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Showing posts with label Polytopes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Polytopes. Show all posts

Thursday, July 17, 2008

13th Sphere of the GreenGrocer

I suppose you are two fathoms deep in mathematics,
and if you are, then God help you, for so am I,
only with this difference,
I stick fast in the mud at the bottom and there I shall remain.

-Charles Darwin


How nice that one would think that, "like Aristotle" Darwin held to what "nature holds around us," that we say that Darwin is indeed grounded. But, that is a whole lot of water to contend with, while the ascent to land becomes the species that can contend with it's emotive stability, and moves the intellect to the open air. One's evolution is hard to understand in this context, and maybe hard for those to understand the math constructs in dialect that arises from such mud.

For me this journey has a blazon image on my mind. I would not say I am a extremely religious type, yet to see the image of a man who steps outside the boat of the troubled apostles, I think this lesson all to well for me in my continued journey on this earth to become better at what is ancient in it's descriptions, while looking at the schematics of our arrangements.


How far back we trace the idea behind such a problem and Kepler Conjecture is speaking about cannon balls. Tom Hales writes,"Nearly four hundred years ago, Kepler asserted that no packing of congruent spheres can have a density greater than the density of the face-centered cubic packing."

Kissing number problem
In three dimensions the answer is not so clear. It is easy to arrange 12 spheres so that each touches a central sphere, but there is a lot of space left over, and it is not obvious that there is no way to pack in a 13th sphere. (In fact, there is so much extra space that any two of the 12 outer spheres can exchange places through a continuous movement without any of the outer spheres losing contact with the center one.) This was the subject of a famous disagreement between mathematicians Isaac Newton and David Gregory. Newton thought that the limit was 12, and Gregory that a 13th could fit. The question was not resolved until 1874; Newton was correct.[1] In four dimensions, it was known for some time that the answer is either 24 or 25. It is easy to produce a packing of 24 spheres around a central sphere (one can place the spheres at the vertices of a suitably scaled 24-cell centered at the origin). As in the three-dimensional case, there is a lot of space left over—even more, in fact, than for n = 3—so the situation was even less clear. Finally, in 2003, Oleg Musin proved the kissing number for n = 4 to be 24, using a subtle trick.[2]

The kissing number in n dimensions is unknown for n > 4, except for n = 8 (240), and n = 24 (196,560).[3][4] The results in these dimensions stem from the existence of highly symmetrical lattices: the E8 lattice and the Leech lattice. In fact, the only way to arrange spheres in these dimensions with the above kissing numbers is to center them at the minimal vectors in these lattices. There is no space whatsoever for any additional balls.


So what is the glue that binds all these spheres in in the complexities that they are arrange in the dimensions and all that we shall have describe gravity along with the very nature of the particle that describe the reality and makeup that we have been dissecting with the collision process?

As with good teachers, and "exceptional ideas" they are those who gather, as if an Einstein crosses the room, and for those well equipped, we like to know what this energy is. What is it that describes the nature of such arrangements, that we look to what energy and mass has to say about it's very makeup and relations. A crystal in it's molecular arrangement?

Look's like grapefruit to me, and not oranges?:)

Symmetry's physical dimension by Stephen Maxfield

Each orange (sphere) in the first layer of such a stack is surrounded by six others to form a hexagonal, honeycomb lattice, while the second layer is built by placing the spheres above the “hollows” in the first layer. The third layer can be placed either directly above the first (producing a hexagonal close-packed lattice structure) or offset by one hollow (producing a face-centred cubic lattice). In both cases, 74% of the total volume of the stack is filled — and Hales showed that this density cannot be bettered.....

In the optimal packing arrangement, each sphere is touched by 12 others positioned around it. Newton suspected that this “kissing number” of 12 is the maximum possible in 3D, yet it was not until 1874 that mathematicians proved him right. This is because such a proof must take into account all possible arrangements of spheres, not just regular ones, and for centuries people thought that the extra space or “slop” in the 3D arrangement might allow a 13th sphere to be squeezed in. For similar reasons, Hales’ proof of greengrocers’ everyday experience is so complex that even now the referees are only 99% sure that it is correct....

Each sphere in the E8 lattice is surrounded by 240 others in a tight, slop-free arrangement — solving both the optimal-packing and kissing-number problems in 8D. Moreover, the centres of the spheres mark the vertices of an 8D solid called the E8 or “Gosset” polytope, which is named after the British mathematician Thorold Gosset who discovered it in 1900.


Coxeter–Dynkin diagram

The following article is indeed abstract to me in it's visualizations, just as the kaleidescope is. The expression of anyone of those spheres(an idea is related) in how information is distributed and aligned. At some point in the generation of this new idea we have succeeded in in a desired result, and some would have "this element of nature" explained as some result in the LHC?



A while ago I related Mendeleev's table of elements, as an association, and thought what better way to describe this new theory by implementing "new elements" never seen before, to an acceptance of the new 22 new particles to be described in a new process? There is an "inherent curve" that arises out of Riemann's primes, that might look like a "fingerprint" to some. Shall we relate "the sieves" to such spaces?

At some point, "this information" becomes an example of a "higher form "realized by it's very constituents and acceptance, "as a result."

Math Will Rock Your World by Neal Goldman

By the time you're reading these words, this very article will exist as a line in Goldman's polytope. And that raises a fundamental question: If long articles full of twists and turns can be reduced to a mathematical essence, what's next? Our businesses -- and, yes, ourselves.

Tuesday, February 12, 2008

Theoretical Excellence

Although Aristotle in general had a more empirical and experimental attitude than Plato, modern science did not come into its own until Plato's Pythagorean confidence in the mathematical nature of the world returned with Kepler, Galileo, and Newton. For instance, Aristotle, relying on a theory of opposites that is now only of historical interest, rejected Plato's attempt to match the Platonic Solids with the elements -- while Plato's expectations are realized in mineralogy and crystallography, where the Platonic Solids occur naturally.Plato and Aristotle, Up and Down-Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.


This is the first introduction then that is very important to me about what is perceived as a mathematical framework. So it is not such an effort to think about our world and think hmmmm.... a mathematical abstract of our reality is there to be discovered. I first noticed this attribute in Pascal's triangle.

Nineteenth Century Geometry by Roberto Torretti

The sudden shrinking of Euclidean geometry to a subspecies of the vast family of mathematical theories of space shattered some illusions and prompted important changes in our the philosophical conception of human knowledge. Thus, for instance, after these nineteenth-century developments, philosophers who dream of a completely certain knowledge of right and wrong secured by logical inference from self-evident principles can no longer propose Euclidean geometry as an instance in which a similar goal has proved attainable. The present article reviews the aspects of nineteenth century geometry that are of major interest for philosophy and hints in passing, at their philosophical significance.


While I looked further into the world of Pythagorean developments I wondered how such an abstract could have ever lead to the world of non-euclidean geometries. There is this progression of the geometries that needed to be understood. It included so many people that we only now acknowledge the greatest names but it is in the exploration of "theoretical excellence" that we gain access to the spirituality's of the mathematical world.

"I’m a Platonist — a follower of Plato — who believes that one didn’t invent these sorts of things, that one discovers them. In a sense, all these mathematical facts are right there waiting to be discovered."Donald (H. S. M.) Coxeter


While some would wonder what value this exploration into such mathematical abstracts, how could we describe for ourselves the ways things would appear at such levels microscopically reduced, has an elemental quality to it? Yes, I have gone to one extreme, and understand, it included so many different mathematics, how could we ever understand this effort and assign it's rightful place in history? Theoretics then, is this effort?

How Strange the elements of our world?


The crystalline state is the simplest known example of a quantum , a stable state of matter whose generic low-energy properties are determined by a higher organizing principle and nothing else. Robert Laughlin




This illustration depicts eight of the allotropes (different molecular configurations) that pure carbon can take:

a) Diamond
b) Graphite
c) Lonsdaleite
d) Buckminsterfullerene (C60)
e) C540
f) C70
g) Amorphous carbon
h) single-walled carbon nanotube


Review of experiments

Graphite exhibits elastic behaviour and even improves its mechanical strength up to the temperature of about 2500 K. Measured changes in ultrasonic velocity in graphite after high temperature creep shows marked plasticity at temperatures above 2200 K [16]. From the standpoint of thermodynamics, melting is a phase transition of the first kind, with an abrupt enthalpy change constituting the heat of melting. Therefore, any experimental proof of melting is associated with direct recording of the temperature dependence of enthalpy in the neighbourhood of a melting point. Pulsed heating of carbon materials was studied experimentally by transient electrical resistance and arc discharge techniques, in millisecond and microsecond time regime (see, e.g., [17, 18]), and by pulsed laser heating, in microsecond, nanosecond and picosecond time regime (see, e.g., [11, 19, 20]). Both kind of experiments recorded significant changes in the material properties (density, electrical and thermal conductivity, reflectivity, etc. ) within the range 4000-5000 K, interpreted as a phase change to a liquid state. The results of graphite irradiation by lasers suggest [11] that there is at least a small range of temperatures for which liquid carbon can exist at pressure as low as 0.01 GPa. The phase boundaries between graphite and liquid were investigated experimentally and defined fairly well.

Monday, March 19, 2007

Pasquale Del Pezzo and E8 Origination?

"I’m a Platonist — a follower of Plato — who believes that one didn’t invent these sorts of things, that one discovers them. In a sense, all these mathematical facts are right there waiting to be discovered."Donald (H. S. M.) Coxeter


There are two reasons that having mapped E8 is so important. The practical one is that E8 has major applications: mathematical analysis of the most recent versions of string theory and supergravity theories all keep revealing structure based on E8. E8 seems to be part of the structure of our universe.

The other reason is just that the complete mapping of E8 is the largest mathematical structure ever mapped out in full detail by human beings. It takes 60 gigabytes to store the map of E8. If you were to write it out on paper in 6-point print (that's really small print), you'd need a piece of paper bigger than the island of Manhattan. This thing is huge.


Clifford of Asymptotia drew our attention to this for examination and gives further information and links with which to follow.

He goes on to write,"Let’s not get carried away though. Having more data does not mean that you worked harder to get it. Mapping the human genome project involves a much harder task, but the analogy is still a good one, if not taken too far."

Of course since the particular comment of mine was deleted there, and of course I am okay with that. It did not mean I could not carry on here. It did not mean that I was not speaking directly to the way these values in dimensional perspective were not being considered.

Projective Geometries?

A theorem which is valid for a geometry in this sequence is automatically valid for the ones that follow. The theorems of projective geometry are automatically valid theorems of Euclidean geometry. We say that topological geometry is more abstract than projective geometry which is turn is more abstract than Euclidean geometry.


There had to be a route to follow that would lead one to think in such abstract spaces. Of course, one does not want to be divorced from reality. So one should not think that because the geometry of GR is understood, that you think nothing can come from the microseconds after the universe came into expression.

At this point in the development, although geometry provided a common framework for all the forces, there was still no way to complete the unification by combining quantum theory and general relativity. Since quantum theory deals with the very small and general relativity with the very large, many physicists feel that, for all practical purposes, there is no need to attempt such an ultimate unification. Others however disagree, arguing that physicists should never give up on this ultimate search, and for these the hunt for this final unification is the ‘holy grail’. Michael Atiyah


The Holy Grail sure comes up lots doesn't it:) Without invoking the pseudoscience that Peter Woit spoke of. I thought, if they could use Babar, and Alice then I could use the Holy Grail?

See more info on Coxeter here.

Like Peter I will have to address the "gut feelings" and the way Clifford expressed it. I do not want to practise pseudoscience as Peter is about the landscape.:)



When ones sees the constituent properties of that Gossett polytope 421 in all it's colours, the complexity of that situation is quite revealing. Might we not think in the time of supergravity, gravity will become weak, in the matter constitutions that form.

As in Neutrino mixing I am asking you to think of the particles as sound as well as think them in relation to the Colour of Gravity. If you were just to see grvaity in it's colourful design and what value that gravity in face of the photon moving within this gravitational field?

We detect the resulting "wah-wah-wah" in properties of the neutrino that appear and disappear. For example, when neutrinos interact with matter they produce specific kinds of other particles.

For example, when neutrinos interact with matter they produce specific kinds of other particles. Catch the neutrino at one moment, and it will interact to produce an electron. A moment later, it might interact to produce a different particle. "Neutrino mixing" describes the original mixture of waves that produces this oscillation effect.


The "geometry of curvature" had to be implied in the outcome, from that quantum world? Yet at it's centre, what is realized? You had to be lead there in terms of particle research to know that you are arriving at the "crossover point." The superfluid does this for examination.

5. Regular polytope: If you keep pulling the hypercube into higher and higher dimensions you get a polytope. Coxeter is famous for his work on regular polytopes. When they involve coordinates made of complex numbers they are called complex polytopes.

Pasquale Del Pezzo, Duke of Cajanello, (1859–1936), was "the most Neapolitan of Neapolitan Mathematicians".

He was born in Berlin (where his father was a representative of the Neapolitan king) on 2 May 1859. He died in Naples on 20 June 1936. His first wife was the Swedish writer Anne Charlotte Leffler, sister of the great mathematician Gösta Mittag-Leffler (1846-1927).

At the University of Naples, he received first a law degree in 1880 and then in 1882 a math degree. He became a pre-eminent professor at that university, teaching Projective Geometry, and remained at that University, as rector, faculty president, etc.

He was mayor of Naples starting in 1919, and he became a senator in the Kingdom of Naples.

His scientific achievements were few, but they reveal a keen ingenuity. He is remembered particularly for first describing what became known as a Del Pezzo surface. He might have become one of the strongest mathematicians of that time, but he was distracted by politics and other interests.


So what chance do we have, if we did not think this geometry was attached to processes that would unfold into the bucky ball or the fullerene of science. To say that the outcome had a point of view that is not popular. I do not count myself as attached to any intelligent design agenda, so I hope people will think I do not care about that.

NATHAN MYHRVOLD

I found the email debate between Smolin and Susskind to be quite interesting. Unfortunately, it mixes several issues. The Anthropic Principle (AP) gets mixed up with their other agendas. Smolin advocates his CNS, and less explicitly loop quantum gravity. Susskind is an advocate of eternal inflation and string theory. These biases are completely natural, but in the process the purported question of the value of the AP gets somewhat lost in the shuffle. I would have liked more discussion of the AP directly


See here for more information

So all the while you see the complexity of that circle and how long it took a computer to map it, it has gravity in it's design, whether we like to think about it or not?

But of course we are talking about the symmetry and any thing less then this would have been assign a matter state, as if symmetrical breaking would have said, this is the direction you are going is what we have of earth?

Isostatic Adjustment is Why Planets are Round?

While one thinks of "rotational values" then indeed one would have to say not any planets is formed in the way the sun does. Yet, in the "time variable understanding" of the earth, we understand why it's shape is not exactly round.



Do you think the earth and moon look round if your were considering Grace?

On the moon what gives us perspective when a crater is formed to see it's geological structure? It's just not a concern of the mining industry, as to what is mined on other orbs, but what the time variable reveals of the orbs structure as well.



Clementine color ratio composite image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon. This 42 km diameter crater is located on the corner of the Aristarchus plateau, at 24 N, 47 W. Ejecta from the plateau is visible as the blue material at the upper left (northwest), while material excavated from the Oceanus Procellarum area is the reddish color to the lower right (southeast). The colors in this image can be used to ascertain compositional properties of the materials making up the deep strata of these two regions. (Clementine, USGS slide 11)

See more here

Monday, September 11, 2006

Donald Coxeter: The Man Who Saved Geometry

"I’m a Platonist — a follower of Plato — who believes that one didn’t invent these sorts of things, that one discovers them. In a sense, all these mathematical facts are right there waiting to be discovered."Harold Scott Macdonald (H. S. M.) Coxeter


Some would stop those from continuing on, and sharing the world behind the advancements in geometry. I am very glad that I can move from the Salvador Dali image of the crucifixtion, to know, that minds engaged in the "pursuites of ideas" as they may "descend from heaven," may see in a man like Donald Coxeter, the way and means to have ideas enter his mind and explode in sociological functions? Hmmmm. what does that mean?



Geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with points, lines, angles, surfaces and solids. One of Coxeter’s major contributions to geometry was in the area of dimensional analogy, the process of stretching geometrical shapes into higher dimensions. He is also famous for “Coxeter groups,” the inversive distance between two disjoint circles (or spheres).


It is not often we see where our views are shared with other people?

I was doing some reading over at Lubos Motl's blog besides just getting the link for Michio Kaku article, I noticed this one too.

You might think the loss of geometry | like the loss of, say, Latin would pass virtually unnoticed. This is the thing about geometry: we no more notice it than we notice the curve of the earth. To most people, geometry is a grade school memory of fumbling with protractors and memorizing the Pythagorean theorem. Yet geometry is everywhere. Coxeter sees it in honeycombs, sun°owers, froth and sponges. It's in the molecules of our food (the spearmint molecule is the exact geometric reaction of the caraway molecule), and in the computer-designed curves of a Mercedes-Benz. Its loss would be immeasurable, especially to the cognoscenti at the Budapest conference, who forfeit the summer sun for the somnolent glow of an overhead projector. They credit Coxeter with rescuing an art form as important as poetry or opera. Without Coxeter's geometry | as without Mozart's symphonies or Shakespeare's plays | our culture, our understanding of the universe,would be incomplete.


Now you know what fascination I have with the geometries, as they have moved us towards the comprehension of GR and Reimann? Could Einstein have ever succeeded without him?

Michael Atiyah:
At this point in the development, although geometry provided a common framework for all the forces, there was still no way to complete the unification by combining quantum theory and general relativity. Since quantum theory deals with the very small and general relativity with the very large, many physicists feel that, for all practical purposes, there is no need to attempt such an ultimate unification. Others however disagree, arguing that physicists should never give up on this ultimate search, and for these the hunt for this final unification is the ‘holy grail’.


Without stealing the limelight from Donald, I wanted to put the thinking of Michael Atiyah along side of him too. So you understand that those who speak about the "physics" have things underlying this process which help hold them to the very fabric of thinking.

Some do not know of "this geometric process" I speak, where such manifestation arise from the very essence of the thinking soul. If you began to learn about yourself you would know that such abstractions are much closer to the "pure thought" then any would have realized.

Some meditate to get to this essence. Some know, that in having gone through a journey of discovery that they will find the very patterns sealed within each of the souls.

How does it arise? You had to follow this journey through the "muddle maze" of the dreaming mind to know that patterns in you can direct the vision of things according to what you yourself already do inherently.

Now some of you "know," don't you, with regards to what I am saying? I spoke often of "Liminocetric structures" just to help you along, and help you realize that the sociological standing of exchange houses many forms of thinking that we had gained previously. Why as a soul of the "thinking mind" should you loose this part of yourself?

So you begin with the "Platonic Forms" and look for the soccer ball/football? THis process resides at many levels and Dirac was very instrumental in speaking about the basis of the geometer and his vision of things. Along side of course the algebraic way.


(Picture credit: AIP Emilio Sergè Visual Archives)


This is very real, and not so abstract that you may have departed form the real world to say, you have lost touch? Do you think only "in a square box" and cannot percieve anything beyond the "condensive thoughts and model apprehensions" which hold you to your own design?

Maybe? :)

But the world is vast in terms of discovery, that the question of mathematics again draws us back too, was "Mathematics invented or discovered?" So "this premise" as a question formed and with it "the roads" that lead to inquiry?

Al these forms of geometrics leading to question about "Quantum geometry" and how would such a cosmological world reveal to the thinkingmind "the microscopic" as part of the dynamical world of our everyday living?

Only a cynic casts the diversions and illusions to what is real. Because they cannot inherently deal with the "strange language of geometrics" that issues forth in model apprehensions. This is the basis from which Einstein solved the problems of his day.

But the question is what geometrics could ever reside at such a microscopic level?

Friday, October 14, 2005

Art and Science

This is going to be quite the blog entry because as little a response might have been from Clifford's links to artistic imagery and it's relation to science. I definitely have more to say.

So being short of time, the entries within this blog posting will seem disjointed, but believe me it will show a historical significance that one would not have considered had one not seen the relevance of art and it's implications along side of science.

Did Picasso Know About Einstein

Arthur Miller
Miller has since moved away from conventional history of science, having become interested in visual imagery through reading the German-language papers of Einstein, Heisenberg and Schrödinger - "people who were concerned with visualization and visualizability". Philosophy was an integral part of the German school system in the early 1900s, Miller explains, and German school pupils were thoroughly trained in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.


Piece Depicts the Cycle of Birth, Life, and Death-Origin, Identity, and Destiny by Gabriele Veneziano
The Myth of the Beginning of Time

The new willingness to consider what might have happened before the big bang is the latest swing of an intellectual pendulum that has rocked back and forth for millenia. In one form or another, the issue of the ultimate beginning has engaged philosophers and theologians in nearly every culture. It is entwined witha grand set of concerns, one famosly encapsulated in a 1897 painting by Paul Gauguin: D'ou venons? Que sommes-nous? Ou allons-nous?
Scientific America, The Time before Time, May 2004.



Sister Wendy's American Masterpieces":

"This is Gauguin's ultimate masterpiece - if all the Gauguins in the world, except one, were to be evaporated (perish the thought!), this would be the one to preserve. He claimed that he did not think of the long title until the work was finished, but he is known to have been creative with the truth. The picture is so superbly organized into three "scoops" - a circle to right and to left, and a great oval in the center - that I cannot but believe he had his questions in mind from the start. I am often tempted to forget that these are questions, and to think that he is suggesting answers, but there are no answers here; there are three fundamental questions, posed visually.

"On the right (Where do we come from?), we see the baby, and three young women - those who are closest to that eternal mystery. In the center, Gauguin meditates on what we are. Here are two women, talking about destiny (or so he described them), a man looking puzzled and half-aggressive, and in the middle, a youth plucking the fruit of experience. This has nothing to do, I feel sure, with the Garden of Eden; it is humanity's innocent and natural desire to live and to search for more life. A child eats the fruit, overlooked by the remote presence of an idol - emblem of our need for the spiritual. There are women (one mysteriously curled up into a shell), and there are animals with whom we share the world: a goat, a cat, and kittens. In the final section (Where are we going?), a beautiful young woman broods, and an old woman prepares to die. Her pallor and gray hair tell us so, but the message is underscored by the presence of a strange white bird. I once described it as "a mutated puffin," and I do not think I can do better. It is Gauguin's symbol of the afterlife, of the unknown (just as the dog, on the far right, is his symbol of himself).

"All this is set in a paradise of tropical beauty: the Tahiti of sunlight, freedom, and color that Gauguin left everything to find. A little river runs through the woods, and behind it is a great slash of brilliant blue sea, with the misty mountains of another island rising beyond Gauguin wanted to make it absolutely clear that this picture was his testament. He seems to have concocted a story that, being ill and unappreciated (that part was true enough), he determined on suicide - the great refusal. He wrote to a friend, describing his journey into the mountains with arsenic. Then he found himself still alive, and returned to paint more masterworks. It is sad that so great an artist felt he needed to manufacture a ploy to get people to appreciate his work. I wish he could see us now, looking with awe at this supreme painting.
"


Art Mirrors Physics Mirrors Art, by Stephen G. Brush


Arthur Miller addresses an important question: What was the connection, if any, between the simultaneous appearance of modern physics and modern art at the beginning of the 20th century? He has chosen to answer it by investigating in parallel biographies the pioneering works of the leaders of the two fields, Albert Einstein and Pablo Picasso. His brilliant book, Einstein, Picasso, offers the best explanation I have seen for the apparently independent discoveries of cubism and relativity as parts of a larger cultural transformation. He sees both as being focused on the nature of space and on the relation between perception and reality.

The suggestion that some connection exists between cubism and relativity, both of which appeared around 1905, is not new. But it has been made mostly by art critics who saw it as a simple causal connection: Einstein's theory influenced Picasso's painting. This idea failed for lack of plausible evidence. Miller sees the connection as being less direct: both Einstein and Picasso were influenced by the same European culture, in which speculations about four-dimensional geometry and practical problems of synchronizing clocks were widely discussed.

The French mathematician Henri Poincaré provided inspiration for both Einstein and Picasso. Einstein read Poincaré's Science and Hypothesis (French edition 1902, German translation 1904) and discussed it with his friends in Bern. He might also have read Poincaré's 1898 article on the measurement of time, in which the synchronization of clocks was discussed--a topic of professional interest to Einstein as a patent examiner. Picasso learned about Science and Hypothesis indirectly through Maurice Princet, an insurance actuary who explained the new geometry to Picasso and his friends in Paris. At that time there was considerable popular fascination with the idea of a fourth spatial dimension, thought by some to be the home of spirits, conceived by others as an "astral plane" where one can see all sides of an object at once. The British novelist H. G. Wells caused a sensation with his book The Time Machine (1895, French translation in a popular magazine 1898-99), where the fourth dimension was time, not space.


The Search for Extra Dimensions
OR Does Dzero Have Branes?


by Greg Landsberg
Theorists tell us that these extra spatial dimensions, if they exist, are curled up, or "compactified."In the example with the ant, we could imagine rolling the sheet of paper to form a cylinder. If the ant crawled in the direction of curvature, it would eventually come back to the point where it started--an example of a compactified dimension. If the ant crawled in a direction parallel to the length of the cylinder, it would never come back to the same point (assuming a cylinder so long so that the ant never reaches the edge)--an example of a "flat"dimension. According to superstring theory, we live in a universe where our three familiar dimensions of space are "flat,"but there are additional dimensions, curled up so tightly so they have an extremely small radius


Issues with Dimensionality

"Why must art be clinically “realistic?” This Cubist “revolt against perspective” seized the fourth dimension because it touched the third dimension from all possible perspectives. Simply put, Cubist art embraced the fourth dimension. Picasso's paintings are a splendid example, showing a clear rejection of three dimensional perspective, with women's faces viewed simultaneously from several angles. Instead of a single point-of-view, Picasso's paintings show multiple perspectives, as if they were painted by a being from the fourth dimension, able to see all perspectives simultaneously. As art historian Linda Henderson has written, “the fourth dimension and non-Euclidean geometry emerge as among the most important themes unifying much of modern art and theory."

And who could not forget Salvador Dali?

In geometry, the tesseract, or hypercube, is a regular convex polychoron with eight cubical cells. It can be thought of as a 4-dimensional analogue of the cube. Roughly speaking, the tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square.

Generalizations of the cube to dimensions greater than three are called hypercubes or measure polytopes. This article focuses on the 4D hypercube, the tesseract.



So it is interesting nonetheless isn't it that we would find pictures and artists who engaged themselves with seeing in ways that the art seems capable of, while less inclinations on the minds to grasp other opportunities had they had this vision of the artist? They of course, added their flavor as Salvador Dali did in the painting below this paragraph. It recognize the greater value of assigning dimensionality to thinking that leads us even further had we not gone through a revision of a kind to understand the graviton bulk perspective could have so much to do with the figures and realization of what dimensionality means.



So while such lengths had been lead to in what curvature parameters might do to our views of the cosmos, it wasn't to hard to envision the realistic valuation of graviton as group gatherings whose curvature indications change greatly on what we saw of the energy determinations.

Beyond forms

Probability of all events(fifth dimension) vvvvvvvvvvvvv Future-Time vvvvvvvvvvv | vvvvvvvvv | vvvvvvv | vvvvv | vvv | v | <<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>now -------| flash fourth dimension with time | A | AAA | AAAAA | AAAAAAA | AAAAAAAAA | AAAAAAAAAAA | AAAA ___AAAAA | AAAAA/__/|AAAAA____Three dimension AAAAAA|__|/AAAAAA | AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA | | ___ | /__/ brane--------two dimension \ / .(U)1=5th dimension


I hope this helps explain. It certainly got me thinking, drawing it:)

Similarly a hypercube’s shadow cast in the third dimension becomes a cube within a cube and, if rotated in four dimensions, executes motions that would appear impossible to our three-dimensional brains.

So hyperdimenionsal geometry must have found itself describable, having understood that Euclid's postulate leads to the understanding of the fifth. A->B and the field becomes a interesting idea, not only from a number of directions(Inverse Square Law), dimensional understanding of a string, that leads from the fifth dimensional perspective is a point, with a energy value that describes for us the nature of curvature, when extended to a string length(also becomes the point looking at the end, a sphere from a point, and at the same time a cylinder in its length).

In looking at Einsteins fourth dimension of time, the idea of gravity makes its appearance in respect of dimension.

So how is it minds like ours could perceive a fifth dimensional perspective but to have been lead to it. It is not always about points( a discrete perspective)but of the distance in between those points. We have talked about Gauss here before and Riemann.

Who in Their Right Mind?


Penrose's Influence on Escher
During the later half of the 1950’s, Maurits Cornelius Escher received a letter from Lionel and Roger Penrose. This letter consisted of a report by the father and son team that focused on impossible figures. By this time, Escher had begun exploring impossible worlds. He had recently produced the lithograph Belvedere based on the “rib-cube,” an impossible cuboid named by Escher (Teuber 161). However, the letter by the Penroses, which would later appear in the British Journal of Psychology, enlightened Escher to two new impossible objects; the Penrose triangle and the Penrose stairs. With these figures, Escher went on to create further impossible worlds that break the laws of three-dimensional space, mystify one’s mind, and give a window to the artist heart.


Penrose and Quanglement


Order and Chaos, by Escher (lithograph, 1950)

Tuesday, December 28, 2004

The Sound of the Landscape


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK

As you know my name is Plato (The School of Athens by Raphael:)I have lived on for many years now, in the ideas that are presented in the ideas of R Buckminister Fuller, and with the helping hands of dyes, have demonstrated, the basis of these sounds in balloon configuration worth wondering, as simplice's of these higher dimensional realizations.



A Chladni plate consist of a flat sheet of metal, usually circular or square, mounted on a central stalk to a sturdy base. When the plate is oscillating in a particular mode of vibration, the nodes and antinodes set up form a complex but symmetrical pattern over its surface. The positions of these nodes and antinodes can be seen by sprinkling sand upon the plates;


Now you know from the previous post, that I have taken the technical aspects of string theory, and the mathematical formulations, and moved them into a encapsulated state of existance, much as brane theory has done.

I look at this point(3 sphere derivation from euclid point line plane), on the brane and I wonder indeed, how 1R radius of this point becomes a circle. Indeed, we find this "idea" leaving the brane into a bulk manifestation of information, that we little specks on earth look for in signs of, through our large interferometers called LIGO's



John Baez:
Ever make a cube out of paper? You draw six square on the paper in a cross-shaped pattern, cut the whole thing out, and then fold it up.... To do this, we take advantage of the fact that the interior angles of 3 squares don't quite add up to 360 degrees: they only add up to 270 degrees. So if we try to tile the plane with squares in such a way that only 3 meet at each vertex, the pattern naturally "curls up" into the 3rd dimension - and becomes a cube!

The same idea applies to all the other Platonic solids. And we can understand the 4d regular polytopes in the same way!



The Hills of M Theory


The hills are alive with the sound of music
With songs they have sung for a thousand years.
The hills fill my heart with the sound of music
My heart wants to sing every song it hears....


It's a wonder indeed that we could talk about the spacetime fabric and the higher dimensions that settle themselves into cohesive structures(my solids) for our satisfaction? What nodal points, do we have to wonder about when a string vibrates, and one does not have to wonder to much about the measure of the Q<->Q distance, as something more then the metric field resonates for us?

This higher dimensional value seen in this distance would speak loudly to its possiblites of shape, but it is not easily accepted that we find lattice structures could have ever settled themselves into mass configurations of my solids.



Lenny Susskind must be very pround of this landscape interpretation, as it is shown in the picture above. But the question is, if the spacetime fabric is the place where all these higher dimensions will reveal themselves, then what structure would have been defined in this expression from it's orignation, to what we see today?

Alas, I am taken to the principles of," Spacetime in String Theory," by Gary T. Horowitz

If one quantizes a free relativistic (super) string in flat spacetimeone finds a infinite tower of modes of increasing mass. Let us assume the string is closed,i.e., topologically a circle

Monday, November 08, 2004

Tesseract



In geometry, the tesseract, or hypercube, is a regular, convex polychoron with eight cubical cells. It can be thought of as a 4-dimensional analogue of the cube. Roughly speaking the tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square.

Generalizations of the cube to dimensions greater than three are called hypercubes or measure polytopes. This article focuses on the 4D hypercube, the tesseract.

In a square, each vertex has two perpendicular edges incident to it, while a cube has three. A tesseract has four. Canonical coordinates for the vertices of a tesseract centered at the origin are (±1, ±1, ±1, ±1), while the interior of the same consists of all points (x0, x1, x2, x3) with -1 < xi < 1. This structure is not easily imagined but it is possible to project tesseracts into three or two dimensional spaces. Furthermore, projections on the 2D-plane become more instructive by rearranging the positions of the projected vertices. In this fashion, one can obtain pictures that no longer reflect the spatial relationships within the tesseract, but which nicely illustrate the connection structure of the vertices. The following examples are provided:


I would have thought artists like Dali and like Escher tried to develope and expand perspective capabilties of mind? To incorporate as much a "higher understanding" of the solid things, as we expect to understand all things around us?:)

Plato was pointing up for a reason, yet he believed in solid geometrical forms?