Showing posts with label Internet. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Internet. Show all posts

Thursday, December 17, 2015

Estonian Li-Fi

The Reference Frame: Estonian Li-Fi: Tens of GB per second using light bulbs Velmenni, an Estonian startup , has tested the visible light-based replacement for Wi-Fi in the re...
Article by Lubos is an extension of information contained herein this blog regarding Lifi. SeeHarald Haas

Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is a bidirectional, high speed and fully networked wireless communication technology similar to Wi-Fi. Coined by Prof. Harald Haas,[1] Li-Fi is a subset of optical wireless communications (OWC) and can be a complement to RF communication (Wi-Fi or Cellular network), or a replacement in contexts of data broadcasting. It is so far measured to be about 100 times faster than Wi-Fi, reaching speeds of 224 gigabits per second.[2]
It is wireless and uses visible light communication or infra-red and near ultraviolet (instead of radio frequency waves) spectrum, part of optical wireless communications technology, which carries much more information, and has been proposed as a solution to the RF-bandwidth limitations.[3] A complete solution includes an industry led standardization process.

Thursday, February 26, 2015

Mechanism Design Theory: Radio Spectrum

Nobel Prize winning economist Eric Maskin on privatization of the radio spectrum, history of the field, and decision making mistakes.

Monday, June 09, 2014

Video from Space : NASA's OPAL

Published on Jun 5, 2014 The Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science will beam video via laser from the International Space Station back to Earth. Here is animation showing how the technology works, with an explanation from the OPALS mission manager, Matt Abrahamson of JPL, plus the video NASA slated for OPALS' first official transmission.More information about OPALS is at:
This animated GIF shows Earth's moon moving below NASA's OPALS laser instrument as seen by a robotic camera on the exterior of the International Space Station. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
NASA Beams 'Hello, World!' Video from Space via Laser


See Also:

Saturday, June 07, 2014

Lifi and 5g: Optical Communications

Visible light is only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

I have been away a while getting caught up on some work and enjoying some vacation time. I am always exciting about where we are going next in terms of communication development. Some of these previews  have been show here in various blog posts, that you can preview with label access.

The United States 700 MHz FCC wireless spectrum auction was started by the FCC on January 24, 2008 for the rights to operate the 700 MHz frequency band in the United States. The details of process were the subject of debate between several telecommunications companies, including Verizon Wireless, AT&T, and startup Frontline Wireless, as well as the Internet company Google. Much of the debate swirled around the "open access" requirements set down by the Second Report and Order released by the FCC determining the process and rules for the auction. All bidding must be commenced by January 28 by law. The auction was named Auction 73.[1]

The interesting thing here in terms of development is that the industry is still in a sort of infancy where those who are quite brave in terms of their science and knowledge back ground can contribute and create a different type of communication base that is current residing outside of government regulations right now. The spectrum allocation is currently not licensed and using that platform if you can develop it create the possibility of networks that do not currently reside in spectrum allocation that are being sold.?

Li-Fi, or "light fidelity", is a technology, that can be a complement of RF communication (Wi-Fi or Cellular network), or a replacement in contexts of data broadcasting. Li-Fi, like Wi-Fi, is the high speed, bidirectional and fully networked subset of visible light communications (VLC). It is wireless and uses visible light communication (instead of radio frequency waves), which carries much more information, and has been proposed as a solution to the RF-bandwidth limitations.[1]

 While we know the ground rules of communication are limited in terms of wifi, the future is quite as to how information can be disseminated and how much of it can be accessed through new technology that will reside outside of the devices that currently are being adapted too, to use that type of communication. So I encourage new development here if you have the brains and brawn in order to tackle that new fledgling business of the future.

 It is a 5G[2] visible light communication system that uses light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a medium to deliver networked, mobile, high-speed communication in a similar manner as Wi-Fi.[3] Li-Fi could lead to the Internet of Things, which is everything electronic being connected to the internet, with the LED lights on the electronics being used as Li-Fi internet access points.[4] The Li-Fi market is projected to have a compound annual growth rate of 82% from 2013 to 2018 and to be worth over $6 billion per year by 2018.[5]

It is a sobering thought to thing of the optical side of things of having such a wide market growth, with the potential of money development, but at the same time brings to light the development that is currently and has yet to become marketable through innovation and technological design. So I encourage the young folk coming out of universities to explore at least from their educative perspective and expertise this area of communication and technological design..

pureLiFi is at the forefront of research and commercialisation into Li-Fi, an industry expected to grow from $100 million to $6 billion by 2018. Visible Light Communication (VLC) is the use of light to transmit data wirelessly. Li-Fi - a term coined by pureLiFi’s Chief Science Officer and co-founder, Professor Haas – is a technology based on VLC that provides full networking capabilities similar to Wi-Fi, but with significantly greater spatial reuse of bandwidth. See: pureLiFi to demonstrate first ever Li-Fi system at Mobile World Congress


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Wednesday, March 12, 2014

World Wide Web 25th Anniversary

The first web server, used by Tim Berners-Lee. Photo via Wikipedia
On the 25th anniversary of the World Wide Web, we’re pleased to share this guest post from Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the web. In this post he reflects on the past, present and future of the web—and encourages the rest of us to fight to keep it free and open. -Ed.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014


OPALS is manifested to launch on the third ISS resupply mission by a SpaceX Falcon 9 Dragon in February 2014.
This artist's concept shows how the Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) laser will beam data to Earth from the International Space Station. Credit: NASA. 
"OPALS represents a tangible stepping stone for laser communications, and the International Space Station is a great platform for an experiment like this," said Michael Kokorowski, OPALS project manager at JPL. "Future operational laser communication systems will have the ability to transmit more data from spacecraft down to the ground than they currently do, mitigating a significant bottleneck for scientific investigations and commercial ventures." SEE: NASA's OPALS to Beam Data From Space Via Laser

OPALS will be mounted externally on the International Space Station (ISS) in a nadir position on an ExPrESS Logistics Carrier (ELC). Image is credited to NASA/JPL-Caltech.

 The fastest commercial communication links on Earth use optical (or laser) fiber to transmit information. Using laser in space without this fiber is another method.  Fast laser communications between Earth and spacecraft like the International Space Station or the Mars rover Curiosity could enhance their connection to the public.  OPALS is also used to educate and train NASA personnel. See: Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) - 01.09.14
OPALS Concept of Operations

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Monday, November 25, 2013

The Internet

What is the Future of the Internet

I plug into the electrical plugin and receive all my information stored on the information grid.

There is evolving aspect with which communication is being used, bought and directed as to how this information is contained? How Governments seek to control? How Companies would value our access too?

So this is a another question for others as well to consider this future. Maye you have an opinion. Maybe there are people involved in helping to constraint government with full control?

 Spying, Censorship Threaten Democracy, Web's Inventor Says

If information is to be considered a resource, then how shall we deal with it if it is marginalized toward how much energy we use?

Friday, March 29, 2013

White Space Sensor Development

 To manage the White Spaces is a way to improve process performance of an organization(internet). White Space (management)
 The idea has always been to operate within certain frequencies in order to develop the communications needed for rural development. Sometimes,  in context of management we see where governments needed to manage these frequencies in order to be able to auction off facets of those frequencies. This is to ensure companies are safe from other developers who may damages their operations,  as well as give companies what they paid for.

 On September 23, 2010 the FCC released a Memorandum Opinion and Order that determined the final rules for the use of white space for unlicensed wireless devices.[18] The new rules removed mandatory sensing requirements which greatly facilitates the use of the spectrum with geolocation based channel allocation. The final rules adopt a proposal from the White Spaces Coalition[19] for very strict emission rules that prevent the direct use of IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) in a single channel effectively making the new spectrum unusable for Wi-Fi technologies... See: FCC decision

So of course such developments need to consider the techniques used for sensors so as to be able to operate between all these frequencies.This then require services as a means to providing broadband capabilities via White Space spectrum.

White space in telecommunications refers to unused frequencies in the radio waves portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The latest information of Google attempts at developing communication development in Africa is of course a long road to White Space communication.

White spaces are unused channels in the broadcast TV spectrum. They offer the potential to improve Internet connectivity where they are most needed - in the developing world. Today we’re announcing the launch of a trial with ten schools in the Cape Town area, which will receive wireless broadband over a white space network.

White space has the advantage that low frequency signals can travel longer distances. The technology is well suited to provide low cost connectivity to rural communities with poor telecommunications infrastructure, and for expanding coverage of wireless broadband in densely populated urban areas. See:
Announcing a new TV White Spaces trial in South Africa

There has been some developments in terms of management with the rules and regulations with regard to that White Space development within the US, UK and Canada. This has more to do with regulations about controlling the impingement of frequencies on existing companies already using frequency white space. To ensure that any use of that White Space does not cause any disruptions with require certifications of a sort,  to demonstrate that this is such the case.


I am exploring some ideas here on community development. This is so as to developed further communication formats.  These broadcast systems,  need to meet the demands of rural country deployments frequencies between tower locations,  as well as,  development of those community based broadcast system.

 While I have watch the proceeds of government working with major internet company to develop this process.  I am less then happy with the outcome of Tax dollars that have been spent to progress this development in rural country living not only Provincially, but Federally as well. IN a Federal sense there has been no accountability with this progress and money granted.

While watching Google history here, and latest development in Africa it seems it has gone far away from its home base to develop the framework. I sometimes wonder then if the community in the framework of governments is some how caused such a innovative process as a the result of that development in Africa? Of course that is speculation on my part and any success on this front pushes forward the desires of what communication can reach the far ends of the earth and bring global communication to the nourishment of every individual on this planet.

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Thursday, June 14, 2012

Tracking the Trackers

 As you surf the Web, information is being collected about you. Web tracking is not 100% evil -- personal data can make your browsing more efficient; cookies can help your favorite websites stay in business. But, says Gary Kovacs, it's your right to know what data is being collected about you and how it affects your online life. He unveils a Firefox add-on to do just that.

See Also: Collusion

Monday, June 11, 2012

The Black Hole of What?

In networking, black holes refer to places in the network where incoming traffic is silently discarded (or "dropped"), without informing the source that the data did not reach its intended recipient.

When examining the topology of the network, the black holes themselves are invisible, and can only be detected by monitoring the lost traffic; hence the name.


Dead addresses

The most common form of black hole is simply an IP address that specifies a host machine that is not running or an address to which no host has been assigned.
Even though TCP/IP provides means of communicating the delivery failure back to the sender via ICMP, traffic destined for such addresses is often just dropped.
Note that a dead address will be undetectable only to protocols that are both connectionless and unreliable (e.g., UDP). Connection-oriented or reliable protocols (TCP, RUDP) will either fail to connect to a dead address or will fail to receive expected acknowledgements.

Firewalls and "stealth" ports

Most firewalls can be configured to silently discard packets addressed to forbidden hosts or ports, resulting in small or large "black holes" in the network.

Black hole filtering

Black hole filtering refers specifically to dropping packets at the routing level, usually using a routing protocol to implement the filtering on several routers at once, often dynamically to respond quickly to distributed denial-of-service attacks.

PMTUD black holes

Some firewalls incorrectly discard all ICMP packets, including the ones needed for Path MTU discovery to work correctly. This causes TCP connections from/to/through hosts with a lower MTU to hang.

Black hole e-mail addresses

A black hole e-mail address is an e-mail address which is valid (messages sent to it will not generate errors), but to which all messages sent are automatically deleted, and never stored or seen by humans. These addresses are often used as return addresses for automated e-mails.

See also

External links

Thursday, May 24, 2012

BroadBand Technology

Broadband research is a McGill area of expertise. Meet researchers such as David Plant, Tho Le-Ngoc, and Mark Coates who are on the cutting edge of machine to machine communication, high-speed internet technologies, and wireless communications.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

BroadBand Portals of the OECD

Tim Berners-Lee, Director of the World Wide Web Consortium and inventor of the World Wide Web, talks about the challenges ahead and why an open Internet is key to its continuing success

The OECD broadband portal provides access to a range of broadband-related statistics gathered by the OECD. Policy makers must examine a range of indicators which reflect the status of individual broadband markets in the OECD. The OECD has indentified five main categories which are important for assessing broadband markets.OECD Broadband Portal
See Also:Ask the Wrong Questions and . . . : the CRTC’s Review of Wireless Competition

Saturday, April 14, 2012

Mega Mind?

Source:Numerical Relativity Code and Machine Timeline

In 2005 in "Lightening," as Strings, Strike?" I could see where certain issues were developing in terms of using computerized techniques in order establish a numerical correlations. Computations with how one might look and see the universe. Albeit, the brain in the end always came to my mind too.

DEUS consortium is developping the largest cosmological Dark Matter simulations to date with realistic Dark Energy component, involving billions of particules, with highest spatial resolution for the largest set of simulated Universe. Our challenge is to reproduce with unprecedented details the cosmic structure formation process and answer to the fundamental questions: what can we learn on Dark Energy from Large Scale Structure Formation (LSS) ? and How LSS formation process is affected by the presence of Dark Energy ? and then to understand the nature of the Dark Energy., Contact:

Sort of like:  Mapping the Internet Brain and Consciousness

Sunday, April 08, 2012

UK intelligence to monitor electronic communications

But Britain's home office interior ministry said ministers were preparing to legislate "as soon as parliamentary time allows", saying it would be data, not content, that would be monitored. "It is vital that police and security services are able to obtain communications data in certain circumstances to investigate serious crime and terrorism and to protect the public," a spokesman said.UK intelligence to monitor electronic communications
The Uk in terms of communications security is coming late to the party?

“We are proposing measures to bring our laws into the 21st century and to provide the police with the lawful tools that they need,” Mr. Toews said to the MP for Lac-Saint-Louis, Quebec. “He can either stand with us or with the child pornographers.”

Selectively one may of held this surveillance as to some kind of thing Iran or China scheme is doing, when, it has already happening within Canada. If electronic media is to be incorporated into free societies then the misnomer is, we are no longer free?
Big Media lobbyists are trying to lock down the Internet in Canada through legislation like Bill C-11 and the trade agreements ACTA1 and TPP2. Bill C-11 has already passed its second reading. It currently includes provisions to lock users out of their own services3 and give Big Media giants increased power to shut down websites have already made their way into Bill C-11. See:Dear Parliament: Say no to the Internet Lockdown
Who is watching the police and the security forces? I'm just saying. How can we allow the freedoms when we are restrictively applying that freedom? I am definitely open to what people have to say about this. What governments have to say about it. Who is in control of Governments...The People?

 See Also: The Cogito semantic technology

Friday, April 06, 2012

Thoughts on the Filter Bubble

 What got me thinking. This was part of a  comment to a post I read this morning. This was the catalyst for it's construction. I do not think I supply any answers but just make one more aware of their surroundings.

Matt:"It would appear, from the above comments, that almost the only people willing to comment on this topic are those who agree with me to a greater or lesser extent. Which might also mean that the only people reading this blog are those who agree with me. That is quite disappointing, but perhaps not entirely surprising in this deeply fragmented era."

I am not quite sure what you are after. You yourself are a product of the internet?:) Thoughts on the Filter Bubble -

While I cannot be specific as to why there are not more responses from those regarding your article here,  the chart "upworthy- " has established and demonstrates as you can see that maybe your article is 0.1% of interest to some people?

So your response while focused here on this question of yours holds thoughts about the "deeply fragmented era." It is an informational world and quite vast. Scientists operate as only 3% of the population so while specific to the population only a portion of that population as a small amount might be interested?

Some of us who are looking to discover the deepest secrets about our capabilities as human beings are now exposed to the technology that places us in packages for  inspection. Algorithmically design computer processes that track our progress?  No,  you are not being paranoid.

Individualistic as we are in our pursuit maybe we should start a blog or something to specifically detail the areas of interest that we are after?  Then people will choose.

We can't change all that. But we believe the things that matter in the world don't have to be boring and guilt-inducing. And the addictive stuff we love doesn't have to be completely substanceless. Our core message is: See: Upworthy
So how do you filter out stuff that only you want in regards to that 0.1% of stuff that actually matters to you? No not what somebody else chooses for you, but research that is specific to what you are after.

Some of us care about science and the current issues being put out their today and how much is it of a journalistic fervor for all the trappings that make up the internet. For sure, the wide world of the electronic media is a new place for business. A place for disseminating information about our governments and the political ideological ideals. Sharing?

Every year, thousands of entrepreneurs, change-makers, innovators and scientists gather in Long Beach, California for TED, the world’s leading thought conference. In 2011, the audience included executives from Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, and many other Silicon Valley startups. So when Eli Pariser explained the filter bubble concept and then called on them from the main stage to change how they do business, it wasn’t at all clear how they’d react. Watch the video to see what happened:See:The Filter Bubble

 From an earlier posting and a repeat here about what rights we have have been undermined by governments as to our privacy? So the question is, how long before DuckDuckGo disappears?


Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Monday, February 20, 2012

Flattening the World: Building a Global Knowledge Society

The focus of the 2012 meeting, then, is on using the power of electronic communications and information resources to tackle the complex problems of the 21st century on a global scale through international, multidisciplinary efforts. We have a model already in the scale and scope of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). But that’s just the beginning. The interconnections among, for example, climate change, agriculture, and health are as yet poorly understood; predictive modeling is in its infancy.
The ability to approach global problems through global collaborations depends on an educated populace and on substantial scientific and technological sophistication throughout the world. Thus building the global knowledge society depends on advancing education and research, the engines of the knowledge society, everywhere. This task is facilitated, but not accomplished, by the existence of electronically accessible open educational resources. There remain limitations of language and culture, of poverty and access.See: Flattening the World: Building a Global Knowledge Society(bold added by me for emphasis)

Flattening the world sounds like something that you would not like to return in thinking about the push for society to become better informed and pulled out of the dark ages? But it's not really about that. It's about leveling the playing field in terms of,  "Globalization of Knowledge."

 WIRED: What do you mean the world is flat?
Thomas Lauren Friedman

FRIEDMAN: I was in India interviewing Nandan Nilekani at Infosys. And he said to me, "Tom, the playing field is being leveled." Indians and Chinese were going to compete for work like never before, and Americans weren't ready. I kept chewing over that phrase - the playing field is being leveled - and then it hit me: Holy mackerel, the world is becoming flat. Several technological and political forces have converged, and that has produced a global, Web-enabled playing field that allows for multiple forms of collaboration without regard to geography or distance - or soon, even language. See: Why the World Is Flat

The theme above then in opening linked article is like a mission statement.  So in a sense,  I highlight with the paragraphs above to illustrate what a stubborn scientist frustrated has been like,  locked in his own perspective about climate change( it seems a formulation principle arises with the basis of that topic. Okay, the presentation is specific and he talks about Quantum Computing) That one might in his case may cast a wide sweeping statement about the aims and purposes of giving as much knowledge as possible to the masses, as being leftist.

 Right,  left?  Nothing like being stereotype, yet,  a question in my mind exists about globalization? Suffering from "the products"  from which one could have grown up,  you can understand indeed why such skepticism might be measured as a "dying voice of concern about that global village?"  This though,  is not about economics. You See?:)

The public, needs to be better informed. Remove the barriers and constraints to that knowledge you then are successful in raising the standards of communication across the world. It should lower the stress level for an  impatient scientist who is frustrated with the level of knowledge perceived from the basis of the questions asked by the public?:)

 Ask you self then.........In respect of knowledge, do those who control the medium, control the message?

 The very thing you might fight for is in fact a form of something that one might see as being repressed under a presentation of some communistic system,  when in fact,  such monopolistic controls are much the same?


So why have I stayed out of the climate debate change? One, because I do not know enough, and two, because I knew nature was ever present while we were contributing to the environment in which we live.

So the population,  since my looking into the subject of particle research has it's basis set in understanding our connectives to the space around us? What is happening in the airs above earth that you would not take notice? Cosmic particle research? It may help one understand the logo better? Like ideas,  particles exist all around us?:)

How does this then contribute to the understanding that nature is ever a greater force then humanity could ever think itself  as to the design of our place in history.

See Also:

Thursday, January 05, 2012

Control the Medium, You Control the Product?

The historical record, as I’ve also argued, is also quite unequivocal on the folly of allowing those who own the medium to control the message See: The Vertical Integration Elephant in the Room
 For differing points of view some might have a take on the process unfolding in our society today as a sign of the way things have always gone? Do you feel the same?

A Thomas Nast cartoon shortly after the Supreme Court affirmed Alexander Graham Bell's patents (library of congress)


At least seven major cities adopted measured service in the 1880s: Boston; San Francisco; Buffalo; Pittsburgh; Indianapolis; Washington, DC; and Rochester, New York. The policy had a pro-consumer aspect; it expanded the market of any local exchange carrier to people who didn't want to pay a big monthly service fee, thus extending the circle of individuals any rate payer could call.
But while measured service initially succeeded in San Francisco and Buffalo, it failed everywhere else throughout the decade. Consumers could not shake the suspicion that its real purpose was to get them to pay more money to the telephone company. And so they resorted to what we would call boycotts and they called "strikes" to make their dissatisfaction known.

"The term 'strike' has come to be associated primarily with a work stoppage," John notes, but "in the 1880s its meaning was broader. A corporation could be struck not only by workers, but also by consumers and even lawmakers."

As early as 1881, for example, Washington, DC's "Telephone Subscribers Protective Association" launched a boycott of its exchange when the company adopted measured billing. It wasn't very long affair, just twelve days. But 300 out of the city's 700 phone subscribers participated. That was all it took for the firm to surrender and bring back flat rates. See: Mad about metered billing? They were in 1886, too

Tuesday, January 03, 2012

Google Books Library Project

What's the goal of this project?
The Library Project's aim is simple: make it easier for people to find relevant books – specifically, books they wouldn't find any other way such as those that are out of print – while carefully respecting authors' and publishers' copyrights. Our ultimate goal is to work with publishers and libraries to create a comprehensive, searchable, virtual card catalog of all books in all languages that helps users discover new books and publishers discover new readers. See: Google Books
I was asked by my daughter about one of these devices whether I preferred the new device or the paper books. I would have to say I do favor the paperback but also look for advantages as to provide access to information as detrimental to providing society with the tools necessary. Receiving a gift certificate for 50 dollars to one of the books stores I might add this for a electronic purchase.

What brought this subject up was the update on the new electronic devices out there that allow you to read and download books for reading. Over the years being an advocate of sorts for the electronic development of our cultures I could see where such devices would allow extraordinary freedom to carry's a lot of books in one location. So there has to be lots said about not being in in the mood for reading one book while being attentive to others for research material. Sort of like closing in on a cold case file or something like that may have been missed supportive by research material.

So under the auspice of attaining a library of sorts was appealing to me and I thought advantages to society that cold not travel distances to the libraries yet have access from the rural locations.


The Google Books Library Project is an effort by Google to scan and make searchable the collections of several major research libraries.[1] The project, along with Google's Partner Program, comprise Google Books (formerly Google Book Search). Along with bibliographic information, snippets of text from a book are often viewable. If a book is out of copyright and in the public domain, the book is fully available to read or to download.[2]

1 Participants


The Google Books Library Project continues to evolve;[3] however, only some of the institutional partners are listed on the web page currently maintained by Google:[4]

 Initial Project Partners

The number of academic libraries participating in the digitization and uploading of books from their collections has grown beyond the original five: Harvard, Michigan, Stanford, Oxford, and the New York Public Library.

 Harvard University

Harvard University (and Harvard University Library) is an institutional participant in the project.[5] The Harvard University Library (HUL) today is best understood as a coordinated system of more than 80 libraries with shared holdings. The University Library is also a department of the University's central administration through which the libraries collaborate in the areas of digital acquisitions and collections, information technology, high-density storage, and preservation.[6]
The Harvard University Library and Google are building on a successful pilot conducted by Harvard and Google throughout 2005. The project will increase Internet access to the holdings of the Harvard University Library, which includes more than 15.8 million volumes. While physical access to Harvard's library materials generally is restricted to current Harvard students, faculty, and researchers, or to scholars who can come to Cambridge, the Harvard-Google Project has been designed to enable both members of the Harvard community and users everywhere to discover works in the Harvard collection.
"The new century presents important new opportunities for libraries, including Harvard's, and for those individuals who use them. The collaboration between major research libraries and Google will create an important public good of benefit to students, teachers, scholars, and readers everywhere. The project harnesses the power of the Internet to allow users to identify books of interest with a precision and at a speed previously unimaginable. The user will then be guided to find books in local libraries or to purchase them from publishers and book vendors. And, for books in the public domain, there will be even broader access."[4]
"The Harvard-Google Project links the search power of the Internet to the depth of knowledge in Harvard's world-renowned libraries. Harvard has been collecting books for nearly four centuries. Among our out-of-copyright books are countless unique copies, unusual editions, and neglected or forgotten works. Our efforts with Google will bring about the broad dissemination of the knowledge contained in those books and, with it, significant information about the world views that those books represent .... By working with Google, Harvard is furthering an essential aspect of the University Library's mission, which is to serve scholars around the world."
-- Sidney Verba, the former Carl H. Pforzheimer University Professor and former Director of the University Library.[5]

 New York Public Library

The New York Public Library (NYPL) is an institutional participant in the project.[7]
In this pilot program, NYPL is working with Google to offer a collection of its public domain books, which will be scanned in their entirety and made available for free to the public online. Users will be able to search and browse the full text of these works. When the scanning process is complete, the books may be accessed from both The New York Public Library's website and from the Google search engine. [7]
"The New York Public Library Research Libraries were struck by the convergence of Google's mission with their own. We see the digitization project as a transformational moment in the access to information and wanted not only to learn from it but also to influence it. Our response at present is a conservative one, with a limited number of volumes in excellent condition, in selected languages and in the public domain. With appropriate evaluation of this limited participation, we look forward to a more expansive collaboration in the future."
-– David Ferriero, Andrew W. Mellon Director and Chief Executive of the Research Libraries, The New York Public Library.[4]

 Stanford University

Stanford University (and Stanford University Libraries/SULAIR) is an institutional participant in the project.[8]
"Stanford has been digitizing texts for years now to make them more accessible and searchable, but with books, as opposed to journals, such efforts have been severely limited in scope for both technical and financial reasons. The Google arrangement catapults our effective digital output from the boutique scale to the truly industrial. Through this program and others like it, Stanford intends to promote learning and stimulate innovation."
-– Michael A. Keller, University Librarian.[4]

 University of Michigan

Notice about the project
The University of Michigan (and the University of Michigan Library) is an institutional participant in the project.[9]
"The project with Google is core to our mission as a great public university to advance knowledge — on campus and beyond. By joining this partnership that makes our library holdings searchable through Google, UM serves as an agent in an initiative that radically increases the availability of information to the public. The University of Michigan embraces this project as a means to make information available as broadly and conveniently as possible. Moreover, the UM Library embarked on this ground-breaking partnership for a number of very compelling reasons:
  • "We believe that, beyond providing basic access to library collections, this activity is critically transformative, enabling the University Library to build on and re-conceive vital library services for the new millennium.
  • "This work will create new ways for users to search and access library content, opening up our collections to our own users and to users throughout the world.
  • "Although we have engaged in large-scale, preservation-based conversion of materials in the Library's collection for several years, and have been a leader in digital preservation efforts among research libraries, we know that only through partnerships of this sort can conversion of this scale be achieved. Our program is strong, and we have been able to digitize approximately 5,000 volumes/year; nevertheless, at this rate, it would take us more than a thousand years to digitize our entire collection."
-– John P. Wilkin, Associate University Librarian.[4]

University of Oxford

University of Oxford is an institutional participant in this project.[10] Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world, and its historic Bodleian Library is the oldest university library.
"The Bodleian Library's mission, from its founding in 1602, has been based on Sir Thomas Bodley's vision of a library serving the worldwide 'Republic of Letters', with the Library's collections open to all who have need to use them. To this day over 60% of readers who use and work in the Bodleian Library have no direct affiliation with the University of Oxford . The Google Library Project in Oxford testifies to our ongoing commitment to enable and facilitate access to our content for the scholarly community and beyond. The initiative will carry forward Sir Thomas Bodley's vision and the ethos of the Bodleian Library into the digital age, allowing readers from around the world to access the Library's collections over the World Wide Web."
-– Ronald Milne, former Director of Oxford University Library & Bodleian Librarian.[4]

 Additional Project Partners

Other institutional partners have joined the Project in the years since the partnership was first announced.

 Bavarian State Library

The Bavarian State Library (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek or BSB) is an institutional participant in the project.[11]
"With today's announcement we are opening our library to the world and bringing the true purpose of libraries — the discovery of books and knowledge — a decisive step further in into the digital era. This is an exciting effort to help readers around the world discover and access Germany's rich literary tradition online — whenever and wherever they want."
— Dr. Rolf Griebel, Director General of the Bavarian State Library.[4]

 Columbia University

Columbia University (and Columbia University Library System) is an institutional participant in the project.[4]
"Our participation in the Google Book Search Library Project will add significantly to the extensive digital resources the Libraries already deliver," said James Neal, Columbia's vice president for information services and university librarian. "It will enable the Libraries to make available more significant portions of its extraordinary archival and special collections to scholars and researchers worldwide in ways that will ultimately change the nature of scholarship."
James G. Neal, University Librarian and Vice-President for Information Services at Columbia University.[4]

 Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC)

The Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) is an institutional participant in the project.[12] The CIC developed in the late 1950s from a cautious exploration of the ways in which 11 major universities — two private and nine state-supported — might pool their resources for the common good. Today the CIC is an active participant in the Google Books Library Project, which becomes something of a logical extension of the initial working relationships forged a half century ago amongst Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago.
The CIC is guided by the Provosts of the member universities; and the CIC Digital Library Initiatives Overview Committee monitors the digitization and dissemination of books in the CIC collections.[13]
"This partnership with Google is one of the most ambitious undertakings in the history of the CIC, and sets the stage for a remarkable transformation of library services and information access. We're opening up these resources as both a common good shared among the universities, as well as a public good available more broadly. "
Barbara McFadden Allen, Director of the CIC.[4]

 Complutense University of Madrid

The Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense) is an institutional participant in the project.[14]
"Out-of-copyright books previously only available to people with access to the University Complutense of Madrid's Library, or the money to travel, will now be accessible to everyone with an Internet connection, wherever they live. We are quite literally opening our library to the world. The opportunities for education are phenomenal and we are delighted to be working with Google on this project."
Carlos Berzosa, Chancellor.[4]

 Cornell University

Cornell University (and Cornell University Library) is an institutional participant in the project.[15]
"Research libraries today are integral partners in the academic enterprise through their support of research, teaching and learning. They also serve a public good by enhancing access to the works of the world's best minds. As a major research library, Cornell University Library is pleased to join its peer institutions in this partnership with Google. The outcome of this relationship is a significant reduction in the time and effort associated with providing scholarly full-text resources online."
Ann R. Kenney, Interim Cornell University Librarian.[4]

 Ghent University Library

Ghent University (and Boekentoren/Ghent University Library) is an institutional participant in the project.[16]
'We are thrilled to open our books and our library to the world through this project. This is an exciting effort to help readers — no matter where they are — discover and access part of Belgium and Europe's rich literary tradition and culture. In addition, we are about to start a multi-year project to renovate our library building, and while our library's doors will be closed, its books will remain open to students and academics through Google Book Search."
Sylvia Van Peteghem, Chief Librarian, Ghent University Library.[4]

 Keio University

Keio University (and Keio Media Centers (Libraries)) is an institutional participant in the project.[17]
"The Google project allows us to make our collections visible worldwide, so that our books will contribute to research and education on a global scale. Our university was founded in 1858 by Yukichi Fukuzawa, who was well known for his commitment to bringing information and media forward in modern Japan. This makes Keio ideally suited to be the first Japanese library to participate in Google Book Search."
— Professor S. Sugiyama, Director, Keio University Library.[4]

National Library of Catalonia

The National Library of Catalonia (Biblioteca de Catalunya) is an institutional participant in the project.[18]
"It once was the case that only those who could visit our library were able to 'visit' our books. Now, anyone interested in the vast number of titles our library houses will be able to find and access them online–or perhaps just discover them by chance via a simple search of the Google Book Search index. This is a tremendous step forward for enabling readers all around the world to discover and access the rich history of Catalonian, Castilian, and Latin American literature."
-- Dolors Lamarca, Director of the National Library of Barcelona.[4]

 Princeton University

Princeton University (and Princeton University Library) is an institutional participant in the project.[19]
"Generations of Princeton librarians have devoted themselves to building a remarkable collection of books in thousands of subjects and dozens of languages. Having the portion of that collection not covered by copyright available online will make it easier for Princeton students and faculty to do research, and joining the Google partnership allows us to share our collection with researchers worldwide, a step very much in keeping with the University's unofficial motto of Princeton in the nation's service and in the service of all nations."
Karin Trainer, Princeton University Librarian.[4]

 University of California

The University of California is an institutional participant in the project.[20]
"By unlocking the wealth of information maintained within our libraries and exposing it to the latest that search technologies have to offer, the University of California is continuing its work to harness technology and our library collections in support of research, learning, patient care, and cultural engagement. In this new world, people will make connections between information and ideas that were hitherto inaccessible, driving the pace of innovation in all areas of life – academic, economic, and civic – and enhancing the use of the world's great libraries.
"With digital copies of our library holdings, we will also provide a safeguard for the countless thousands of authors, publishers, and readers who would be devastated by catastrophic loss occasioned, for example, by natural disaster. Anyone who doubts the impact that such disaster can have on our cultural memory need look no further than the devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina on our sister libraries in the Gulf States.
"As an institution that has built these vast collections as a public good and in the public trust, joining the Google library partnership was the right thing to do."
Daniel Greenstein, Associate Vice Provost for Scholarly Information and University Librarian.[4]

University Library of Lausanne

The University of Lausanne (and the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne) is an institutional participant in the project.[21]
"Out of copyright books previously only available to people with access to Lausanne's university library, will now be accessible to everyone with an Internet connection, wherever they live. We are quite literally opening our library to the world. The opportunities for education are phenomenal and we are delighted to be working with Google on this project".
Hubert A. Villard, Director of the Cantonal and University Library of Lausanne.[4]

 University of Mysore

The University of Mysore (and the Mysore University Library) is an institutional participant in the project.[22]

 University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (and the University of Texas Libraries) is an institutional participant in this project.[23]
"University libraries in our society are entrusted with the critical mission of collecting and providing access to information spanning the entire range of human knowledge. Our libraries are also responsible for effectively preserving this knowledge and ensuring access to it over vast periods of time. At the University of Texas at Austin, we hold a deep commitment to each of these objectives and believe that participating in this venture will help ensure our ability to meet those commitments far into the future."
Fred Heath, Vice Provost and Director of Libraries.[4]

 University of Virginia

The University of Virginia (and the University of Virginia Library) is an institutional participant in this project.[24]
"The U.Va. Library was a pioneer in digitizing public domain materials. We started with printed texts in 1992, and faculty and students quickly discovered that long-forgotten and out-of-print texts could reach new audiences and spark new scholarship. We have often talked about libraries without walls, but now we are even closer to realizing that vision, thanks to this partnership."
Karin Wittenborg, University Librarian, University of Virginia.[4]

 University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (and the University of Wisconsin Digital Collection) is an institutional participant in this project.[25]
"The combined library collections of the University of Wisconsin–Madison Libraries and the Wisconsin Historical Society Library comprise one of the largest collections of documents and historical materials in the United States. Through this landmark partnership with Google, Wisconsin is taking a leading role in preserving public domain works for future generations and making the Library's resources widely available for education and research. This effort truly exemplifies the vision of The Wisconsin Idea—the notion that the boundaries of the university are limitless. The Wisconsin libraries have been following in this tradition. The Google digitization efforts will enable the libraries to expand access to public domain materials that have heretofore only been accessible in the libraries. Much of this material is rare and one-of-a-kind, providing a rich, open source of information for educational, research and general public use."
Edward Van Gemert, Interim Director, UW–Madison Libraries.[4]

 See also



 External links