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Showing posts with label Interferometer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Interferometer. Show all posts

Wednesday, December 01, 2010

Holometer

Holometer Revised


This plot shows the sensitivity of various experiments to fluctuations in space and time. Horizontal axis is the log of apparatus size (or duration time the speed of light), in meters; vertical axis is the log of the rms fluctuation amplitude in the same units. The lower left corner represents the Planck length or time. In these units, the size of the observable universe is about 26. Various physical systems and experiments are plotted. The "holographic noise" line represents the rms transverse holographic fluctuation amplitude on a given scale. The most sensitive experiments are Michelson interferometers.

The Fermilab Holometer in Illinois is currently under construction and will be the world's most sensitive laser interferometer when complete, surpassing the sensitivity of the GEO600 and LIGO systems, and theoretically able to detect holographic fluctuations in spacetime.[1][2][3]

The Holometer may be capable of meeting or exceeding the sensitivity required to detect the smallest units in the universe called Planck units.[1] Fermilab states, "Everyone is familiar these days with the blurry and pixelated images, or noisy sound transmission, associated with poor internet bandwidth. The Holometer seeks to detect the equivalent blurriness or noise in reality itself, associated with the ultimate frequency limit imposed by nature."[2]
Craig Hogan, a particle astrophysicist at Fermilab, states about the experiment, "What we’re looking for is when the lasers lose step with each other. We’re trying to detect the smallest unit in the universe. This is really great fun, a sort of old-fashioned physics experiment where you don’t know what the result will be."

Experimental physicist Hartmut Grote of the Max Planck Institute in Germany, states that although he is skeptical that the apparatus will successfully detect the holographic fluctuations, if the experiment is successful "it would be a very strong impact to one of the most open questions in fundamental physics. It would be the first proof that space-time, the fabric of the universe, is quantized."[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Mosher, David (2010-10-28). "World’s Most Precise Clocks Could Reveal Universe Is a Hologram". Wired. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/10/holometer-universe-resolution/. 
  2. ^ a b "The Fermilab Holometer". Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. http://holometer.fnal.gov/. Retrieved 2010-11-01. 
  3. ^ Dillow, Clay (2010-10-21). "Fermilab is Building a 'Holometer' to Determine Once and For All Whether Reality Is Just an Illusion". Popular Science. http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2010-10/fermilab-building-holometer-determine-if-universe-just-hologram.

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Fermilab Holometer
About a hundred years ago, the German physicist Max Planck introduced the idea of a fundamental, natural length or time, derived from fundamental constants. We now call these the Planck length, lp = √hG/2π c3 = 1.6 × 10-35 meters. Light travels one Planck length in the Planck time, tp = √hG/2π c5 = 5.4 × 10-44seconds. 
The physics of space and time is expected to change radically on such small scales. For example, a particle confined to a Planck volume automatically collapses to a black hole. 
See: Fermilab Holometer

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A Conceptual Drawing of the 'Holometer' via Symmetry

“The shaking of spacetime occurs at a million times per second, a thousand times what your ear can hear,” said Fermilab experimental physicist Aaron Chou, whose lab is developing prototypes for the holometer. “Matter doesn’t like to shake at that speed. You could listen to gravitational frequencies with headphones.”
The whole trick, Chou says, is to prove that the vibrations don’t come from the instrument. Using technology similar to that in noise-cancelling headphones, sensors outside the instrument detect vibrations and shake the mirror at the same frequency to cancel them. Any remaining shakiness at high frequency, the researchers propose, will be evidence of blurriness in spacetime
“With the holometer’s long arms, we’re magnifying spacetime’s uncertainty,” Chou said.
See: Hogan’s holometer: Testing the hypothesis of a holographic universe

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Conclusion:


Wednesday, March 03, 2010

Neutron interferometer

Lubos Motl:
You have completely misunderstood the neutron gravitational interference experiment. They showed that the force acting on the neutron is simply not negligible. Quite on the contrary, these interference experiments could measure and did measure the gravitational acceleration - and even the tidal forces - on the phase shift of the neutron's wave function. It's the very point of these experiments.

So whatever theory predicts that such forces are "negligible" is instantly falsified.
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From Wikipedia
In physics, a neutron interferometer is an interferometer capable of diffracting neutrons, allowing the wave-like nature of neutrons, and other related phenomena, to be explored.
Interferometry inherently depends on the wave nature of the object. As pointed out by de Broglie in his PhD-thesis, particles, including neutrons, can behave like waves (the so called wave-particle duality, now explained in the general framework of quantum mechanics). The wave functions of the individual interferometer paths are created and recombined coherently which needs the application of dynamical theory of diffraction. Neutron interferometers are the counterpart of X-ray interferometers and are used to study quantities or benefits related to thermal neutron radiation.

Neutron interferometers are used to determine minute quantum-mechanical effects to the neutron wave, such as studies of the
  • Aharonov-Bohm effect
  • gravity acting on an elementary particle, the neutron
  • rotation of the earth acting on a quantum system
they can be applied for
Like X-ray interferometers, neutron interferometers are typically carved from a single large crystal of silicon, often 10 to 30 or more centimeters in diameter and 20 to 60 or more in length. Modern semiconductor technology allows large single-crystal silicon boules to be easily grown. Since the boule is a single crystal, the atoms in the boule are precisely aligned, to within small fractions of a nanometer or an angstrom, over the entire boule. The interferometer is created by carving away all but three slices of silicon, held in perfect alignment by a base. (image) Neutrons impinge on the first slice, where, by diffraction from the crystalline lattice, they separate into two beams. At the second slice, they are diffracted again, with two beams continuing on to the third slice. At the third slice, the beams recombine, interfering constructively or destructively, completing the interferometer. Without the precise, angstrom-level alignment of the three slices, the interference results would not be meaningful.

Only recently, a neutron interferometer for cold and ultracold neutrons was designed and successfully run. As neutron optical components in this case three artificial holographically produced, i.e., by means of a light optic two wave interference setup illuminating a photo-neutronrefractive polymer, gratings are employed.

References

V. F. Sears, Neutron Optics, Oxford University Press (1998).
H. Rauch and S. A. Werner, Neutron Interferometry, Clarendon Press, Oxford (2000).

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On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton

Starting from first principles and general assumptions Newton's law of gravitation is shown to arise naturally and unavoidably in a theory in which space is emergent through a holographic scenario. Gravity is explained as an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. A relativistic generalization of the presented arguments directly leads to the Einstein equations. When space is emergent even Newton's law of inertia needs to be explained. The equivalence principle leads us to conclude that it is actually this law of inertia whose origin is entropic.

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The Neutron Interferometry and Optics Facility (NIOF) located in the NIST Center for Neutron Research Guide Hall is one of the world's premier user facilities for neutron interferometry and related neutron optical measurements. A neutron interferometer (NI) splits, then recombines neutron waves. This gives the NI its unique ability to experimentally access the phase of neutron waves. Phase measurements are used to study the magnetic, nuclear, and structural properties of materials, as well fundamental questions in quantum physics. Related, innovative neutron optical techniques for use in condensed matter and materials science research are being developed.
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Neutron Interferometer. A three blade neutron interferometer, machined from a single crystal silicon ingot is shown in two views. A monoenergetic neutron beam is split by the first blade and recombined in the third blade. If a sample is introduced in one of the paths, a phase difference in the wave function is produced, and interference between the recombined beams causes count rate shifts of opposite sign in the two detectors.
The Neutron Interferometer Facility in the Cold Neutron Guide Hall became operational in April 1994. It became available as a National User Facility in September 1996. Phase contrast of up to 88 percent and phase stability of better than five milliradians per day were observed. These performance indications are primarily the result of the advanced vibration isolation and environmental control systems. The interferometer operates inside a double walled enclosure, with the inner room built on a 40,000 kg slab which floats on pneumatic pads above an isolated foundation.



See AlsoGravity is Entropy is Gravity is...

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Gravity is Talking, LISA will Listen

It seems by measure the Interferometer has come a long way. If one recognizes how gravitational waves are measured, you come to understand how they can have a affect on laser light.

Bee and Stefan of Backreaction have gone to visit the historical location of the beginnings of how we use interferometers.


(click on Image for larger viewing)

The Cosmos sings with many strong gravitational voices, causing ripples in the fabric of space and time that carry the message of tremendous astronomical events: the rapid dances of closely orbiting stellar remnants, the mergers of massive black holes millions of times heavier than the Sun, the aftermath of the Big Bang. These ripples are the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein's 1915 general relativity; nearly one century later, it is now possible to detect them. Gravitational waves will give us an entirely new way to observe and understand the Universe, enhancing and complementing the insights of conventional astronomy.

LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, is a joint NASA–ESA mission to observe astrophysical and cosmological sources of gravitational waves of low frequencies (0.03 mHz to 0.1 Hz, corresponding to oscillation periods of about 10 hours to 10 seconds). This frequency band contains the emission from massive black-hole binaries that form after galactic mergers; the song of compact stellar remnants as they slowly spiral to their final fate in the black holes at the centers of galaxies; the chorus of millions of compact binariesshortly after the Big Bang.

LISA consists of three identical spacecraft flying in a triangular constellation, with equal arms of 5 million kilometers each. As gravitational waves from distant sources reach LISA, they warp space-time, stretching and compressing the triangle. Thus, by precisely monitoring the separation between the spacecraft, we can measure the waves; and by studying the shape and timing of the waves we can learn about the nature and evolution of the systems that emitted them.

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Correlating Gravitational Wave Production in LIGO



Drawing by Glen Edwards, Utah State University, Logan, UT

The most important thing is to be motivated by your own intellectual curiosity.KIP THORNE



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Fig. 1. The four forces (or interactions) of Nature, their force carrying particles and the phenomena or particles affected by them. The three interactions that govern the microcosmos are all much stronger than gravity and have been unified through the Standard Model

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Dr. Kip Thorne, Caltech 01-Relativity-The First 20th Century Revolution

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Why are two installations necessary?





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See: LIGO Listens for Gravitational Echoes of the Birth of the Universe

Results set new limits on gravitational waves originating from the Big Bang; constrain theories about universe formation

Pasadena, Calif.—An investigation by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration has significantly advanced our understanding of the early evolution of the universe.

Analysis of data taken over a two-year period, from 2005 to 2007, has set the most stringent limits yet on the amount of gravitational waves that could have come from the Big Bang in the gravitational wave frequency band where LIGO can observe. In doing so, the gravitational-wave scientists have put new constraints on the details of how the universe looked in its earliest moments.

Much like it produced the cosmic microwave background, the Big Bang is believed to have created a flood of gravitational waves—ripples in the fabric of space and time—that still fill the universe and carry information about the universe as it was immediately after the Big Bang. These waves would be observed as the "stochastic background," analogous to a superposition of many waves of different sizes and directions on the surface of a pond. The amplitude of this background is directly related to the parameters that govern the behavior of the universe during the first minute after the Big Bang.

Earlier measurements of the cosmic microwave background have placed the most stringent upper limits of the stochastic gravitational wave background at very large distance scales and low frequencies. The new measurements by LIGO directly probe the gravitational wave background in the first minute of its existence, at time scales much shorter than accessible by the cosmic microwave background.
The research, which appears in the August 20 issue of the journal Nature, also constrains models of cosmic strings, objects that are proposed to have been left over from the beginning of the universe and subsequently stretched to enormous lengths by the universe's expansion; the strings, some cosmologists say, can form loops that produce gravitational waves as they oscillate, decay, and eventually disappear.

Gravitational waves carry with them information about their violent origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot be obtained by conventional astronomical tools. The existence of the waves was predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916 in his general theory of relativity. The LIGO and GEO instruments have been actively searching for the waves since 2002; the Virgo interferometer joined the search in 2007.

The authors of the new paper report that the stochastic background of gravitational waves has not yet been discovered. But the nondiscovery of the background described in the Nature paper already offers its own brand of insight into the universe's earliest history.

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Sunday, March 01, 2009

Gravity Wave Spectrum

PURPOSE: To show the two-dimensional standing waves on the surface of a square or circular plate.


Early perception of sound as analogy to the ideas of the WMAP background were forming in my mind when Wayne HU was demonstrating the image of polarizations in B mode. To me its as if one puts on a pair of glasses and based on an assumption of the gravitational waves, then one tends to see "all of it" in this Lagrangian way.



With the discovery of sound waves in the CMB, we have entered a new era of precision cosmology in which we can begin to talk with certainty about the origin of structure and the content of matter and energy in the universe.Polarization


This was the basis of how I was seeing the progression of Webber's experiments in using the aluminum bars in gravitational wave detection. It was also more then this that I came to the conclusion I did.

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Sounding out the Big BangJun 1, 2007 by Craig J Hogan is in the departments of physics and astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, US.

Our view of the universe is about to change forever. Since science began, all our knowledge of what lies above, below and around us has come from long-familiar forms of energy: light, produced by distant astrophysical objects; and matter, in the form of particles such as cosmic rays. But we are now in a position to study the universe using an entirely different form of energy that until now has never been directly detected – gravitational waves.





Gravitational waves open up a new window on the universe that will allow us to probe events for which no electromagnetic signature exists. In the next few years, the ground-based interferometers GEO-600, LIGO, VIRGO and TAMA should be able to detect the high-frequency gravitational waves produced by extreme astrophysical objects, providing the first direct detection of these disturbances in space–time. With its much longer arm lengths, the space-based interferometer LISA will, if launched, be able to detect lower-frequency gravitational waves, possibly those generated by phase transitions in the early universe. At even lower frequencies, other experiments will look for tiny signatures of gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background. Source: NASA.


The flow of energy in a cosmic phase transition is similar to that in a waterfall, with turbulence in the cosmic fluid generating a gravitational-wave background today.

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Sound and fluidized interpretation seemed very close to me of the way in which such analogy would help us to look at the universe and the spaces in between cosmological locations, as if, in a three body problem relation.

The Origin of the Universe as Revealed Through the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background submitted by Scott Dodelson Sun, 22 Feb 2009 14:27:37 GMT

Modern cosmology has sharpened questions posed for millennia about the origin of our cosmic habitat. The age-old questions have been transformed into two pressing issues primed for attack in the coming decade: How did the Universe begin? and What physical laws govern the Universe at the highest energies? The clearest window onto these questions is the pattern of polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which is uniquely sensitive to primordial gravity waves. A detection of the special pattern produced by gravity waves would be not only an unprecedented discovery, but also a direct probe of physics at the earliest observable instants of our Universe. Experiments which map CMB polarization over the coming decade will lead us on our first steps towards answering these age-old questions.


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See:
  • Sound Waves in the CMB
  • The Sound of the Landscape
  • Distinctions of Holographical Sound
  • B Field Manifestations
  • Saturday, December 15, 2007

    The Gravity People of our History

    What good is a universe without somebody around to look at it?
    Robert Dicke


    John Archibald Wheeler (born July 9, 1911) is an eminent American theoretical physicist. One of the later collaborators of Albert Einstein, he tried to achieve Einstein's vision of a unified field theory. He is also known as the coiner of the popular name of the well known space phenomenon, the black hole.

    There is always somebody who is the teacher and from them, their is a progeny. It would not be right not to mention John Archibald Wheeler. Or not to mention some of his students.

    Notable students
    Demetrios Christodoulou
    Richard Feynman
    Jacob Bekenstein
    Robert Geroch
    Bei-Lok Hu
    John R. Klauder
    Charles Misner
    Milton Plesset
    Kip Thorne
    Arthur Wightman
    Hugh Everett
    Bill Unruh



    COSMIC SEARCH: How did you come up with the name "black hole"?

    John Archibald Wheeler:It was an act of desperation, to force people to believe in it. It was in 1968, at the time of the discussion of whether pulsars were related to neutron stars or to these completely collapsed objects. I wanted a way of emphasizing that these objects were real. Thus, the name "black hole".

    The Russians used the term frozen star—their point of attention was how it looked from the outside, where the material moves much more slowly until it comes to a horizon.* (*Or critical distance. From inside this distance there is no escape.) But, from the point of view of someone who's on the material itself, falling in, there's nothing special about the horizon. He keeps on going in. There's nothing frozen about what happens to him. So, I felt that that aspect of it needed more emphasis.



    While people are drawn to the "micro-perspective" it is in face of this, that I fall behind on the "many blog postings" and "current events." I try to maintain a perspective about GR and the development of this process through understanding the history.

    I also pay attention to those who use "relevant phrases" to let me know they are continuing to read this blog site. Even in face of the layman status I have. I pay attention also to the information they are imparting and try to incorporate new information from their blogs, within the scope of my understanding, to make sure that I am not misleading others. Thinking this artist( in the conceptual developmental phases) has some wish to be firm in the places science is currently residing.



    Most people think of space as nothingness, the blank void between planets, stars, and galaxies. Kip Thorne, the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at Caltech, has spent his life demonstrating otherwise. Space, from his perspective, is the oft-rumpled fabric of the universe. It bends, stretches, and squeezes as objects move through it and can even fold in on itself when faced with the extreme entities known as black holes. He calls this view the “warped side of the universe.”

    Strictly speaking, Thorne does not focus on space at all. He thinks instead of space-time, the blending of three spatial dimensions and the dimension of time described by Einstein’s general relativity. Gravity distorts both aspects of space-time, and any dynamic event—the gentle spinning of a planet or the violent colliding of two black holes—sends out ripples of gravitational waves. Measuring the direction and force of these waves could teach us much about their origin, possibly even allowing us to study the explosive beginning of the universe itself. To that end, Thorne has spearheaded the construction of LIGO [Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory], a $365 million gravitational-wave detector located at two sites: Louisiana and Washington State. LIGO’s instruments are designed to detect passing gravitational waves by measuring minuscule expansions and contractions of space-time—warps as little as one-thousandth the diameter of a proton.
    Despite the seriousness of his ideas, Thorne is also famous for placing playful bets with his longtime friend Stephen Hawking on questions about the nature of their favorite subject, black holes. Thorne spoke with DISCOVER about his lifetime pursuit of science, which sometimes borders on sci-fi, and offers a preview of an upcoming collaboration with director Steven Spielberg that will bring aspects of his warped world to the big screen.


    So some are quick to call Kip Thorne and his ilk the fantasy and science fiction editors of our times, when progressing to the new movies they will collaborate on. So maybe rightly so here. But to bunch them into the likes of string theorists, to somehow further their goal on their own "mission to enlighten," how Peter Woit do you think so?

    Peter Woit said,
    Thorne expects that nothing in the film will violate fundamental physical law. He also seems rather involved in fantasy as well as science fiction, believing that the LHC has a good shot at producing mini-black holes, and that String theory is now beginning to make concrete, observational predictions which will be tested.


    The very basis of research and development "has a long arm here" developed from the likes of the "small interferometer that we know "works," as a qualitative measure of the fabric of our universe, as the Ligo Operation.

    Don't be so smug to think that what is fantasy in the world of good science people was somehow related to "what you may think" and does not have any validity in the mathematical realm of the string theoretical development.

    It all happens in stages as we all know to well?

    Wednesday, November 14, 2007

    The Ring of Truth

    Savas Dimopoulos:Here’s an analogy to understand this: imagine that our universe is a two-dimensional pool table, which you look down on from the third spatial dimension. When the billiard balls collide on the table, they scatter into new trajectories across the surface. But we also hear the click of sound as they impact: that’s collision energy being radiated into a third dimension above and beyond the surface. In this picture, the billiard balls are like protons and neutrons, and the sound wave behaves like the graviton.


    On the title it is important to understand what is being implied within the context of this post. What came to mind immediately when Bee wrote"Ring of Truth" in her post, "A Theoretically Simple Exception of Everything." Joseph Weber came to mind.

    Joseph Weber 1919 - 2000

    Joseph Weber, the accomplished physicist and electrical engineer, has died at the age of 81. Weber's diverse research interests included microwave spectroscopy and quantum electronics, but he is probably best known for his investigations into gravitational waves.

    In the late 1950s, Weber became intrigued by the relationship between gravitational theory and laboratory experiments. His book, General Relativity and Gravitational Radiation, was published in 1961, and his paper describing how to build a gravitational wave detector first appeared in 1969. Weber's first detector consisted of a freely suspended aluminium cylinder weighing a few tonnes. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Weber announced that he had recorded simultaneous oscillations in detectors 1000 km apart, waves he believed originated from an astrophysical event. Many physicists were sceptical about the results, but these early experiments initiated research into gravitational waves that is still ongoing. Current gravitational wave experiments, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are descendants of Weber's original work.

    Weber was born in 1919 in Paterson, New Jersey, and graduated in 1940. He spent eight years as an electrical engineer in the US Navy, and was assigned as navigator on the aircraft carrier Lexington during World War II. After his resignation from the Navy in 1948, Weber went on to obtain his PhD in 1951 from the Catholic University of America. He was appointed professor of electrical engineering at the University of Maryland, and he moved into the physics department in 1961 when he began his investigations into gravitational waves.

    Weber died on 30 September in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is survived by his wife, the astrophysicist Virginia Trimble.


    Bee writes about "Ring of Truth" from Lee Smolin's book,
    "But we are also fairly sure that we do not yet have all the pieces. Even with the recent successes, no idea yet has that absolute ring of truth." p. 255 (US hardcover).


    So I pulled this above from Bee's comment blog for further reference. To help make my point about gravitational wave detection and all the kinds of wav(Y)es in which gravity can now be looked at.

    So of course it is necessary to include the commentary from Bee's reference too, Garrett Lisi's comment section, to help one see the complex rotations that speaks to all manifestations(geometrical foresight on complex rotations in dimensional spaces), from the origins of all a particle creations to the elemental understanding given in context of the post by Bee.


    "With the discovery of sound waves in the CMB, we have entered a new era of precision cosmology in which we can begin to talk with certainty about the origin of structure and the content of matter and energy in the universe-Wayne Hu


    Stefan,

    Maybe I have a better chance to understand them when their relation to the original post is more than just the word "gravity" in both of them?

    Your "toying with the way we see gravitational and gravity waves?" Dealing with the objective world with ancient ideas?

    I pointed to the differences.

    Plato:Wherever there are no gravitational waves the spacetime is flat. One would have to define these two variances. One from understanding the relation to "radiation" and the other, "to the perfectly spherically symmetric."


    But still to see such dynamics in terms of the "mathematical abstract" I see see no reason why you would "lesson my points" on helping one to see these differences in the space around us.

    This recording was produced by converting into audible sounds some of the radar echoes received by Huygens during the last few kilometres of its descent onto Titan. As the probe approaches the ground, both the pitch and intensity increase. Scientists will use intensity of the echoes to speculate about the nature of the surface.


    So I may point to the ways in which one may synthesized the views of the world in relation to not only "sound" as Kris just talks about, but also about how one may transform that sound "to colour."

    3.1 As Cytowic notes, Plato and Socrates viewed emotion and reason as in a kind of struggle, one in which it was vitally important for reason to win out. Aristotle took a more moderate view, that both emotion and reason are integral parts of a complex human soul--a theory proposed by Aristotle in explicit opposition to Platonism (De Anima 414a 19ff). Cytowic appears to endorse the Platonic line, with the notable difference that he would apparently rather have emotion win out.


    Cosmic variance may talk about synesthesia yet you cannot stop the changes such understanding brings to the emotive forces that surround earth and us.

    Such a shift to bulk perspective is not without it's lessons on progressing the views of gravity in "all situations."

    I am not so smart, just that I may see differently then you Stefan. :)

    We can't actually hear gravitational waves, even with the most sophisticated equipment, because the sounds they make are the wrong frequency for our ears to hear. This is similar in principle to the frequency of dog whistles that canines can hear, but are too high for humans. The sounds of gravitational waves are probably too low for us to actually hear. However, the signals that scientists hope to measure with LISA and other gravitational wave detectors are best described as "sounds." If we could hear them, here are some of the possible sounds of a gravitational wave generated by the movement of a small body in spiralling into a black hole.


    Does anybody really understand what is happening when the conceptual foundation allows new perspective to form? New theories to make their way into challenging the very foundations of our reality?

    Every step in the production of the "conceptual framework" is an exercise in how perception is being changed. Can be changed.

    There are moderators of all sorts who govern the information that is being written. How one view can be portrayed and sits in contradiction to the way String theory uses E8 is not the reason one might of suspected problems with acceptance here or there.

    It s a organizational method on how to respond and place it accordingly. Peter is being paranoid? :)

    Monday, August 21, 2006

    Gravitational Wave Detectors are Best Described as "Sounds."


    Weber developed an experiment using a large suspended bar of aluminum, with a high resonant Q at a frequency of about 1 kH; the oscillation of the bar after it had been excited could be measured by a series of piezoelectric crystals mounted on it. The output of the system was put on a chart recorder like those used to record earthquakes. Weber studied the excursions of the pen to look for the occasional tone of a gravitational wave passing through the bar...


    You have to go back to what was initiated to help put perspective on what the analogies do for us today?

    Plato:
    Density measure(comparative to other things) as sound, would be nice. Which leads me to the ideals of Webber and his aluminum bars.


    So you have it firmly set in mind, where gravitational waves are set in the whole scheme of things? What values would you practise if Bulk perspectives were to allow you to see gravitational waves in it's two extremes?




    Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of space and time produced by cosmic violence, such as the the universe's big-bang creation and collisions of black holes. These waves carry information about the "dark side" of the universe that cannot be learned in any other way. The high-frequency gravitational-wave window onto the universe will be opened soon by LIGO (NSF's earth-based Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory, which is now in operation and searching for waves). A lower-frequency window will be opened in ~2012 by LISA (the NASA/ESA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). This lecture will describe LIGO, LISA, and what they may teach us about the universe and about warped spacetime


    Where are gravitational waves very strong, and where they are very weak?

    Well, do you think such "detachments are practised" when you look at the event? The "sound" is emitted at the "very beginning" and the sound is, "specific?"


    We can't actually hear gravitational waves, even with the most sophisticated equipment, because the sounds they make are the wrong frequency for our ears to hear. This is similar in principle to the frequency of dog whistles that canines can hear, but are too high for humans. The sounds of gravitional waves are probably too low for us to actually hear. However, the signals that scientists hope to measure with LISA and other gravitational wave detectors are best described as "sounds." If we could hear them, here are some of the possible sounds of a gravitational wave generated by the movement of a small body inspiralling into a black hole.


    When such "analogies" are held in mind, you learn to understand the history of gravitational wave research based on "experimental processes" that were adopted by some to push forward our perspective on the very nature and description "such sounds emitted" may refer too?



    So I began to see the whole picture in relation to how we would assess the movement towards "reconstruction of information" that leads from recreating the event from statistical information gathered from our "computerized measures" extended out there, to views of the early universe?

    How shall you construct information of "an event" that is unfolding? So scientifically indeed, "experimentalism" has to be taken to new heights with which to construct such views of the early universe.

    If you understood the nature of curvature, and the dynamical nature you have imbued quantum views then why would you not accept the views that the quantum nature will impart to you the nature of gravity?

    So by preparing oneself as to the ways in which the bulk is perceived, you now have this means with which to judge the events in the cosmos, not just as a after effect of what happened at the time but of the story unfolding from that time?

    This doesn't excuse all that is left in the bulk for perspective, because you need to remember the very nature of all constructs have been left for you to look at, as you "rebuild these images" of what happened so long ago. Actually exist in the bulk right now as information?

    So you understand Bekenstein Bound do you?

    Okay, keep going then with these views as they unfold, and as I have demonstrated them as I "portrait the universe" in the way that I see. It is difficult to get across as a painter, the language barrier, if it does not a have a mutual agreement to interpretation, then it has to be done on a experimental basis.

    We all know that, Peter Woit.


    The analogy with condensed matter physics was thus introduced to see if the asymptotic properties of the Hawking phonons emitted by an acoustic black hole, namely stationarity and thermality, are sensitive to the high frequency physics which stems from the granular character of matter and which is governed by a non-linear dispersion relation. In 1995 Unruh showed that they are not sensitive in this respect, in spite of the fact that phonon propagation near the (acoustic) horizon drastically differs from that of photons. In 2000 the same analogy was used to establish the robustness of the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations in inflationary models. This analogy is currently stimulating research for experimenting Hawking radiation. Finally it could also be a useful guide for going beyond the semi-classical description of black hole evaporation.

    Sunday, March 26, 2006

    On Gauss's Mountain

    You must understand that any corrections necessary are appreciated. The geometrical process spoken too here must be understood in it's historical development to undertand, how one can see differently.

    Euclidean geometry, elementary geometry of two and three dimensions (plane and solid geometry), is based largely on the Elements of the Greek mathematician Euclid (fl. c.300 B.C.). In 1637, René Descartes showed how numbers can be used to describe points in a plane or in space and to express geometric relations in algebraic form, thus founding analytic geometry, of which algebraic geometry is a further development (see Cartesian coordinates). The problem of representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface was solved by Gaspard Monge, who invented descriptive geometry for this purpose in the late 18th cent. differential geometry, in which the concepts of the calculus are applied to curves, surfaces, and other geometrical objects, was founded by Monge and C. F. Gauss in the late 18th and early 19th cent. The modern period in geometry begins with the formulations of projective geometry by J. V. Poncelet (1822) and of non-Euclidean geometry by N. I. Lobachevsky (1826) and János Bolyai (1832). Another type of non-Euclidean geometry was discovered by Bernhard Riemann (1854), who also showed how the various geometries could be generalized to any number of dimensions.


    These tidbits, would have been evidence as projects predceding as "towers across valleys" amd "between mountain measures," to become what they are today. Allows us to se in ways that we are not used too, had we not learnt of this progression and design that lead from one to another.


    8.6 On Gauss's Mountains

    One of the most famous stories about Gauss depicts him measuring the angles of the great triangle formed by the mountain peaks of Hohenhagen, Inselberg, and Brocken for evidence that the geometry of space is non-Euclidean. It's certainly true that Gauss acquired geodetic survey data during his ten-year involvement in mapping the Kingdom of Hanover during the years from 1818 to 1832, and this data included some large "test triangles", notably the one connecting the those three mountain peaks, which could be used to check for accumulated errors in the smaller triangles. It's also true that Gauss understood how the intrinsic curvature of the Earth's surface would theoretically result in slight discrepancies when fitting the smaller triangles inside the larger triangles, although in practice this effect is negligible, because the Earth's curvature is so slight relative to even the largest triangles that can be visually measured on the surface. Still, Gauss computed the magnitude of this effect for the large test triangles because, as he wrote to Olbers, "the honor of science demands that one understand the nature of this inequality clearly". (The government officials who commissioned Gauss to perform the survey might have recalled Napoleon's remark that Laplace as head of the Department of the Interior had "brought the theory of the infinitely small to administration".) It is sometimes said that the "inequality" which Gauss had in mind was the possible curvature of space itself, but taken in context it seems he was referring to the curvature of the Earth's surface.


    One had to recognize the process that historically proceeded in our overviews "to non-euclidean perspectives," "geometrically enhanced" through to our present day headings, expeirmentallly.

    Michelson interferometer(27 Mar 2006 wikipedia)

    Michelson interferometer is the classic setup for optical interferometry and was invented by Albert Abraham Michelson. Michelson, along with Edward Morley, used this interferometer for the famous Michelson-Morley experiment in which this interferometer was used to prove the non-existence of the luminiferous aether. See there for a detailed discussion of its principle.

    But Michelson had already used it for other purposes of interferometry, and it still has many other applications, e.g. for the detection of gravitational waves, as a tunable narrow band filter, and as the core of Fourier transform spectroscopy. There are also some interesting applications as a "nulling" instrument that is used for detecting planets around nearby stars. But for most purposes, the geometry of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer is more useful.


    A quick summation below leads one onto the idea of what experimental validation has done for us. Very simply, the graduation of interferometer design had been taken to astronomical proportions?



    Today the Count expands on this for us by showing other information on expeirmental proposals. How fitting that this historical drama has been shown here, in a quick snapshot. As well the need for understanding the "principal inherent" in the project below.

    VLBI is a geometric technique: it measures the time difference between the arrival at two Earth-based antennas of a radio wavefront emitted by a distant quasar. Using large numbers of time difference measurements from many quasars observed with a global network of antennas, VLBI determines the inertial reference frame defined by the quasars and simultaneously the precise positions of the antennas. Because the time difference measurements are precise to a few picoseconds, VLBI determines the relative positions of the antennas to a few millimeters and the quasar positions to fractions of a milliarcsecond. Since the antennas are fixed to the Earth, their locations track the instantaneous orientation of the Earth in the inertial reference frame. Relative changes in the antenna locations from a series of measurements indicate tectonic plate motion, regional deformation, and local uplift or subsidence.


    See:

  • Apollo Moon Measure