are born "blank" (with no builtin mental content), and that their identity is defined entirely by events after birth.
The basic entanglement process of two quantum systems can be considered as an elementary function for quantum information processing, a "quantum gate". A lot of attention has been devoted in the last years to the realization and characterization of quantum gates, either in NMR, ion traps or cavity QED experiments.
The symbol is formed from the almondshaped area in the overlap between the circles, as shown in black in the diagram — for certain purposes also including the upper arcs as far as the edges of a rectangle whose sides coincide with the widest points of the almond (as shown in light blue in the diagram). The resulting figure looks like a stylized fish, or in the extended version like a flattened Greek letter alpha.
Having revealed where I stand, I invite you to examine and assess Newlands' work on the subject. This selection includes four short papers of Newlands and a report of another paper which show him struggling toward and eventually formulating the system he dubbed the "law of octaves
In computer science, tabula rasa refers to the development of autonomous agents which are provided with a mechanism to reason and plan toward their goal, but no "builtin" knowledgebase of their environment. They are thus truly a "blank slate".
In reality autonomous agents are provided with an initial dataset or knowledgebase, but this should not be immutable or it will hamper autonomy and heuristic ability. Even if the dataset is empty, it can usually be argued that there is an inbuilt bias in the reasoning and planning mechanisms. Either intentionally or unintentionally placed there by the human designer, it thus negates the true spirit of tabula rasa.
Generally people now recognise the fact that most of the brain is indeed preprogrammed and organised in order to process sensory input, motor control, emotions and natural responses. These preprogrammed parts of the brain then learn and refine their ability to perform their tasks. The only true clean slate in the brain is the neocortex. This part of the brain is involved in thought and decision making and is strongly linked with the amygdala. The amygdala is involved in responses such as fight or flight and emotions and like other parts of the brain is largely "preprogrammed", but has space to learn within its "programming". The amygdala is important in that it has a strong influence over the neocortex. There is much debate as to whether the amygdala prevents the neocortex from being defined as a clean slate.
Controversially the amygdala is different from person to person. However, it only affects emotions and not intelligence. Another controversial element is in the differing size of the neocortex.
An equation means nothing to me unless it expresses a thought of God.Srinivasa Ramanujan
Last year the big "science event" was measuring the cosmic microwave background and dating the big bang to 13.8 billion years ago, within an 8 to 10 percent margin of error. Can you give us some idea of the boundaries of the big bang  what was it like in the first seconds, and how far will the universe expand in the future?
You played yourselftwicein the movie, "Frequency". The movie is about a father communicating from 1969 with his son in the present on a ham radio, due to an unusual atmospheric aurora that bounces radio signals across time, not just space. You played Brian Greene being interviewed by Dick Cavett as both a younger and older man. Any reflections on either the interesting premise of the movie, or the adventures of being on the big screen?
Time is far more subtle than our everyday experience would lead us to believe. In many ways, time may simply be a psychological construct for organizing the world. It is a device we scientists have found useful, but it may in fact be a dim approximation of something far more complex."
Many physical quantities span vast ranges of magnitude. Figures 0.1 and 0.2 use images to indicate the range of lengths and times that are of importance in physics.
Below is a snapshot of a computation I was working on earlier this summer.(There's no wrong answer here. )
While later life provides ample time to have a look at what mathematicains are doing, it is equally nice to understand these relations with the normal world? Is there “theoretically” such a thing?:)
I think so and such relevance in relation to the toy models of feynman diagrams, are these not readily available for introspection among such a blackboard as this?
These are not distractions from trying to understand physics, but are the tools needed to make that understanding possible. It is only through using mathematics that a secure understanding can be achieved. When you see an equation, welcome its concision and clarity and try to ‘read’ the equation just as you would the large number of words it replaces. Learn to get beneath the squiggles and the equals sign and to understand the quantitative assertion that is being made.