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Showing posts with label Orbitals. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Orbitals. Show all posts

Friday, March 30, 2012

Eta Carinae

Preview of a Forthcoming Supernova

At the turn of the 19th century, the binary star system Eta Carinae was faint and undistinguished. In the first decades of the century, it became brighter and brighter, until, by April 1843, it was the second brightest star in the sky, outshone only by Sirius (which is almost a thousand times closer to Earth). In the years that followed, it gradually dimmed again and by the 20th century was totally invisible to the naked eye.

The star has continued to vary in brightness ever since, and while it is once again visible to the naked eye on a dark night, it has never again come close to its peak of 1843.


The larger of the two stars in the Eta Carinae system is a huge and unstable star that is nearing the end of its life, and the event that the 19th century astronomers observed was a stellar near-death experience. Scientists call these outbursts supernova impostor events, because they appear similar to supernovae but stop just short of destroying their star.


Although 19th century astronomers did not have telescopes powerful enough to see the 1843 outburst in detail, its effects can be studied today. The huge clouds of matter thrown out a century and a half ago, known as the Homunculus Nebula, have been a regular target for Hubble since its launch in 1990. This image, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Channel is the most detailed yet, and shows how the material from the star was not thrown out in a uniform manner, but forms a huge dumbbell shape.

Eta Carinae is not only interesting because of its past, but also because of its future. It is one of the closest stars to Earth that is likely to explode in a supernova in the relatively near future (though in astronomical timescales the “near future” could still be a million years away). When it does, expect an impressive view from Earth, far brighter still than its last outburst: SN 2006gy, the brightest supernova ever observed, came from a star of the same type.

This image consists of ultraviolet and visible light images from the High Resolution Channel of Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. The field of view is approximately 30 arcseconds across.

Links

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Quantum state


Probability densities for the electron of a hydrogen atom in different quantum states.(Click on Image)

In physics, a quantum state is a set of mathematical variables that fully describes a quantum system.

***

Is there such a thing, as isometrical relations of orbitals, in cosmological designs? A Classical definition of the Quantum World perhaps?

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

The Nature of Reality

The last major changes to the periodic table was done in the middle of the 20th Century. Glenn Seaborg is given the credit for it. Starting with his discovery of plutonium in 1940, he discovered all the transuranic elements from 94 to 102. He reconfigured the periodic table by placing the actinide series below the lanthanide series. In 1951, Seaborg was awarded the Noble prize in chemistry for his work. Element 106 has been named seaborgium (Sg) in his honor.A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE



How do you attempt to describe it?

 
Photo by Graham Challifour. Reproduced from Critchlow, 1979, p. 132.





"I’m a Platonist — a follower of Plato — who believes that one didn’t invent these sorts of things, that one discovers them. In a sense, all these mathematical facts are right there waiting to be discovered."Harold Scott Macdonald (H. S. M.) Coxeter

In my perspective the Platonic solids were a first attempt at trying to describe reality?

The Body Canvas

***

Over the holiday period I had but a moment to peruse the latest article by Matt Strassler. It's called, " A New Particle at the LHC? Yes, But… " Also Update:LHC: is χb(3P) a new particle?

Holding these thoughts I had a bit of time to think as to how one might go about this other then the ways on which we have particularize the particles of energy collisions that are decay products of the energy involved? I understand what he is saying so the following was sure to follow.



Picture of the 1913 Bohr model of the atom showing the Balmer transition from n=3 to n=2. The electronic orbitals (shown as dashed black circles) are drawn to scale, with 1 inch = 1 Angstrom; note that the radius of the orbital increases quadratically with n. The electron is shown in blue, the nucleus in green, and the photon in red. The frequency ν of the photon can be determined from Planck's constant h and the change in energy ΔE between the two orbitals. For the 3-2 Balmer transition depicted here, the wavelength of the emitted photon is 656 nm.

N category and the Hydrogen spectrum



So many thoughts go through my mind not just of the orbitals or Bohr's model, but of how we might have looked at new elements created to have them classed in Mendeleev's the table of elements. Describing these elemental signatures to have them assigned a space" in between" of those we have already mapped.

 Proceedings of Societies [Report on the Law of Octaves]

Mr. JOHN A. R. NEWLANDS read a paper entitled "The Law of Octaves, and the Causes of Numerical Relations among the Atomic Weights."[41] The author claims the discovery of a law according to which the elements analogous in their properties exhibit peculiar relationships, similar to those subsisting in music between a note and its octave. Starting from the atomic weights on Cannizzarro's [sic] system, the author arranges the known elements in order of succession, beginning with the lowest atomic weight (hydrogen) and ending with thorium (=231.5); placing, however, nickel and cobalt, platinum and iridium, cerium and lanthanum, &c., in positions of absolute equality or in the same line. The fifty-six elements[42] so arranged are said to form the compass of eight octaves, and the author finds that chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine are thus brought into the same line, or occupy corresponding places in his scale. Nitrogen and phosphorus, oxygen and sulphur, &c., are also considered as forming true octaves. The author's supposition will be exemplified in Table II., shown to the meeting, and here subjoined:--




 ***

The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz. The colors show the wave function phase. These are graphs of ψ(x,y,z) functions which depend on the coordinates of one electron. To see the elongated shape of ψ(x,y,z)2 functions that show probability density more directly, see the graphs of d-orbitals below.

Qualitative understanding of shapes

The shapes of atomic orbitals can be understood qualitatively by considering the analogous case of standing waves on a circular drum.[19] To see the analogy, the mean vibrational displacement of each bit of drum membrane from the equilibrium point over many cycles (a measure of average drum membrane velocity and momentum at that point) must be considered relative to that point's distance from the center of the drum head. If this displacement is taken as being analogous to the probability of finding an electron at a given distance from the nucleus, then it will be seen that the many modes of the vibrating disk form patterns that trace the various shapes of atomic orbitals. The basic reason for this correspondence lies in the fact that the distribution of kinetic energy and momentum in a matter-wave is predictive of where the particle associated with the wave will be. That is, the probability of finding an electron at a given place is also a function of the electron's average momentum at that point, since high electron momentum at a given position tends to "localize" the electron in that position, via the properties of electron wave-packets (see the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for details of the mechanism).


This relationship means that certain key features can be observed in both drum membrane modes and atomic orbitals. For example, in all of the modes analogous to s orbitals (the top row in the illustration), it can be seen that the very center of the drum membrane vibrates most strongly, corresponding to the antinode in all s orbitals in an atom. This antinode means the electron is most likely to be at the physical position of the nucleus (which it passes straight through without scattering or striking it), since it is moving (on average) most rapidly at that point, giving it maximal momentum.


A mental "planetary orbit" picture closest to the behavior of electrons in s orbitals, all of which have no angular momentum, might perhaps be that of the path of an atomic-sized black hole, or some other imaginary particle which is able to fall with increasing velocity from space directly through the Earth, without stopping or being affected by any force but gravity, and in this way falls through the core and out the other side in a straight line, and off again into space, while slowing from the backwards gravitational tug. If such a particle were gravitationally bound to the Earth it would not escape, but would pursue a series of passes in which it always slowed at some maximal distance into space, but had its maximal velocity at the Earth's center (this "orbit" would have an orbital eccentricity of 1.0). If such a particle also had a wave nature, it would have the highest probability of being located where its velocity and momentum were highest, which would be at the Earth's core. In addition, rather than be confined to an infinitely narrow "orbit" which is a straight line, it would pass through the Earth from all directions, and not have a preferred one. Thus, a "long exposure" photograph of its motion over a very long period of time, would show a sphere.


In order to be stopped, such a particle would need to interact with the Earth in some way other than gravity. In a similar way, all s electrons have a finite probability of being found inside the nucleus, and this allows s electrons to occasionally participate in strictly nuclear-electron interaction processes, such as electron capture and internal conversion.


Below, a number of drum membrane vibration modes are shown. The analogous wave functions of the hydrogen atom are indicated. A correspondence can be considered where the wave functions of a vibrating drum head are for a two-coordinate system ψ(r,θ) and the wave functions for a vibrating sphere are three-coordinate ψ(r,θ,φ)






    s-type modes
  • Mode u01 (1s orbital)
  • Mode u02 (2s orbital)
  •  
    Mode u03 (3s orbital)
      
    p-type modes
  • Mode u11 (2p orbital)
  • Mode u12 (3p orbital)
  •  
    Mode u13 (4p orbital)
     
    d-type modes
  • Mode u21 (3d orbital)
  • Mode u22 (4d orbital)
  • Mode u23 (5d orbital)

***



So yes understanding that if you had Einstein crossing the room it becomes important to wonder about what gathering capabilities allow such elements to form other then students. You are looking for something specific?


***
String theory isn't just another quantum field theory, another particular finite list of elementary particles with some interactions. It's an intellectually and literally multi-dimensional reservoir of wisdom that has taught us many things of completely new kinds that we couldn't foresee. The Reference Frame: LHC: is a new particle?: LHC: is χb(3P) a new particle?

Saturday, February 24, 2007

NASA's Hubble Telescope Celebrates SN 1987A's 20th Anniversary

A String of 'Cosmic Pearls' Surrounds an Exploding Star-NASA, ESA, P. Challis, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
Twenty years ago, astronomers witnessed one of the brightest stellar explosions in more than 400 years. The titanic supernova, called SN 1987A, blazed with the power of 100 million suns for several months following its discovery on Feb. 23, 1987.

Observations of SN 1987A, made over the past 20 years by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and many other major ground- and space-based telescopes, have significantly changed astronomers' views of how massive stars end their lives. Astronomers credit Hubble's sharp vision with yielding important clues about the massive star's demise.

"The sharp pictures from the Hubble telescope help us ask and answer new questions about Supernova 1987A," said Robert Kirshner, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "In fact, without Hubble we wouldn't even know what to ask."

Kirshner is the lead investigator of an international collaboration to study the doomed star. Studying supernovae like SN 1987A is important because the exploding stars create elements, such as carbon and iron, that make up new stars, galaxies, and even humans. The iron in a person's blood, for example, was manufactured in supernova explosions. SN 1987A ejected 20,000 Earth masses of radioactive iron. The core of the shredded star is now glowing because of radioactive titanium that was cooked up in the explosion.

The star is 163,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It actually blew up about 161,000 B.C., but its light arrived here in 1987.




If you get the chance take a look over at the post "Supernova 1987A" done by Stefan of Backreaction in regards to this issue. It is nice to be able to reflect where one was when such a event took place. Maybe you remember where you were and can comment?

About the event itself I must say it has not triggered any remembrances other then what I choose to reflect on my own life, and that's something different.

What is of interest to be is how these events unfold and what geometrics play within the design of this unfoldment. I do speak on that in various posts.

Kepler's Supernova

Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Now, astronomers using NASA's three Great Observatories are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy.


See here for link to this story.


This combined image -- from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and e Chandra X-ray Observatory -- unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.


By designing the types of satellites we wish to use to measure, we create the image of the events as beautiful pictures of unfoldment within our universe as seen above. Maybe you can see something in "the theory proposed of SN1987a pictures" that will help understand what I mean?

When one is doing mathematical work, there are essentially two different ways of thinking about the subject: the algebraic way, and the geometric way. With the algebraic way, one is all the time writing down equations and following rules of deduction, and interpreting these equations to get more equations. With the geometric way, one is thinking in terms of pictures; pictures which one imagines in space in some way, and one just tries to get a feeling for the relationships between the quantities occurring in those pictures. Now, a good mathematician has to be a master of both ways of those ways of thinking, but even so, he will have a preference for one or the other; I don't think he can avoid it. In my own case, my own preference is especially for the geometrical way. Paul Dirac


This universe has events at a time in space, which allows us to construct this event as as geometrical function. Some of the values seen in the microscopic world have placed an interesting role for me in how I see this relationship of what unfolds within our microperspective views, as to what is on display in our cosmos.

The Bohr model is a primitive model of the hydrogen atom. As a theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics, and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics.


While I appreciate these events in the cosmos I also needed to understand how such microperspective were motivating the geometry within that event, so it is not possible for me not to include the arrangements of the physics of reductionism and not compare it to these motivations that create these beautiful events

Update: It's 9:20 am and I was just over at Quasar9's blog and notice this entry in relation to SN1987a as well.

Wednesday, February 07, 2007

Angels and Demons on a Pinhead

"Observations always involve theory."Edwin Hubble
Curvature Parameters

Of course I had to point to the cosmological understanding that took us to this "geometrical understanding of things that are large." But this is to be short, while I crunch the thoughts of the process to the pinhead. You can follow the "picture links" and learn more on your own time.


Calabi-Yau manifold (3D projection made with Mathematica)-
In either case, gravity acting in the hidden dimensions affects other non-gravitational forces such as electromagnetism. In fact, Kaluza and Klein's early work demonstrated that general relativity with five large dimensions and one small dimension actually predicts the existence of electromagnetism. However, because of the nature of Calabi-Yau manifolds, no new forces appear from the small dimensions, but their shape has a profound effect on how the forces between the strings appear in our four dimensional universe. In principle, therefore, it is possible to deduce the nature of those extra dimensions by requiring consistency with the standard model, but this is not yet a practical possibility. It is also possible to extract information regarding the hidden dimensions by precision tests of gravity, but so far these have only put upper limitations on the size of such hidden dimensions.


How many would have thought that such a micro-perspective could have been ever be taken down to "this level" and found an analogy that is suitable? You needed something more here to consider, yet, I will call it "angel and demons" for those who like the mystery.


Image: courtesy Andrew J. Hanson, Indiana University-A computer-generated rendering of a possible six-dimensional geometry similar to those studied by UW-Madison physicist Gary Shiu.

I will try and spell out what is happening at such a microperspective level. You might wonder, how did such ideas become what is, "the good and evil of the world" is really a part of the dynamics that we see geometrically enhanced, as we delve ever deeper into this mystery of reductionism and such. On how, we may look at cosmology that "is different" with this perspective.

Energy "is" Gravitationally Related

At some point, those considering "all this energy" and the way reduction is assigned to the energy at all levels, what shall any calorimetric pick up as such collision processes seek to define "every contact" as we want to "map the pinhead" accordingly?

Lubos Motl saids that he sees the relation to such dynamical situations as "fruitful research" toward the understanding of the cosmological descriptions implied from such micro states. To have it listed according to a "geometrical perspective" we might be able to assign each universe? Okay! He did not say that exactly, so check into his blog entry for an update.

I'd like to thank Quasar9 for reporting on this as well.

Orbitals



My thoughts have been there toward reductionism's more cosmological counterpart for some time now. So I enjoy, that the views that I have had about the microperspective have indeed been sanctioned at some science level according to the scientist in the know. Yes, I can prove my thoughts here for you, so you know what I mean.


The star Eta Carina is ejecting a pair of huge lobes that form a "propeller" shape. Jet-like structures are emanating from the center (or "waist"), where the star (quite small on this scale) is located.


Now it is indeed a "greater depth of perception" that asks us to delve into the microperspective of string world. How is it the cosmological world can have such similarities, while the story of the Calabi Yau, makes itself a headlight news current in the research of string theory?

The First Few Microseconds, by Michael Riordan and Willaim A. Zajc
During those early moments, matter was an ultrahot, superdense brew of particles called quarks and gluons rushing hither and thither and crashing willy-nilly into one another. A sprinkling of electrons, photons and other light elementary particles seasoned the soup. This mixture had a temperature in the trillions of degrees, more than 100,000 times hotter than the sun's core.


See:
  • Angels and Demons
  • Doppelgänger Favors Oscillate
  • Music of the Spheres
  • A Clear Presence-Friday
  • Saturday, December 30, 2006

    N category and the Hydrogen spectrum


    Picture of the 1913 Bohr model of the atom showing the Balmer transition from n=3 to n=2. The electronic orbitals (shown as dashed black circles) are drawn to scale, with 1 inch = 1 Angstrom; note that the radius of the orbital increases quadratically with n. The electron is shown in blue, the nucleus in green, and the photon in red. The frequency ν of the photon can be determined from Planck's constant h and the change in energy ΔE between the two orbitals. For the 3-2 Balmer transition depicted here, the wavelength of the emitted photon is 656 nm.
    In atomic physics, the Bohr model depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus — similar in structure to the solar system, but with electrostatic forces providing attraction, rather than gravity.

    Introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913, the model's key success was in explaining the Rydberg formula for the spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen; while the Rydberg formula had been known experimentally, it did not gain a theoretical underpinning until the Bohr model was introduced.

    The Bohr model is a primitive model of the hydrogen atom. As a theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics, and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics.


    For one to picture events in the cosmos, it is important that the spectral understanding of the events as they reveal themselves. So you look at these beautiful pictures and information taken from them allow us to see the elemental considerations of let's say the blue giants demise. What was that blue giant made up of in term sof it's elemental structure

    The quantum leaps are explained on the basis of Bohr's theory of atomic structure. From the Lyman series to the Brackett series, it can be seen that the energy applied forces the hydrogen electrons to a higher energy level by a quantum leap. They remain at this level very briefly and, after about 10-8s, they return to their initial or a lower level, emitting the excess energy in the form of photons (once again by a quantum leap).


    Lyman series
    Hydrogen atoms excited to luminescence emit characteristic spectra. On excitation, the electron of the hydrogen atom reaches a higher energy level. In this case, the electron is excited from the base state, with a principal quantum number of n = 1, to a level with a principal quantum number of n = 4. After an average dwell time of only about 10-8s, the electron returns to its initial state, releasing the excess energy in the form of a photon.
    The various transitions result in characteristic spectral lines with frequencies which can be calculated by f=R( 1/n2 - 1/m2 ) R = Rydberg constant.
    The lines of the Lyman series (n = 1) are located in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum. In this example, m can reach values of 2, 3 and 4 in succession.


    Balmer series
    Hydrogen atoms excited to luminescence emit characteristic spectra. On excitation, the electron of the hydrogen atom reaches a higher energy level. In this case, the electron is excited from the base state, with a principal quantum number of n = 1, to a level with a principal quantum number of n = 4. The Balmer series becomes visible if the electron first falls to an excited state with the principal quantum number of n = 2 before returning to its initial state.
    The various transitions result in characteristic spectral lines with frequencies which can be calculated by f=R( 1/n2 - 1/m2 ) R = Rydberg constant.
    The lines of the Balmer series (n = 2) are located in the visible range of the spectrum. In this example, m can reach values of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in succession.


    Paschen series
    Hydrogen atoms excited to luminescence emit characteristic spectra. On excitation, the electron of the hydrogen atom reaches a higher energy level. In this case, the electron is excited from the base state, with a principal quantum number of n = 1, to a level with a principal quantum number of n = 7. The Paschen series becomes visible if the electron first falls to an excited state with the principal quantum number of n = 3 before returning to its initial state.
    The various transitions result in characteristic spectral lines with frequencies which can be calculated by f=R( 1/n2 - 1/m2 ) R = Rydberg constant.
    The lines of the Paschen series (n = 3) are located in the near infrared range of the spectrum. In this example, m can reach values of 4, 5, 6 and 7 in succession.


    Brackett series
    Hydrogen atoms excited to luminescence emit characteristic spectra. On excitation, the electron of the hydrogen atom reaches a higher energy level. In this case, the electron is excited from the base state, with a principal quantum number of n = 1, to a level with a principal quantum number of n = 8. The Brackett series becomes visible if the electron first falls to an excited state with the principal quantum number of n = 4 before returning to its initial state.
    The lines of the Brackett series (n = 4) are located in the infrared range of the spectrum. In this example, m can reach values of 5, 6, 7 and 8 in succession.

    Wednesday, September 20, 2006

    CNO and the Law of Octaves

    "String theory—the hot topic in physics for the past 20 years—is a dead-end, says Smolin, one of the founders of Canada's Perimeter Institute of Theoretical Physics and himself a lapsed string theorist. In fact, he (and others) argue convincingly, string theory isn't even a fully formed theory—it's just a "conjecture."Publisher's Weekly


    As we keep going here let's remeber to keep our eyes open, eh?:)

    Okay just so you know Harmonics "do" color my world.

    The CNO (carbon-nitrogen-oxygen) cycle is one of two fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton-proton chain. While the proton-proton chain is more important in stars the mass of the sun or less, theoretical models show that the CNO cycle is the dominant source of energy in heavier stars. The CNO process was proposed in 1938 by Hans Bethe.


    Whilst I struggle, it is with the recent post it has become clear that the roles of choice in the expression of our universe has met up with the logic of "Anthropic reasoning?"


    NATHAN MYHRVOLD

    I found the email debate between Smolin and Susskind to be quite interesting. Unfortunately, it mixes several issues. The Anthropic Principle (AP) gets mixed up with their other agendas. Smolin advocates his CNS, and less explicitly loop quantum gravity. Susskind is an advocate of eternal inflation and string theory. These biases are completely natural, but in the process the purported question of the value of the AP gets somewhat lost in the shuffle. I would have liked more discussion of the AP directly


    Up to this point this distance was kept because I really did not understand the full scope of what is being implied here, from either of Susskind or Smolin. I do not want to cloud the issue, but by association with either point of view, it seems I am destined to be called archetyphically, one or the other?

    The triple alpha process is highly dependent on carbon-12 having a resonance with the same energy as helium-4 and beryllium-8 and before 1952 no such energy level was known. It was astrophysicist Fred Hoyle who used the fact that carbon-12 is so abundant in the universe (and that our existence depends upon it - the Anthropic Principle), as evidence for the existence of the carbon-12 resonance. Fred suggested the idea to nuclear physicist Willy Fowler, who conceded that it was possible that this energy level had been missed in previous work on carbon-12. After a brief undertaking by his research group, they discovered a resonance near to 7.65 Mev.


    I had always remained at a distance with this topic only to find that I had been expressing parts of it in one way or another by assuming model implications by association. Either with Susskind or Smolin with the debate ongoing.

    Well as Plato ,I am a little different in my assumption based on a model that sees developmental attitiude towards music in ways that we had never considered before? Sound? Or, had thought arose in minds from other sources, whose philsophical based was always hidden in the mysterium of some secret given to mankind on it's journey to remembering who we are.

    So I left stories of the deluge of mankind and the secrets to be maintained in model symbologies, that would remain with us for many a day, without ever lossing it's structure.

    Okay. I've gotten a litlle extreme with PLato's name use, but in developing a heirarcheal thinking of that "ray of creation," I was always more impressed with how one may see the "elemental discernation of reality" in such photonic expressions and spectrum analysis, that matter based defintions were somehow holding the mind to matter based thinking. I did not want to be constricted by this. By emotions either. By mental impediments to clear mind and thinking.

    So by association I have been cast to the archetypal forms and shapes of thinking minds, either on one side or the other? By speaking my mind on the nature of music, that I would quickly be dispelled to crackpottery, by oneside or the other?

    “Superstring theory forms a vast and impressive mathematical framework and makes enormous claims. But where is the experimental evidence? What if your intuition tells you that this elaborate construction, shrouded by the sweet vagueness of quantum mechanics, cannot represent the complete truth? Lee Smolin is keeping his eyes open, asks sharp questions, and offers his delightful insights as a critical insider.” Gerard ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate, University of Utrecht


    Casting Stones

    Hey! If you can apply it to each other, then why not I, or any other, to all of the society of scientists like Peter Woit or a Sean Carroll who belong, that they could on the substance of who drives/speak about the "philosophy of life?" Speak about each other or others that would speak in regards to the concepts(pulled all the way back from "a theory")justifing the new views.

    Baby Universes



    Looking at Smolin's "baby universes" it became evident then that my views on blackholes would indeed serve as the repository of "events," that it would follow in my line of reasoning, to present "new physics." Whilst I did not know, supporting the road taken by Smolin.

    INdeed, I have always had a soft spot for his views, because of the clarity of the reasoning behind Three Roads to Quantum Gravity.

    So, where am I now in my thinking, that I should be held accountable to Susskind's views, and find that such views speak towards the photonic expressions I have about spiritual life? The roads that go beyond the basis of "Carbon based reasoning" as the predominant value of this universe? Maybe it is a "cycle in time" of this universe that the "laws in the octave of creation" wait for new energy to be put into, "raising" the octave our thinking?

    So by where, and how, such injections in the realization, that the balance of these two thinking minds shall we be elevated to a "real value" in society? One that moves towards a spiritual development, whilst breaking the shackles of a "carbon based society?"

    Whose Societal value is now aninflationary rate which has been set by the "blackgold" of human kind's dependancies.


    MIT researchers have discovered that certain molecules can attach themselves to metallic carbon nanotubes without interfering with the nanotubes' exceptional ability to conduct electricity. At left, the high conductance state has two molecular orbitals, shown in green. Some molecules even let the nanotube switch between highly conductive, left, and poorly conductive (right, with one red molecular orbital), creating the potential for new applications. (Image courtesy of Marzari Lab)


    Shall it be freedom in computerization first, or just another means to hold society to the machinations of our dependancies, and the forever "sleeping state" we like to lay back down in, afer such "revelations" have become use too?

    So the process of discovery is precendent/predictive on the developing what we need in terms of the "information age" that we will all awaken to the truth about what?

    See:

  • BigFoot: The Anomalistic Reality?
  • Thursday, March 16, 2006

    If it's Not a Soccer Ball, What is it?

    Timaeus concludes
    And so now we may say that our account of the universe has reached its conclusion. This world of ours has received and teems with living things, mortal and immortal. A visible living thing containing visible things, and a perciptible God, the image of the intelligible Living Thing. Its grandness, goodness, beauty and perfection are unexcelled. Our one universe, indeed, the only one of its kind, has come to be.


    WMap currently expressed, has some explaining to do. While they talk about ekroptic universe and such, such cyclical natures need some reference with which to speak, in order for such idealizations and perspective form around the information WMap has currently released.


    The fifth element, i.e., the quintessence, according to Plato was identified with the dodecahedron. He says simply "God used this solid for the whole universe, embroidering figures on it". So,I suppose it's a good thing that the right triangles comprising this quintessence are incommensurate with those of the other four elements, since we certainly wouldn't want the quintessence of the universe to start transmuting into the baser subtances contained within itself!


    Higher abstractness, in the case of leaving euclidean perspective, are part of the realization when you look at the WMAP, that is being presented. While sound implications are being implied, they are necessary if it is understood the role they will play in such analogies of a larger global pewrspectve then the one seen in how gaussian coordinates and curvatures are implied, in Omega features, and critical density.

    A Finite Dodecahedral Universe

    According to the team, who published their study in the 9 October 2003 issue of Nature, an intriguing discrepancy in the temperature fluctuations in the afterglow of the big bang can be explained by a very specific global shape of space (a "topology"). The universe could be wrapped around, a little bit like a "soccer ball", the volume of which would represent only 80% of the observable universe! (figure 1) According to the leading cosmologist George Ellis, from Cape Town University (South Africa), who comments on this work in the "News & Views" section of the same issue: "If confirmed, it is a major discovery about the nature of the universe".


    So having a greater perspective on this kind of mapping is necessary. While I reference tunneling and such, implicate bee's travelling or satelittes using pathways of least resistance, how does such states have been reached, if you did not have the perspective that is necessary in seeing how the universe is laid out geometrically?

    Scientists Get Glimpse of First Moments After Beginning of Time by DENNIS OVERBYE

    "If this holds up to the test of time, it's a real landmark," said Max Tegmark, a cosmologist and cosmic microwave expert at M.I.T. "I really feel like the universe has given up one more clue," he said.


    The quantum gravity issues implored, and speculated, have a diverse model selection with which to talk about? John Baez's view came up when I seen the model in which he choose for such understanding. Having seen the "membrane" idealizations used in qauntum gravity models, helped with the perspective that he used, but like Plato his definition fell short to me of the substructure(a discrete meaasure in bubble facets) of the cosmo that would relegated some model, to perfect our view microscopically, as well as macroscopically.




    Tegmark and others disproved this, so what is the nature of the cosmo in question, and it's shape? So having understod the idealization of flat gemetries of the universe, how could such negative features be understood as the hyperbolic understanding became part and parcel of GR in our understanding of the gravity issues?

    With the discovery of sound waves in the CMB, we have entered a new era of precision cosmology in which we can begin to talk with certainty about the origin of structure and the content of matter and energy in the universe.-Wayne Hu


    Such analogies were very important in raising our understanding of what might have been seen in the membrane ideals of how gravity could act in bubble boundaries conditions. While such faces might have been understood in such analogies of John Baez's, a spherical harmonics would have had to been much smoother in our understanding?

    Imploring the analogies and models in this respect made it much easier to see on another level, in non euclidean realities. Further then, the understanding of gaussian coordinates. You knew this was part and parcel of a larger picture understood in GR?



    The Sound of Gravitational Waves

    We can't actually hear gravational waves, even with the most sophisticated equipment, because the sounds they make are the wrong frequency for our ears to hear. This is similar in principle to the frequency of dog whistles that canines can hear, but that are too high for humans. The sounds of gravitional waves are probably too low for us to actually hear. However, the signals that scientists hope to measure with LISA and other gravitational wave detectors are best described as "sounds." If we could hear them, here are some of the possible sounds of a gravitational wave generated by the movement of a small body inspiralling into a black hole.


    So there is a culmination in my views as I now look at the new WMap presented. A greater understanding implored in geometric realization, that had to be taken down to the microscopic where quantum gravity existed, yet, the geometry used, what new math would this be? It was encapsulted in the overall understanding of cyclical natures.



    Is there such a thing, as isometrical relations of orbitals, in cosmological designs? A Classical definition of the Quantum World perhaps?

    Some patterns are telling to me of the way in which the universe, and the galaxies in which had formed, would have followed some geometrical all inclusive pattern, that we see unfolding from place to place, and assigning, specific polarization points within the view of the WMAP.



    Now, look at the map below.

    The WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) mission is designed to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe via a 13 arcminute FWHM resolution full sky map of the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The choice of orbit, sky-scanning strategy and instrument/spacecraft design were driven by the goals of uncorrelated pixel noise, minimal systematic errors, multifrequency observations, and accurate calibration. The skymap data products derived from the WMAP observations have 45 times the sensitivity and 33 times the angular resolution of the COBE DMR mission. The WMAP mission characteristics are summarized in the table below.


    So by using information in the Chladni plate exhibit within this site, it becomes a interesting picture when such "spectrum analysis" make themselves representable in "color" as a variation of the landscape.

    The temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Background Radiation may be decomposed into a sum of spherical harmonics , much like the sound produced by a music instrument may be decomposed into ordinary harmonics. The "fundamental" fixes the height of the note (as for instance a 440 hertz acouctic frequency fixes the "A" of the pitch), whereas the relative amplitudes of each harmonics determine the tone quality (such as the A played by a piano differs from the A played by a harpsichord). Concerning the relic radiation, the relative amplitudes of each spherical harmonics determine the power spectrum, which is a signature of the geometry of space and of the physical conditions which prevailed at the time of CMB emission.


    But if you are really interested in the way we see the universe how would such patterns illustrate what is being shown in the WMAP. A Chladni plate perhaps as spoken in reference. I needed a model with which to work the whole geometrical picture.

    If you sprinkle fine sand uniformly over a drumhead and then make it vibrate, the grains of sand will collect in characteristic spots and figures, called Chladni patterns. These patterns reveal much information about the size and the shape of the drum and the elasticity of its membrane. In particular, the distribution of spots depends not only on the way the drum vibrated initially but also on the global shape of the drum, because the waves will be reflected differently according to whether the edge of the drumhead is a circle, an ellipse, a square, or some other shape.

    In cosmology, the early Universe was crossed by real acoustic waves generated soon after Big Bang. Such vibrations left their imprints 300 000 years later as tiny density fluctuations in the primordial plasma. Hot and cold spots in the present-day 2.7 K CMB radiation reveal those density fluctuations. Thus the CMB temperature fluctuations look like Chaldni patterns resulting from a complicated three-dimensional drumhead that


    See:

  • Plato's Defintion of God

  • Sound of the Landscape

  • B Field Manifestations

  • Resonance:Brownian Motion
  • Wednesday, November 16, 2005

    Paul Dirac and Geometrical Thinking?


    Into the Antiworld was originally staged at CERN inside the underground cavern that houses the Delphi experiment, in which collisions between electrons and their antiparticles - positrons - are studied. That setting must have been awe-inspiring, particularly as the show closed. The audience would have been whisked from the wonder and novelty of Dirac's theory over 70 years ago to the sophisticated particle physics experiments of today that the discovery inspired. At CERN, the curtain behind the stage ripped apart to reveal the Delphi detector the performance ended - but the gigantic photograph of the Delphi experiment that concluded the show at the Bloomsbury worked surprisingly well.


    Oh what fanfare and dance is given these genius's that we find the story ends with where the future begins.

    The Quantum Theory of the Electron



    Paul Dirac


    When one is doing mathematical work, there are essentially two different ways of thinking about the subject: the algebraic way, and the geometric way. With the algebraic way, one is all the time writing down equations and following rules of deduction, and interpreting these equations to get more equations. With the geometric way, one is thinking in terms of pictures; pictures which one imagines in space in some way, and one just tries to get a feeling for the relationships between the quantities occurring in those pictures. Now, a good mathematician has to be a master of both ways of those ways of thinking, but even so, he will have a preference for one or the other; I don't think he can avoid it. In my own case, my own preference is especially for the geometrical way.


    Can one distinguish something that is of nature as the basis of reality, and see this before it is algebraically written? Jacques mention where the intuitive lines ends and where the math begins.

    So from this statement then, it would have been impossible for Dirac to know what the matrices would look before it was algebraically written?

    If there is "no physics" and we are defining things from the horizon or boundary, then what geometry wil be revealing of this nature? Can it be concieved as it was by Dirac?

    I was thinking of Lenny Susskinds picture of the rubber band in his mind after working hard to mathematically understand. Did comprehension come by way of his mathe equations or by geometriclaly viewing?

    THE LANDSCAPE [12.4.03]
    A Talk with Leonard Susskind


    Einstein said he wanted to know what was on God's mind when he made the world. I don't think he was a religious man, but I know what he means.


    Albrecht Dürer and The Magic Square



    So the complexity of geometrical form would have been of value if we had seen the way that it might have taken that vision into the geometrical formations of spin orientated understandings? Isomorphic relations of the orbitals relations in cosmological events?

    Tuesday, November 30, 2004

    A Classical Discription of the Quantum World?


    D Orbital


    Orbitals are probability diagrams. Specifically, an orbital describes a region in space where there is a 90% change of finding an electron. The electron is never restricted to an orbital as in travels around a nucleus, but it seems to keep returning to this particular region even though its behavior is random. The concept of the orbital differs from Bohr's concept of the orbit. Bohr considered an orbit to be a path that the electron always followed much like a train stays on a track. The concept of the orbital was developed in Schrodinger's work to avoid violating the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. In the Modern Theory of Atomic Structures a picture of an orbital is also called a Probability Diagram. By agreement among chemists, the orbital is a 90% Probability Diag ram. This idea allows the electron to be found anywhere and still indicates where the electron spends most of its time.




    How would one remove the uncertainty principals from the small world but to have considered the probability density distributions? Below is a link that I saw early in my investigations that I had wondered, forced me to look at what could have been happening within the cosmo with events, that would release information into the bulk?



    Electron’s probability density distribution for an atom in the state; n=4, l=4, m=0.



    The star Eta Carina is ejecting a pair of huge lobes that form a "propeller" shape. Jet-like structures are emanating from the center (or "waist"), where the star (quite small on this scale) is located.

    If string theory, in the Kaluza Klein tower energy determinations could have discriptively spoken to the particle natures, why was it not possible to map the nature of these particles, in gravitational information released from these cosmological events?

    If information in the bulk has been released, then this information has been geometrically defined in the gravity waves that we would percieve here on earth? Ligo would have performed its ability to then map the configurations that we see happening in that same cosmos. What made this visualization interesting is if photon release was specific to electromagnetic events held to the brane, then our perception of this energy, would have been left for us to consider in those same gravitational waves?