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Showing posts with label Laval Nozzle. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Laval Nozzle. Show all posts

Sunday, October 15, 2006

Part of Facing the Trouble With Physics

It might be that the laws change absolutely with time; that gravity for instance varies with time and that this inverse square law has a strength which depends on how long it is since the beginning of time. In other words, it's possible that in the future we'll have more understanding of everything and physics may be completed by some kind of statement of how things started which are external to the laws of physics. Richard Feynman


Faced with the task of showing the connection between string theory and reductionistic consideration is quite a task, as I am sure in most eyes? To me it just seems that everytime we adjust our view and include new views, what shall we say of "gamma ray detection" when we look at high energy photons describing the early universe for us?



Hey, it makes my heart jump too.

Here is a case, with which I like to make my point. Having someone corrected makes it that much better now to make comparisons like I do. The simple point of "order" enlightened greatly the situation for us, in what I am exemplifying here. We wil not forget the paper offered up after, in that comment thread either. Thanks

A realization 1; 2; 3 that QGP at RHIC is not a weakly coupled gas but rather a strongly coupled liquid has lead to a paradigm shift in the field. It was extensively debated at the “discovery” BNL workshop in 2004 4 (at which the abbreviation sQGP was established) and multiple other meetings since.

In the intervening three years we had to learn a lot, some new some from other ranches of physics which happened to have some experience with strongly coupled systems. Those range from quantum gases to classical plasmas to string theory. In short, there seem to be not one but actually two difficult issues we are facing. One is to understand why QGP at T ∼ 2Tc is strongly coupled, and what exactly it means.


In Extracting Beauty From Chaos I am recognizing this depth of perception enhancement that is supplied by JoAnne of Cosmic Variance. Would you rather look at "Seans moon" in gamma?

CERN planned a global-warming experiment in 1998?

Experimentalists at CERN will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and determine whether cloud formation is influenced by solar activity. According to the Danish theory, charged particles from the Sun deflect galactic cosmic rays (streams of high-energy particles from outer space) that would otherwise have ionized the Earth's lower atmosphere and formed clouds.



What shall I say to you as SNO investigated the "cerenkov effect" from the cosmos ray particle collisions? Shall I speak about the "weather predictions" that arise. This is a interference and a "weak measure" of what is fast becoming the thought in my mind of the diversity of global painting, to include, that blue light as each of the detectors "pick" the overall pattern of high energy exchanges in the detectors as inherent image understanding. It has been transcribed from the "sun's energy value" and applied to high energy considerations?

"Atmospheric" neutrinos, produced by interactions of cosmic ray particles with the earth's atmosphere, might be useful for studying the properties of neutrinos. But if you're hunting sources of neutrinos in the universe, atmospheric neutrinos are nothing but noise.



Now, I may reference Glast indications here in the experimental validation of those high energy photons, gamma ray indication is a wonderful jesture to extending the depth of perception, as I have tried to do here by helping Q see the relevance of the quantum dynamical perception. From ,the beginning of this universe.

So we see where the " Window of the universe" has helped me to see in ways that we were not accustomed. It is "the physics" that has taken us there.

So, while the picture of JoAnnes is highlighted, the lesser of the views is the "gamma ray detection" while I have pointed to the neutrino here in experimentation.

Should we loose sight of what the KK tower exemplifies?



I am sorry about the "dead link picture to topology" but blogger does not go back to 2004 so that I can adjust it.

Now why would I then reference "quantum gravity" behind the picture of the KK tower, and the information about topology? Possibly, that we have for the first time thought here that the Navier-Stokes equations could have been applied at a fundamental level while thinking of what the QGP has given us, as we witness "cerenkov radiation" from a long line of reductionistic reasoning? Is this worth a million from the Clay Instituted by generalization alone?:)

If not, at least, if held in line with lagrangian views of gravitonic perceptions in the bulk as we phyically see the relation between the sun and earth?

It is thus my mind has been held to the idea of the "conical flows[Volcanos, to jet engines in analogy of the laval nozzle]" as the energy is released for the dissemmination from the collider of nature enhanced, to all that follows from the cosmic particle interactions. Right to the neutrinos resulting from the fluidity of the QGP pertaining to viscosity?

What was not present before? Muon detectors hmmmm..... and the road from muon neutrinos too?? What am I missing here?

The muons are stopped by the rock. Impervious to all such obstacles, the muon neutrinos will leave the CERN tunnels and streak through the rock on their 732 kilometre journey to Italy.


Hold that picture of JoAnnes, while you think of Glast. In the determinates of the gamma ray detection, we have therefor faced the "Trouble with Physics?":)

Thursday, July 13, 2006

GRand Quantum Conjecture



My continued looked into the "fluids dynamics" had me wonder about the superfluid anomalies. How would the "sphere look" if it collapsed and allowed information to travel through it, based on what has been given here for perspective, when the "state of equillibrum" is arrived at?

In regards to 3, let's just say the assumption is from a theoretcial standpoint, that microstate blackholes "are created." They are created in "cosmic particle collisions" as well?

This is the premise from which I work, and how I gave "how particles are created," a beginning(dimensional referencing), and a basis from which all science becomes "evidentary" in the particle creations.

Exotic physics finds black holes could be most 'perfect,' low-viscosity fluidVince Stricherz, University of Washington

Son and two colleagues used a string theory method called the gauge/gravity duality to determine that a black hole in 10 dimensions -- or the holographic image of a black hole, a quark-gluon plasma, in three spatial dimensions -- behaves as if it has a viscosity near zero, the lowest yet measured.

It is easy to see the difference in viscosity between a jar of honey or molasses at room temperature and a glass of water. The honey is much thicker and more viscous, and it pours very slowly compared with the water.

Using string theory as a measuring tool, Son and colleagues Pavlo Kovtun of the University of California, Santa Barbara, and Andrei Starinets of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario, have found that water is 400 times more viscous than black hole fluid having the same number of particles per cubic inch.


Your points in conclusion,I, II, III

I-yes
II-yes
III- from my conclusions as well.

Again in above quote, I am defining the leading perspective on blackholes as they are being theoretically defined now, and will be subject to experimentation soon?:)

Now again "backreaction in the laval nozzle" is up for inspection here as we delve deeper into the nature of the blackhole.

Nature in Analog Models

Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).


"Analogistical behaviors" help to push perspective, where before, our theoretical explorations had ran dry?

Q:
These wormhole like 'blackholes' do not lead to other pocket universes, unless we choose to call another sector of space a pocket universe, like Europeans first called the land across the Atlantic the 'New World' or Australia 'Another World' yet still clearly part of this World we call Planet Earth.


If we are to think that the overall context can be apllied to this universe, then such evidence "should be obtainable" as to the nature of such a beginning? But even still, to your point and aspect within this universe, we are looking for accontable methods to such dark energy creation?

Plato:
Every picture held in mind is a link to other pictures


Each event in regards to gravitational collapse would be indicative of what can be "put back into this universe" and sustain it?

Lubos Motl:
The mechanism behind sonoluminiscence remains a bit controversial. Claiming that a thermonuclear fusion occurs during sonoluminiscence is among the more conservative explanations. The physicist Claudia Eberlein argued that the correct explanation is that the imploding bubbles create sonic black holes and the flashes are the counterpart of Hawking radiation as the sonic black hole evaporates. You should not think that this is an example of a very, very low energy quantum gravity because the sonic black holes have no connection with the scales of gravity. It is not a supercollider in a glass of beer. But let me admit that as an undergrad, I was excited by this proposal, at least for a few minutes, but I apparently forgot the details of that encounter.


So by developing this picture of the "bubble collapse in sonofusion", and let's forget about the energy produced from such bubbles and focus on the geometrics of such a collapse. That's my point.

Lubos Motl:
Janice Granhardt has pointed out a press release that is two days old and arguably much more serious and potentially far-reaching than the news about "sonofusion" we described yesterday.


That is part of my conjecture as well as the "unification factor" in my GRand Quantum perceptions.:)That if you remember Kip thorne's plate 27 you will understand that information from the collapse had to be sent over a great distance for us to make sense of the geometrical dynamics that are unfolding from that time and place.

So you look for the gravitational waves that Webber initiated, and Kip Thorne encouraged in our measures of what is actually being transmitted. Kip Thorne is the father of the LIGO program?

You must remember gravitational waves have not yet been verified, yet the theory of GR implicitly tells and is about gravity. It was thus taken further in my conclusions having understood that the creation of this infomration would allow one someday "to map" this very collapse in terms of the gravitonic information left in the bulk?

This is "Dimensional orientated" from a beginning(11dimensional view?), from which evidence is "the 3+1."

That's outside the box thinking? :)Cosmologists work "inside," as Clifford of Cosmic Variance once said?

How then is such a gravitational heat generated from the boundary conditions(blackhole), which grows ever smaller in that collapse, and our energy valuations go higher to supersymmetical realizations? The present volume calculated in the extension of our universe would have to be in concert with the volume before such a collapse was to be expected?

This "total energy value," assuming the universe is flat teeter's on the brink of ?:)

Total dark energy would have to account for this and supernova events contributing as well as, particle collisions that go on all the time?

So if space is not really empty, then what is it supposed to be filled with? Quantum harmonic oscillator and zeropoint?

See:
  • Charlatan's Who Use Graviton
  • Saturday, May 13, 2006

    Sonofusion Analogies in Geometric design?



    Every picture held in mind is a link to other pictures? The larger context of the universe, is now seen in how our minds evolving such a reality through such thought constructs( it's bits and pieces) that it is not just words and equations any more, but the understanding that this picture can includes more then one thousand words of discriptive power.

    It had to be really compelling that such thoughts illustrated here, had a whole geometric history underneath it. Some might of thought it again as "ad hoc," but the truly deeper perception exists whether they like to think it does not.

    Lubos reminds one that no such geoemtry exists or new phsyics in this place, but it had to come from somewhere, no matter what you called the constituents of this reality.

    What is Quantum Gravity?

    Quantum gravity is the field devoted to finding the microstructure of spacetime. Is space continuous? Does spacetime geometry make sense near the initial singularity? Deep inside a black hole? These are the sort of questions a theory of quantum gravity is expected to answer. The root of our search for the theory is a exploration of the quantum foundations of spacetime. At the very least, quantum gravity ought to describe physics on the smallest possible scales - expected to be 10-35 meters. (Easy to find with dimensional analysis: Build a quantity with the dimensions of length using the speed of light, Planck's constant, and Newton's constant.) Whether quantum gravity will yield a revolutionary shift in quantum theory, general relativity, or both remains to be seen.


    Some would like to think themselves "so pure" that they could not plant their own poison?

    It is a hard thing to remain pure in our feelings of sharing, once our egos intrude and we fight each other, for some dominance like some animal uneducated, while we dawn such clothing of the civilized being?

    While earlier entries have been spoken to in terms of, what analogies can do for us in what and how we like to portray the world. Such analogies do have to be carefully considered. It okay if we speak around each other whie we move peception forward. We do not "own" any of it?:)

    Lubos's last statement of the blog entry made here and linked here is of course most correct, and an understanding of the early universe? It is very hard to to see how such dynamical world could fit our views of a reality, as we peer into, with our imaginations.

    With my imagination?

    If One thought about creativity and the undertanding of where these deeper insights of the soul reside and emerge from, how could they emerge from the very origins, while holding the views, peering deep into space? Peering deeply, into the space inside?

    So fanciful creatures we are, that we create all these models and thought constructs to help us along to concretize what the thought construct could do for us, as a measure and yardstick of that reality? So we might playfully use such analogies to open the mind to another possibility?

    Sonofusion - star in a jar

    Lubos Motl:
    The authors admit that the number of events is not enough to build a power plant. However, there is some controversy whether the number of fusion events is what the authors say or whether it is lower by a few dozens of orders of magnitude, as implied by physics.

    The mechanism behind sonoluminiscence remains a bit controversial. Claiming that a thermonuclear fusion occurs during sonoluminiscence is among the more conservative explanations. The physicist Claudia Eberlein argued that the correct explanation is that the imploding bubbles create sonic black holes and the flashes are the counterpart of Hawking radiation as the sonic black hole evaporates. You should not think that this is an example of a very, very low energy quantum gravity because the sonic black holes have no connection with the scales of gravity. It is not a supercollider in a glass of beer. But let me admit that as an undergrad, I was excited by this proposal, at least for a few minutes, but I apparently forgot the details of that encounter.


    Yes, your last statement sums it up Lubos.

    Now, why had such model had been gainfully employed in my analogies?

    The need for a leading construct and all the geometries to be included in a particluar way? Would they match the very expressions of our universe?

    While education would indeed detail the complications and ideas around such models, it is not without simplicity, that such understanding could be pictured first( Dirac comes to mind(?)), and then contain the thousand words, equations, that are to come afterward? This all evolves forma universal expressinand idea I have about how such expression are contained inthe new expressions we see of this universe.

    So it is by looking for this thread of thought and emerging property of such thought, that we would have to trace it back? How would you do that if you did not believe in your interactiveness with the universe at large. An "deductive/inductive," relation with reality that one may have morphed in the exchange from "one moment to the next?" Becoming.

    This is a evolving thread of growth that somehow goes on in our ever education and open mind,least we be restraint by our very own convictions and said, "here is where I lie?"

    Friday, May 05, 2006

    What Comes Next?

    What Lies Beneath, by Eugene Samuel

    Likewise, if the very fabric of the Universe is in a quantum-critical state, then the "stuff" that underlies reality is totally irrelevant-it could be anything, says Laughlin. Even if the string theorists show that strings can give rise to the matter and natural laws we know, they won't have proved that strings are the answer-merely one of the infinite number of possible answers. It could as well be pool balls or Lego bricks or drunk sergeant majors.


    You might as well famiiarize yourself with Robert Laughlin's, "Self Organization of Matter."

    I mean if you think of micro-seconds and someone saids to you, it just doesn't make sense( what energy scale the model of strings applied?) then one might have trouble accepting the report on colliders for consideration, and how we view the outcome of the universe from that beginning?

    Nice moose picture in there to look at.

    Cycle of Birth, Life, and Death-Origin, Indentity, and Destiny by Gabriele Veneziano

    Was the big bang really the beginning of time? Or did the universe exist before then? Such a question seemed almost blasphemous only a decade ago. Most cosmologists insisted that it simply made no sense - that to contemplate a time before the big bang was like asking for directions to a place north of the North Pole. But developments in theoretical physics, especially the rise of string theory, have changed their perspective. The pre-bang universe has become the latest frontier of cosmology


    Maybe we need a adustment on what we actually thought happenned at the very beginning? Current science writing then needs to reflect what the information is leading us too?

    Quark Soup(Scientific American), is limited then, in what we may think about what happens in those gold ion collisions. The relations, as to what happened cosmologically at the very beginning?

    What are the characteristics of superfluids that we would find the work of Ketterle involved here?

    Berkeley Lab Technology Dramatically Speeds Up Searches of Large DatabasesJon Bashor

    In the world of physics, one of the most elusive events is the creation and detection of “quark-gluon plasma,” the theorized atomic outcome of the “Big Bang” which could provide insight into the origins of the universe. By using experiments that involve millions of particle collisions, researchers hope to find unambiguous evidence of quark-gluon plasma.


    Shouldn't that writing lead us to ponder in our minds the next step?

    A conclusion then about the difficulties upon which thoughts of viscosity with regards to the beginning of that time? The most perfect fluid. A Hydrodynamical calculation then? I am also thinking of the laval nozzle and the back reaction as well.

    You have to forgive me here because it is of some interest that I would like to write, but I would like also to write reasonably and responsibly as well. :)

    Wednesday, March 22, 2006

    Coleman-De Luccia instanton

    IN what way could some consistent measure be thought of, that such conditions while recognized in the false vacuum, and, with conditions of high energy considerations, be realized into useful information surrounding this move to the true vacuum? It would have to be geometrically explained. Planck epoch in itself, makes this very hard to do, so you use the action of the vacuum, from false to true, to help in that realization.

    The volume of the haystack
    Lubos Motl:
    We don't have a real emotional intuition how "density" in a very-high-dimensional space should behave, but we should probably try to learn it. I feel that these (especially the de Sitter) vacua cannot be quite isolated. There are just many other vacua nearby (virtually all of them) into which one should be able to decay. KKLT only consider one Coleman-DeLuccia instanton, without an enhancement, and I feel it can't be the whole story


    The Coleman-De Luccia instanton presents opportunities, or, is the paper countering this proposal? See link below for reference to paper.

    I think one needed to understand this movement or how the false vacuum is understood, and how the true vacuum is created.

    A geometical smoothly flowing understanding that arose out of "nothing!" Without some geometrical consistancy, this idea isn't going to go away, unless someone has a reason why, and if, that paper deals with it directly?

    I remain non-judgemental about characters, and the nature people adopt. I only focus on those issues that would offer us some further ideas to exploit. To help us all push pespectve forward. While there is a facade in what the mind accumulates as the image of who we are, there is "kernels of truth" that we must seek to reference, so the knowledge base can increase, and intuitve leaps for the taking by who ever push persepctove add experimetal basis as a concluding result.

    We'll leave the dance and facades for other to design themself. We always want them to be "whole" with what ever they have accepted in life.

    Peter Woit recommends supersymmetry

    Lubos Motl:
    At any rate, quantum black holes do carry quantum information, the relevant entropy is, at least in some cases, attributable to the entanglement entropy, and the research of quantum entanglement in this context could turn out to be very fruitful which is why many of us should look at these "coincidences" more carefully. They may very well clarify the origin and mathematical details of the black hole complementarity


    The circumstance around the nature of the state where such superfluids are created, needed some method in which to move, from "one state into another"(turned inside/out)?

    If you hold the nature of the bubble universe and it's formation in mind, it does not seem so unlikely that you had the klein bottle, as some geometrical basis from which the false vacuum would direct itself into inflationary results?

    So is the paper discounting the basis of the views of Coleman-De Luccia instanton?

    The idea behind the Coleman-De Luccia instanton, discovered in 1987, is that the matter in the early universe is initially in a state known as a false vacuum. A false vacuum is a classically stable excited state which is quantum mechanically unstable. In the quantum theory, matter which is in a false vacuum may `tunnel' to its true vacuum state. The quantum tunnelling of the matter in the early universe was described by Coleman and De Luccia. They showed that false vacuum decay proceeds via the nucleation of bubbles in the false vacuum. Inside each bubble the matter has tunnelled. Surprisingly, the interior of such a bubble is an infinite open universe in which inflation may occur. The cosmological instanton describing the creation of an open universe via this bubble nucleation is known as a Coleman-De Luccia instanton.


    Okay so we are talking about cosmological proportions here, in blackhole creation and the resulting standard model and interactions developed from the origins of this universe. Is it consistent all the way down to the planck epoch, and how would the planck epoch be described?

    One would need to see the geometrical basis of what is hapening from one state to the next. Our universe into some other new expression, or blackhole states, that rejuvenize, using geometrical dynamics of what is already existing?

    Would this run contrary to the arrow of time, by having such states within context of the whole universe? Would this not explain the susutenance need to keep the universe in the same state for a very long long time?

    Backreaction

    Do a search, under the heading of "backreaction in laval nozzle," for further references.

    Black Holes and Analogues in Two Dimensions

    Examples: acoustics in a moving fluid (“dumbholes”), BEC, Helium, slow light,


    See:

  • Why Higher Energies
  • Wednesday, March 15, 2006

    Increase in Output of Inverse Square Law Calculatons ?

    Oh my poor layman brain. It hurts.

    String theory and the crisis in particle physics by Bert Schroer
    The third point of the list is perhaps the most serious one. A theory which has in more than 30 years been unable to get its relation to physics straightened out is presented to physics students as a theory of everything which supersedes QFT before their critical faculties have been strengthened by learning about the concepts and open problems of the most successful theory of particle physics.


    When is enough, enough? I think all the warnngs have been heard and the continued barage of statements and genralizations enough to make one sick.



    Don't worry Lubo about the context of statements ancestroy or otherwise. As to what you might have wrritten on the blackboard about strings, and what Einstein might have written instead.

    An equation means nothing to me unless it expresses a thought of God.-Srinivasa Ramanujan


    For me, Ramanujan's statement was really clear. Although, it(math) manifested in the dream, the langauge spoken was the recognition of the source through which mathematics would make itself known to the world. First Principle. If one was listening what was emerging then? Ramanujan might have been so engrossed in math, that such an insight was the key to the open doorway with which quantun grvaity would now not become destitute.

    So focused are the many in math that taking the time from all it's calculations, by a quiet strean, or sitting in nature's presence, it all comes together in a "flash of insight."

    You have to find the conditions that will speak to theorectical valuation. If such a wide sweeping generalization is levelled at the "mathematical field in question," then, how shall you ever know what this model could have lead one too, in comprehension?

    Will we have lacked sufficient knowledge that one might have never had seen it excell beyond the confines of bias and opinion?

    Geometrical insight is greater then the axiomization indicated, was from other thoughts of Dirac, and not just the mathematical statements assigned? Such inclination to a quantum perspective and dynamical valuation, of what GR is assigned in curvature, was taken down to the ideas of what signaled the curvature indicators with regards to high energy considerations?

    Inverse Fourth Power Law

    Quantitative studies of future experiments to be carried out by LHC show that any signatures of missing energy can be used to probe the nature of gravity at small distances. The predicted effects could be accessible to the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab, but the higher energy LHC has the better chance.
    These colliders are still under construction, but results also have consequences for "table-top" experiments, being carried out here at Stanford, as well as the University of Washington and the University of Colorado. Here’s the basic idea: imagine there are two extra dimensions on a scale of a millimeter. Next, take two massive particles separated by a meter, at which distance they obviously behave according to the well-known rules of 3-D space. But if you bring them very close, say closer than one millimeter, they become sensitive to the amount of extra space around. At close encounter the particles can exchange gravitons via the two extra dimensions, which changes the force law at very short distances. Instead of the Newtonian inverse square law you’ll have an inverse fourth power law. This signature is being looked for in the ongoing experiments.



    In context of a "complete geometrical process(including microperspectve processes)" how is this possible? It's "motivation" from the gravitatinal collapse, cosmologically is well understood? Analogies in the Laval nozzle, would have been capable of seeing superfuid anomalies occuring that are "counter intuitive" at such extreme temperatures? Yet a channel is provide for the increase in energy values as the output is increased?

    Again supefluid states would have to be considered here, and the output generated? What else could it be?

    Haines’ explanation theorizes that Z’s magnetic energies create microturbulences that increase the kinetic energies of ions caught in the field’s grip. Already hot, the extra jolt of kinetic energy then produces increased heat, as ions and their accompanying electrons release energy through friction-like viscous mixing even after they should have been exhausted.


    Mind you this is from 2001

    Stanford's Savas Dimopoulos:
    New Dimensions in Theoretical Physics


    Our new picture is that the 3-D world is embedded in extra dimensions," says Savas Dimopoulos of Stanford University. "This gives us a totally new perspective for addressing theoretical and experimental problems.


    And from the same article. Persepctive has now been changed. We do not discard what has already been built up.

    Instead of the Newtonian inverse square law you’ll have an inverse fourth power law. "This signature" is being looked for in the ongoing experiments.


    So. What value when looking at the Z Machine with such theoretical speculation?

    Awareness of counter intuitive anomalies present in such development of the supefluids? Forces us to consider how "bulk manifestion values" are increased? Where did this "extra energy" come from?

    See:

  • The Z Machine


  • Visualization: Changing Perspective
  • Saturday, February 25, 2006

    Nature in Analog Models

    Plato:
    "For everyone, as I think, must see that astronomy compels the soul to look upwards and leads us from this world to another."


    Oh! how complete our world view would be, that I have moved quickly to the very question of all summations given. That while "visually" occupying the mind, we had been taken to the standard model's extension. That we moved beyond, to the "introduction of the graviton," as a force carrier? What world is that Plato?

    Structuralists, like Plato we would be, that we seen not as Feynamn did, but as "platonic developers" as to the very alluring question of, "nature's form?" Lost was our view of the "interactions and processes" yet, seen in another way? That there is a discription ,of all of what these particles could be?

    "Analogue Gravity"by Carlos Barceló and Stefano Liberati and Matt Visser

    Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).


    Part of the theoretics I imagine, is trying to incorporate this into analog models for a deeper comprehension of concepts mathematically embued. Part of the deeper intuitive developement, is what attracted me to the questions about "creativity" and what can be immersed in minds of scientists. What they do with their days.

    Murray Gellman:
    On Plectics
    It is appropriate that plectics refers to entanglement or the lack thereof, since entanglement is a key feature of the way complexity arises out of simplicity, making our subject worth studying.


    As I read Feynman's words about what the scientist actually does, the human side of the scientist makes it very clear to me, that they are to be treated with the respect, as he conveyed his thoughts. As we might, treat someone who brings together "different ideas" to move conceptual understanding forward, much like those in the mathematical ways. Better to be ignored, eh?:)

    Vision Can Move in the Small world

    The Planck scale is the scale at which quantum gravity is believed to become important. At this scale the smooth structure of spacetime breaks down into some structure (strings, spin-foam, lattice, who knows?). The Planck length is approximately 10-35 m, which is very, very small. To get an idea of how tiny this is we can compare a Planck length LPl with the size of a proton and the size of Rhode Island. The radius of a proton is larger than the Planck length by roughly the same factor as the size of Rhode Island to the proton.


    Did we ever comprehend how we would take our "vision" down to a world so small that we did not recognize that occupying the physical world of large things, there would be comparsions needed. That the "particles" that Murray Gellman speculated would emerge from some model, and become the constituents of a world created in the wonder of, "all these particles may be part of the some alternate form of the same thing?" This arose in the 1950's.

    So before, Susskind and Nambu, Gellman held a interesting perspective, and from it, a question arose. It became the developing insight of string theory. Some, have abandoned the very question and idealization, having graduated to Brane world, does not mean, the very thoughts and principals embued in this focus to the small world, would have been discarded, just, that it will have gone through "revisions and progress" in conceptual design?

    Analog models of quantum field theory in curved space

    In condensed matter, one can construct systems where the propagation of long wavelength phonons (sound waves) is very similar to the propagation of a scalar field in a curved Lorentzian spacetime. Such systems are called 'analog models'. It is even possible to construct analogies to black holes in this manner, where the phonons that travel past a certain point cannot return. For example, consider a fluid where long wavelength phonons in the fluid propagate with speed cs, which is analogous to the speed of light in these models. Now put this fluid in a pipe and change the shape of the pipe such that the speed v of the fluid is faster than cs in one section and slower in an adjacent section. A phonon can travel "back against the current" only up to a certain point, where the the fluid speed equals cs. After that the fluid flow carries it down the pipe. This point in the pipe therefore mimics a black hole event horizon, from which nothing can escape. Other black hole features such as Hawking radiation are also present in these models. Since these models give an example of a system that has a fundamental structure at very short distances (where the fluid description breaks down), yet has a pseudo-Lorentz invariance at long distances.


    Plato as a Composer

    Can a different kind of thinking encase the brain's ability to "envision the abstract of space" to know that it's harmonic values can be seen as the basis of experience?


    Those who would conduct the orchestra, enlisted sounds, which make a whole compositon? One, from which, if physical sight had been remove, and focused internally, had just witnessed the particle world in shower, would lead one to the climatic vision of, "nature of things." From, "it's source?" What began before this whole musical interlude, much as if, the cosmo will wait for our question as to what was?

    So now the very idea of the poem wording I developed here, "no time standing always new", had me thinking about how such a cyclical processes could have ever made its way into our "completeness of views". An extension, beyond the standard model. It was a logical question and place with which responsibility can be still held, regardless, of those who have spelt out the lineage of science in research in this way(string theory model), as some disrupted process in the way of thinking?

    So how would we map this whole process, while we had been taken down to such reductionistic principals. The continuity resorting to structurally discrete, while pondering this structure( what model shall you insert here, Loop, Twistors, Strings)? There are "no rules and no physics" with which we can "initiate thinking" beyond the standard model? So we see the minds very busy with such introductions, professors hired to work the field of choices. Whether to teach or not? To be devoted to a specific area, or just ponder the most difficult question, as to the natures very structure?

    So now we come to a important question, having recognized the power with which the Word "Plato or Aristotle will now be invoked in your mind. That the "archetypes" had been drawn and related. Any future reference, will be in the way Plato might of felt having held his views on music? Possibly, thought about the nature of the world with structure. Developed the forms, as constituents of the way the world exists now.


    See:

  • Laval Nozzle and Blackholes

  • Accretion Disks

  • Quark Stars
  • Thursday, January 26, 2006

    Quark Stars

    Quark stars signal unstable universe By William J. Cromie
    Gazette Staff

    In orbit around Earth, a satellite called the Chandra X-ray Observatory surveys the universe for sources of X-rays, which come from hot, active places. Such places include neutron stars, the still energetic corpses of burnt out stars once more massive than the Sun. When such stars use up their hydrogen fuel they explode into bright supernova, then their cores collapse into an extremely heavy ball of neutrons enveloped in a thin atmosphere containing iron and other debris from the explosion. In the core of the dying star, extreme pressure breaks atoms down into protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons and electrons combine into neutrons, and the remaining material is so heavy that one tablespoon of it weighs about four trillion pounds.



    A "central theme" arises in my mind, when I think about how this dark energy came into being.



    If held to current technologies and pre producable themes held in context of our cosmo, can we take such levels of dark energy production to be from the cause of strange quark productions?

    It is difficult for me to understand why the whole process is not involved in this geometrical assertion to what happens at the beginning of this universe, has "pre big bang implication" that was necessary to understand, before we can ever agreed on what the expansionary process might entail under the guise of how this dark energy is produced. How the lensing is lent to the nature of the dark energy, that we would see gravitonic consequences of accepting a fifth dimensional possibility? Would lend credence to the nature of the "spacetime fabric" as gravtonic considerations?

    As a layman it is puzzling to me, so you have to forgive my mistakes and misunderstandings and as I learn I hope to deal with this appropriately. It is not my desire to spread misconceptions


    RX J185635-375: Candidate Quark Star
    Explanation: Is RJX J185635-375 really so small? Previously, this compact star held claim to being the closest neutron star -- only 150 light-years away. Now new observations and analysis indicate not only a larger distance, roughly 450 light-years, but a very small radius for RXJ J185635-375, pictured above. One hypothesized solution holds hope a RJX J185635-375 is actually a not a neutron star but a quark star -- something new. Now quark stars are truly strange -- some may have made a transition to type of matter known as strange quarks. Quark stars, were they to exist, can be intermediate between neutron stars and black holes in size and density. Quark stars can also be more compact and cool faster than neutron stars. In fact, some might even be ultracompact -- so dense that light itself can orbit. Future observations will likely settle the controversial claims of RJX J185635-375's distance and radiative geometry, and hence determine if a previously undiscovered type of beast roams the sky.


    Laval Nozzle

    Are we Creating the circumstances for dynamical situations. Has geometrical implications from the dynamical perspective of accretion disks part of the evolving universe?



  • Strangelets Form Gravitonic Concentrations?

  • Quark Gluon Plasma II: Strangelets
  • Tuesday, January 10, 2006

    Accretion Disks

    "For everyone, as I think, must see that astronomy compels the soul to look upwards and leads us from this world to another."

    Plato

    Lubos Motl:
    One of the potentially far-reaching consequences of Eva's and Gary's paper is that they seem to have found some stringy realization of the black hole final state by Horowitz and Maldacena.


    You have to remeber the reason I am looking at this has to do with how collision processes within LHC and RHIC have demonstrated things happening with the creation of the strangelets.

    Of course, I am thinking here of graviton production and where such things would accumulate, and if such a process was held in context of let's say scenarios given to the production of these gravitons held to the center of the earth, it would have been from moving to this 5D consideration, that such model building had overtaken what was limited to the collision process itself.

    So one sees now in context of what was productions from the effect of microstate and blackhole construction in the cosmos and having joined these perspectives had to have taken some form.

    So having a model in mind in terms of the Laval Nozzle explained here in previous thread such explanations would have move the conisderation on how such gatherings would have instituted in moving physics within the realm of the speculative and theoretical, to have actual models we have created by using LHC and RHIC as tools of graviton production scenarios.


    Black holes often shoot out jets of material perpendicular to their accretion disks.


    However, more fundamental than the absence of dissipation is the behavior of superfluids under rotation. In contrast to the example of a glass of water above, the rotation in superfluids is always inhomogeneous (figure). The fluid circulates around quantized vortex lines. The vortex lines are shown as yellow in the figure, and the circulating flow around them is indicated by arrows. There is no vorticity outside of the lines because the velocity near each line is larger than further away. (In mathematical terms curl v = 0, where v(r) is the velocity field.)


    How would we see such production if superfluid consideration, if the jets were opened to new possibilties?


    the graphic shows spiral shock waves in a three dimensional simulation of an accretion disk -- material swirling onto a compact central object that could represent a white dwarf star, neutron star, or black hole. Such accretion disks power bright x-ray sources within our own galaxy. They form in binary star systems which consist of a donor star (not shown above), supplying the accreting material, and a compact object whose strong gravity ultimately draws the material towards its surface.


    I still need to do some homework here.

    High Resolution 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations
    of Accretion Disks in Close Binaries


    Michael P. Owen
    Theoretical Astrophysics Group
    Department of Physics
    North Carolina State University




    So we look at the LHC model for comparison here in accretions disk energy formations, as we projectile these protons in either direction? Now if we were to lay over top of LHC the very idea of jet production in a macrosense, where would this jet in terms of it's collision process reveal itself if not towards the center of the earth or skyward to do what? Now you have to rmeber you are seeing in a different way that is based on assumption of bulk perspectves.

    Have I some how bastardize this process from my ignorance as a layman?

    Saturday, January 07, 2006

    IN Viscosity State Production is ?


    Thus, a black hole can be created with such energy packed into the corresponding length scale. These mini black hole will evaporate in 10-88 seconds, losing most of its mass by Hawking radiation. It is estimated that the final burst should radiate a large number of particles in all directions with very high energies. The decay products include all the particle species in nature. The LHC could provide the first evidence for Hawking radiation from such signatures of the black holes. Figure 04a depicts the simulated decay of a black hole inside a particle detector. From the center of the accelerator pipe (black circle) emerge particles (spokes) registered by layers of detectors (concentric colored rings). The sequence from birth to death of a mini black hole with an initial mass of 10 Tev is shown schematically in Figure 04b. It is created by the collision of two energetic particles (a). The scenario suggests that it will emit gravitational and electromagnetic waves as it settles


    It's always good to have some idea of the process. So what is the liquid drop?

    So there are some things that make the production process a interesting one, and froma layman perspective talk about intuitions taken a leap here. So I made ealier comparsions here because of th enature of the superfluids involved heeree and how developing perspective around them provide for enviromenta cosniderations dealing i the substance of such collisions.

    LHC cryogenic unit keeps its cool

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN reached a major milestone on 7 April by achieving operation of the unit at Point 8 at its nominal temperature of 1.8 K. The LHC and its superconducting magnets are designed to operate at this very low temperature, making the 27 km accelerator the coldest large-scale installation in the world. Although acceptance tests performed on the surface had already reached the required temperature in 2002, this is the first time that the nominal temperature has been achieved in situ.


    Yet here we are thinking about Microstate blackhole production, and we have advanced the ideas somewhat into the reality of the situation. So here in this bottle neck, and I have not seen how this works in reality, so I am guessing here by using analogies to help push my perspective forward. Some of the unique characteristics of superfluids are helping to define the process somewhat?

    Wednesday, December 28, 2005

    Laval Nozzle and the Blackhole

    Often times model changes help perspective, where previously idealization will be contained. Moving beyond the experimental grasp for new ways in which to interpret, require a mode and offensive into producing new variations of ole thngs held in context? Ths is why such models like string that began in one mode in terms of quark confinement have now bloossomed into modes cocnerned with quantum gravity.



    Discovering new dimensions at LHC

    More dramatically still, the LHC could produce fundamental string relations of our familiar particles, such as higher-spin relatives of electrons or photons. There is also a possibility that, owing to the now much stronger gravitational interactions, microscopically tiny black holes could be produced with striking signals.


    Once idealization and understanding developed in quark Confinement, it is understood the shift to the metric and the idealization of that measure became a property I found in the way we now deal with the perceptions containing dimensional significance? Strng Theory, that had graduade from the model apprehensions early on, here to a more fundamental pursuate of how we see in those extra dimensions, compact as they may be?

    Acoustic Metric (29 Dec 2005 Wiki)

    In mathematical physics, a metric (mathematics) describes the arrangement of relative distances within a surface or volume, usually measured by signals passing through the region – essentially describing the intrinsic geometry of the region. An acoustic metric will describe the signal-carrying properties characteristic of a given particulate medium in acoustics, or in fluid dynamics. Other descriptive names such as sonic metric are also sometimes used, interchangeably.

    Since "acoustic" behaviour is intuitively familiar from everyday experience, many complex "acoustic" effects can be confidently described without recourse to advanced mathematics. The rest of this article contrasts the "everyday" properties of an acoustic metric with the more intensely studied and better-documented "gravitational" behaviour of general relativity


    On the Universality of the Hawking Effectby William G. Unruh and Ralf Schutzhold

    Addressing the question of whether the Hawking effect depends on degrees of freedom at ultra-high (e.g., Planckian) energies/momenta, we propose three rather general conditions on these degrees of freedom under which the Hawking effect is reproduced to lowest order. As a generalization of Corley’s results, we present a rather general model based on non-linear dispersion relations satisfying these conditions together with a derivation of the Hawking effect for that model. However, we also demonstrate counter-examples, which do not appear to be unphysical or artificial, displaying strong deviations from Hawking’s result. Therefore, whether real black holes emit Hawking radiation remains an open question and could give non-trivial information about Planckian physics.


    It is important that when thinking about this universality that the derivations of such thinking is understood by me so I ahve to lay it out in a sequence that suports the end part of this post so that it is brought togher in a nice way. I bold mark thos epoints that help greatly in my understanding.

    Acoustic_theory(28 Dec 2005 Wiki)

    Acoustic theory is the field relating to mathematical description of sound waves. It is derived from fluid dynamics. See acoustics for the engineering approach.

    The propagation of sound waves in air can be modeled by an equation of motion (conservation of momentum) and an equation of continuity (conservation of mass). With some simplifications, in particular constant density, they can be given as follows:


    where is the acoustic pressure and is the acoustic fluid velocity vector, is the vector of spatial coordinates x,y,z, t is the time, ρ0 is the static density of air and c is the speed of sound in air.



    Fluid Dynamics (28 Dec 2005 Wiki)

    Fluid dynamics offers a mathematical structure, which underlies these practical discipines, that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws, derived from flow measurement, used to solve practical problems. The solution of a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating for various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as functions of space and time


    So these ideas in terms of analogies help to push forarwd understanding where we might have been limited in our views before. I know, they certainly help me.

    "Analogue Gravity"
    by Carlos Barceló and Stefano Liberati and Matt Visser

    Abstract

    Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).


    and here......


    Parentani showed that the effects of the fluctuations of the metric (due to the in-going flux of energy at the horizon) on the out-going radiation led to a description of Hawking radiation similar to that obtained with analogue models. It would be interesting to develop the equivalent formalism for quantum analogue models and to investigate the different emerging approximate regimes.


    I am always interested in how science might take these analogies in concert with how we understand blackhole horizon abilites. To exemplify the understanding of where "this place of virtual reality might issue from such a ground state" might be, in terms of what might flow one way, and what will flow in another, as photon pairs do from around the blackhole.

    How far can this be taken as we look to understand Hawking radiation? How would such constrictions pave the way for sound emitted and held in context of Hawking Radiation, flowing through a pipe? We've had our lessons from Cosmic Variance on this, but would it have ever been taken this far?

    Well, I still like to think about the gravitational comparisons here, so I would be very happy to have found some geometrical propensities towards how the horizon would have given us a good picture of what "first principle" might be as we look at the nature of hawking radiation, and how the standard model is featured from that horizon. So of course I am thinking deeply about all the things I have been learning.

    I hope one day a comprehensive picture forms so that I can finally understand what is going on?

    Further "Analogy" sought by me to help my perspective.

  • Bubble World and Geometrodynamics

  • Tiny Bubbles