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Showing posts with label Ingenuity. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ingenuity. Show all posts

Wednesday, September 17, 2008

The Inventor's Notebook

"Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." - Thomas Alva Edison, Harper's Monthly (September 1932)


Thomas Edison's first successful light bulb model, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879

You might find a similarity here, that speaks to ingenuity and such, while seeing the historical significance of what is being spoken too. As if, it is the necessity at the forefront of knowledge today. This is "ole stuff being replayed" as if "young minds" need to be reminded, and mine is not so young that I have not gone down these routes before. Or that I needed a reminder.

In computer science, tabula rasa refers to the development of autonomous agents which are provided with a mechanism to reason and plan toward their goal, but no "built-in" knowledge-base of their environment. They are thus truly a "blank slate".


There is no doubt that invention is a process that needs recording. That it shows the procedural avenues to an "established idea" is the necessary aspect of "owning something" that other minds might have missed. It is garnered in the perception of, anomalies, that are met by using that experimental procedure.

Edison's U.S. Patents by Execution DateThis graph shows the annual number of successful U.S. patent applications Edison executed (that is, signed in preparation for filing at the U.S. Patent Office). In 1882, at the height of his work on electric light and power, he completed 106 successful applications.See:Edison's Patents

What are one's productive years and one can think of those who had their times in the light, and those who continued to work by procedural efforts to clock many instances where new inventions continue to arise.

It is often the "novice of science" is attracted to the halls where such ideas become alluring as to what is the "mystery to life?" An event. Such examples become the guiding light as to what life is about? A new web site, or an institution developed to work on the new ideas about Physics and such. One might think that this is the "highlight of all that follows education" the example of the scientist in progress. But it is much more then that. Every detail replay again and again and a question as to how it could possibly be?

Applicability of invention is the diversity of the mind to bring this idea to fruition. It includes that diversification to the lives of many people. While this idea is then part of the procedural efforts of development, it is of no less importance that even though Thomas Edison called the idea of inspiration only 1 percent, it was indeed the work to manifest that this idea, could become the reality of the effort by that 99%.

Observation Pays Off

I always reiterate the validity of the experiment to follow. To see how quick the mind is to spot such contradictions. To highlight how important observation plays in the recognition of the anomalies that arise in our everyday lives.

I have used paintings to suggest how good the mind is to perceive the objectification of things within the content of our views that reveal and require a depth to one's thinking, by inclusion of the process of moving to the "next step" in experimental justification and applicability.

Anomaly and the Emergence of Scientific Discoveries[/b] Kuhn now moves past his initial topic of paradigm to scientific discovery saying that in order for there to be a discovery, an anomaly must be detected within the field of study. He discusses several different studies and points out the anomaly that invoked the scientific discovery. Later in the chapter he begins to discuss how the anomaly can be incorporated into the discovery to satisfy the scientific community.

There are three different characteristics of all discoveries from which new sorts of phenomena emerge. These three characteristics are proven through an experiment dealing with a deck of cards. The deck consisted of anomalous cards (e.g. the red six of spades shown on the previous page) mixed in with regular cards. These cards were held up in front of students who were asked to call out the card they saw, and in most cases the anomaly was not detected.


See if you recognize the validity of what I am saying, then you would have to know something a little bit more about the person who uses the name of Plato. Is to understand, that I was already given an anomalous event within my own life. It rocked the very foundation in face of, all that science has given me.

Tabula rasa (Latin: scraped tablet or clean slate) refers to the epistemological thesis that individual human beings are born with no innate or built-in mental content, in a word, "blank", and that their entire resource of knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the outside world. See Tabula rasa: The Glass Room

I do not ignore this process of science. I think, that to dwell further on "the space that I am showing," is to recognize the emergence of the idea, is still much more then that 1% of inspiration. Because it includes life as we know it already, and all that we know, while giving the idea may have it's proponents mindful in other examples.

I am not going to go into them because they would be considered "not valid" but point out this is the "seed motivation" that arises in my quest for understanding of what "gravity is to mean." Who would know that this excursion into "the unknown" would have it's applicability "to all peoples" regardless of there gender, their race, or how rich or poor you are.

See:

The Inconceivable being Believable
The Value of the Dollar
Tabula rasa:The Glass Room

Sunday, May 04, 2008

The Socratic method

Death of Socrates by Jacques Davidthis picture depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. Condemned to death or exile by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused scepticism and impiety in his students, Socrates heroicly rejected exile and accepted death from hemlock.

Self portrait of Jacques-Louis David, 1794, Musée du Louvre

Here the philosopher continues to speak even while reaching for the cup, demonstrating his indifference to death and his unyielding commitment to his ideals. Most of his disciplines and slaves swirl around him in grief, betraying the weakness of emotionalism. His wife is seen only in the distance leaving the prison. Only Plato, at the foot of the bed and Crito grasping his master's leg, seem in control of themselves.
See:Jacques-Louis David: The Death of Socrates

It was important people understood that even though there is this Glaucon who offers himself as a brother to Plato, it is the very "innate structure within the self" that I point too, as we search and quest our way in the world. It is about Creativity. Opening the doors not only to what has always existed but also realizing that such a stance is the provision for which the lightcone points to the now.

So what is of value is that we understand the dialogue can produce autonomous students whose strength are the understandings given, from compiling all the resources, and thusly, find of value that one may of found the discussion moved further by one more step?

Socratic Method

Socratic Method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate) is a dialectic method of inquiry, largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts and first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. For this, Socrates is customarily regarded as the father of Western ethics or moral philosophy.

It is a form of philosophical inquiry. It typically involves two speakers at any one time, with one leading the discussion and the other agreeing to certain assumptions put forward for his acceptance or rejection. The method is credited to Socrates, who began to engage in such discussions with his fellow Athenians after a visit to the Oracle of Delphi. The Oracle of Delphi confirmed Socrates to be the wisest man in Athens. Socrates interpreted this as a paradox, and began utilizing the Socratic method in order to get his conundrum answered. Diogenes Laertius, however, wrote that Protagoras invented the “Socratic” method.[1][2]


Thus, I present the obvious in what Lee Smolin is trying( a picture perhaps of him writing the "Rovelli name," as an observable) a place in time, as he has positioned himself amongst particular views. That within every lecture, a telltale sign, that is continuously refined and pushed further, through his articulations. The realities, as he has come to believe of them?

So from within this context, I am referred back to the nature of the article by Bee of, "Every Now and Then," and the value placed on the Now. I will be posting a new post in regard to "The Problem of Time in Quantum Cosmology," for further consideration and relevance as extolled by the Backreactions article.


At 11:07 AM, May 04, 2008, Blogger Plato said...

The Socratic method

Most Socratic inquiries consist of a series of elenchai and typically end in aporia.

Frede (1992) insists that step #4 above makes nonsense of the aporetic nature of the early dialogues. If any claim has shown to be true then it can not be the case that the interlocutors are in aporia, a state where they no longer know what to say about the subject under discussion.


Aporia

Aporia (Ancient Greek: ἀπορία: impasse; lack of resources; puzzlement; embarrassment ) denotes, in philosophy, a philosophical puzzle or state of puzzlement, and, in rhetoric, a rhetorically useful expression of doubt.


So moving forward here is the understanding that "Ingenuity can find it's opening by creating a configuration space" for the "sum over path" and "all probabilities," while holding, the idea that these would not evolve further in time? I mention the idea I had about the calorimeters and the views in relation to the configuration space earlier, and in this context I see what cannot evolve further other then to look at the relevance in regards to cosmology's look into what Glast measures are saying, at the time of it's expression.

These are still held in context of the universe, and is part of the evolution of this universe, whether one agrees with it or not. It is part of the resulting talk pointing out the evidence of "boltzman brains" materializing in that space.

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Factoids and Censorship

Often taking the time to absorbed the full perspective of the writer is just as much an effort as it is to understand the nature and understanding of research and information development about a topic. Where that writer leaves off.

Bradbury on FAHRENHEIT 451 See also at Home with Ray

What space has this writer given us, as we look forward to the future? What valuations do we then assign the places in television as we have become numb to the experience of discovering who we are?

So I do understand the wider perspective here about what people can do to each other as we select and transcribe the future prospects of where we want this society to go. I had learnt about this aspect of numbing as I realized that it was just as great an effort to awake our own selves to the subtle perceptions of existence, as it was to respond most appropriately in our views on the things that we had taken into our beings for assessment.

It was "as if" we could find that "space in time" where we could "stop time and look in between the clips of our everyday experiencing" and realized then, that in every moment of time as an arrow, human experiences follows? There was that place to awaken our ingenuity of mind to the discoveries of the world around us.


“Television gives you the dates of Napoleon, but not who he was,” Bradbury says, summarizing TV’s content with a single word that he spits out as an epithet: “factoids.” He says this while sitting in a room dominated by a gigantic flat-panel television broadcasting the Fox News Channel, muted, factoids crawling across the bottom of the screen.



His book still stands as a classic. But one of L.A.’s best-known residents wants it understood that when he wrote it he was far more concerned with the dulling effects of TV on people than he was on the silencing effect of a heavy-handed government. While television has in fact superseded reading for some, at least we can be grateful that firemen still put out fires instead of start them.
Ray Bradbury: Fahrenheit 451 Misinterpreted L.A.’s august Pulitzer honoree says it was never about censorship
By AMY E. BOYLE JOHNSTON Wednesday, May 30, 2007 - 7 pm

Creativity

How subtle this point about this identification of this question on creativity,"What does "creativity" mean in our lives? that it could be thrown in the mix? There was a greater story here waiting for us in the wind? How unpredictable the weather to see that in the third valley of Amy Tan's exploratory journey, that while she in writing sees the object of stones as a part of the story line, then finds reality has been kind to her, that such serendipity is the realization that all things will come home to roost.

So too in this aspect and understanding, do I find, that the word "creativity" is a funny thing that such "determinisms are factored with it." That such ideals and relations become the "correlations of cognition" that I had found opening in my own life. It was by discovery of such a method in a literary device I could, look at what other authors were doing as they began their stories.

How was I to know that the very search I had put myself on would lead me here or there, and to understand, that I was seeing into the future, and the future was coming home to see me?



The discovery of Plato and his Dialogues were a lesson in mind that I had come to look at, as if, the Dialogues themself were a method by which such perspectives could have pointed toward a future. An outcome, determined by the very process of bringing forth the "point of view", whether by a "truer character of being," or some form of left right brain dialogue of coming to a consensus on that oscillatory moment.

School of Athens by Raphael

That two such positions could have been adopted in the painting of Raphael in the Signatore's room at the Vatican, was a deeper recognition to me of the creativity we can assign such outcomes by placing Plato and Aristotle under such such an "Arche."

The "centre of the painting" is itself to draw attention to all the events that were happening in the school(A Royal Road to Geometry?), but to bring us back to this centralized position within ourselves. To brings us back to the very questions about the relationship of this teacher and student. This was a foundational perspective that was a sign of the times to me.



While we look at the inductive/deductive relation of what such an Arche represents, it was a method that by such induction/deductions of such things were to become "self evident." This dialogue could be wide sweeping, as we take Aristotle gestures and a sweep of the hand, while Plato, points to a higher purpose, and the revelation of where ideas come from. This is a source of inspiration to me that such deductions while delineating a pathway to historical context, has a relevance to what was always known. Was alway there to be discovered, We just did not realize it yet.

The Teacher and the Student



"The Teacher and the student" could exist in each of us. What choice would you have while on such a search to know that while there was never the possibility to assign ourselves to this group or that, that you were to wear the stripe and pattern of, and then loose that part of yourself that was till on the journey?

The probability of new language development was the realization that from insightful development each of us holds the ability to warm up to the idea of what creativity means in our lives. While we gesture ourselves to that future and PLATO'S HAND, and how IDEAS could descend into every thinking mind that opens itself to such a pathway?

He wanted to give a speech, but no remarks are allowed. “Not even a paragraph,” he says with disdain. Ray Bradbury: Fahrenheit 451 Misinterpreted
Why would he just settle with shaking a president's hand while he was being misinterpreted and was left without a voice?

Ray Bradbury rejected part of the mould "of who and what limits such a participation of self to the truth" was the message that betrays the deeper recognition of what we may assign to our fellow creatures on earth. Shall we learn the truth of who we are now being limited by using the distinctions and factoids, now becomes the way of hiding the deeper relevances the messages have about that truth? Were we acquiescence to such numbing? Then, Wake-UP!:)

Should we assign such a deduction to what the avenues of new technologies appeal to the nature of "numbing the senses" or, point to the realization, that such devices will allow "fine openings and apertures" which revealed the truth of that ever searching mind?

Letting Go of the Mould

Amy Tan reveals a thinking of mind that allow me to write on the "Character of our Heroes," to imply that we had to let go of our prejudgements in order to fully experience the methods and thinking of those historical figures.Sensing who they were in their totality.

Amy Tan revealed that writing on a particular place in China, the village that she was to write about suffered a terrible loss(sixty homes burnt) and the individual who caused that incident, was to bear the brunt of the village justice. In order for Amy to live and breathe that village, she had to pull back her own opinions about what justice was in order for her to write of the discipline and justice applied to that man. Removing her opinions, and "moving into that space" was to try and expeirence the story fully. Let the story to be written.

Monday, March 31, 2008

Numerical Relativity and the Human Experience?

"I’m a Platonist — a follower of Plato — who believes that one didn’t invent these sorts of things, that one discovers them. In a sense, all these mathematical facts are right there waiting to be discovered."Donald (H. S. M.) Coxeter


I contrast the nature of Numerical Relativity to the computer and the way we would think human consciousness could have been linked in it's various ways. Who hasn't thought that the ingenuity of the thinking mind could not have been considered the Synapse and the Portal to the thinking Mind?:)

Also think about what can be thought here as Gerardus t" Hooft asked as to think about in the limitations of what can be thought in relation to computerizations.

There is something to be said here about what conscious is not limited too. It is by it's very nature "leading perspective" that we would like to have all these variables included in or assertions of what we can see while providing experimental data to the mind set of those same computerization techniques?

Numerical Relativity Mind Map

So we of course like to see the mind's ingenuity( computerized or otherwise) when it comes to how it shall interpret what is the road to understanding that gravity is seen in Relativities explanation.

Source:Numerical Relativity Code and Machine Timeline


It is a process by which the world of blackholes come into viewing in it's most "technical means providing the amount of speed and memory" that would allow us to interpret events in the way we have.

The information has to be mapped to computational methodology in order for us to know what scientific value scan be enshrined in the descriptions of the Blackhole. Imagine that with current technologies we can never go any further then what we can currently for see given the circumstances of this technology?


Source:Expo/Information Center/Directory-Spacetime Wrinkles Map

So on the one hand there is an "realistic version" being mapped according to how we develop the means to visualize of what nature has bestowed upon us in the according to understanding Blackhole's and their Singularities.

Numerical Relativity and Math Transferance

Part of the advantage of looking at computer animations is knowing that the basis of this vision that is being created, is based on computerized methods and codes, devised, to help us see what Einstein's equations imply.

Now that's part of the effort isn't it, when we see the structure of math, may have also embued a Dirac, to see in ways that ony a good imagination may have that is tied to the abstractions of the math, and allows us to enter into "their portal" of the mind.

NASA scientists have reached a breakthrough in computer modeling that allows them to simulate what gravitational waves from merging black holes look like. The three-dimensional simulations, the largest astrophysical calculations ever performed on a NASA supercomputer, provide the foundation to explore the universe in an entirely new way.

Scientists are watching two supermassive black holes spiral towards each other near the center of a galaxy cluster named Abell 400. Shown in this X-ray/radio composite image are the multi-million degree radio jets emanating from the black holes. Click on image to view large resolution. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/AIfA/D.Hudson & T.Reiprich et al.; Radio: NRAO/VLA/NRL

According to Einstein's math, when two massive black holes merge, all of space jiggles like a bowl of Jell-O as gravitational waves race out from the collision at light speed.

Previous simulations had been plagued by computer crashes. The necessary equations, based on Einstein's theory of general relativity, were far too complex. But scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., have found a method to translate Einstein's math in a way that computers can understand.


Quantum Gravity

Now their is a strange set of circumstance here that would leave me to believe, that the area of quantum gravity has lead Numerical Relativity to it's conclusion? Has the technology made itself feasible enough to explore new experimental data that would allow us to further interpret nature in the way it shows itself? What about at the source of the singularity?

See: Dealing with a 5D World

I would not be fully honest if I did not give you part of the nature of abstract knowledge being imparted to us, if I did not include the "areas of abstractness" to include people who help us draw the dimensional significance to experience in these mathematical ways. It is always good to listen to what they have to say so that we can further developed the understanding of what becomes a deeper recognition of the way nature unfolds of itself.

There are two reasons that having mapped E8 is so important. The practical one is that E8 has major applications: mathematical analysis of the most recent versions of string theory and supergravity theories all keep revealing structure based on E8. E8 seems to be part of the structure of our universe.

The other reason is just that the complete mapping of E8 is the largest mathematical structure ever mapped out in full detail by human beings. It takes 60 gigabytes to store the map of E8. If you were to write it out on paper in 6-point print (that's really small print), you'd need a piece of paper bigger than the island of Manhattan. This thing is huge.
Emphasis and underlined, my addition.

Computer Language and Math Joined from Artistic Impressionism?

Most people think of "seeing" and "observing" directly with their senses. But for physicists, these words refer to much more indirect measurements involving a train of theoretical logic by which we can interpret what is "seen."- Lisa Randall



THOMAS BANCHOFF has been a professor of mathematics at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, since 1967. He has written two books and fifty articles on geometric topics, frequently incorporating interactive computer graphics techniques in the study of phenomena in the fourth and higher dimensions


The marriage between computer and math language(Banchoff) I would say would be important from the prospective of displaying imaging, seen in the development of abstract language as used in numerical relativity? Accummalated data gained from LIGO operations. Time variable measures?

See:Computer Graphics In Mathematical Research

Wednesday, February 13, 2008

The Value of the Dollar

Ingenuity
The term ingenuity or applied ideas is used in the analysis of Thomas Homer-Dixon, building on that of Paul Romer, to refer to what is usually called instructional capital. Ingenuity is often inherent in creative individuals, and thus is considered hard to separate from individual capital. It is not clear if Dixon or Romer considered it impossible to do so, or if they were simply not familiar with the prior analysis of "applied ideas", "intellectual capital", "talent", or "innovation" where instructional and individual contributions have been carefully separated, by economic theorists.


I thought this link to Backreaction important.

Source Global Insight

See: World Gold Council

In regards to historical context of gold in relation to the American Dollar. What is it we see today in terms of Gold's value? An insecurity possibly on what was once a strong American Dollar, is now being undercut.

Addison Wiggin writes,

The power and influence of the United States in 1971 should not be ignored. It was the decision to go off the gold standard that, in effect, destroyed the orderly economic policies that had been possible through Bretton Woods. Introduction to the Demise of the Dollar ( John Wiley& Sons, 2005)


If effective changes were to be hidden within the society 's evolution why did it's citizens not know what was befalling them? Political deceptions practised? Was Nixon declaring bankruptcy?

Bretton_Woods_system

Free trade relied on the free convertibility of currencies. Negotiators at the Bretton Woods conference, fresh from what they perceived as a disastrous experience with floating rates in the 1930s, concluded that major monetary fluctuations could stall the free flow of trade.

The liberal economic system required an accepted vehicle for investment, trade, and payments. Unlike national economies, however, the international economy lacks a central government that can issue currency and manage its use. In the past this problem had been solved through the gold standard, but the architects of Bretton Woods did not consider this option feasible for the postwar political economy. Instead, they set up a system of fixed exchange rates managed by a series of newly created international institutions using the U.S. dollar (which was a gold standard currency for central banks) as a reserve currency.


Satisfying the Immediate Needs

So given information about the circumstances in society and the requirement of dealing with the sustainability of life, calculations had to be made that allow people those moments of creativity. So given the service industry and making free the ability to play, insightful moments produced a culture that was allowed these intimate moments, while it was necessary to make sure life dealt with the needs of sustainability.

So increase demands on the culture to apply themselves, and reducing the amount of money available, reinforces the dependency on self to make sure that life is taken care of. What adverse reaction does this place on those moments of creativity?

Artistic expansionism from Scientific valuation

Immediately what came to mind is the avenues of artist research into the methods of perspective and dimensional interpretation of form. While being given the "limits of knowledge in terms of geometric proportions" may be evident when an artist applies himself to what is understood in those limits?

Art Mirrors Physics Mirrors Art, by Stephen G. Brush


Arthur Miller addresses an important question: What was the connection, if any, between the simultaneous appearance of modern physics and modern art at the beginning of the 20th century? He has chosen to answer it by investigating in parallel biographies the pioneering works of the leaders of the two fields, Albert Einstein and Pablo Picasso. His brilliant book, Einstein, Picasso, offers the best explanation I have seen for the apparently independent discoveries of cubism and relativity as parts of a larger cultural transformation. He sees both as being focused on the nature of space and on the relation between perception and reality.

The suggestion that some connection exists between cubism and relativity, both of which appeared around 1905, is not new. But it has been made mostly by art critics who saw it as a simple causal connection: Einstein's theory influenced Picasso's painting. This idea failed for lack of plausible evidence. Miller sees the connection as being less direct: both Einstein and Picasso were influenced by the same European culture, in which speculations about four-dimensional geometry and practical problems of synchronizing clocks were widely discussed.

The French mathematician Henri Poincaré provided inspiration for both Einstein and Picasso. Einstein read Poincaré's Science and Hypothesis (French edition 1902, German translation 1904) and discussed it with his friends in Bern. He might also have read Poincaré's 1898 article on the measurement of time, in which the synchronization of clocks was discussed--a topic of professional interest to Einstein as a patent examiner. Picasso learned about Science and Hypothesis indirectly through Maurice Princet, an insurance actuary who explained the new geometry to Picasso and his friends in Paris. At that time there was considerable popular fascination with the idea of a fourth spatial dimension, thought by some to be the home of spirits, conceived by others as an "astral plane" where one can see all sides of an object at once. The British novelist H. G. Wells caused a sensation with his book The Time Machine (1895, French translation in a popular magazine 1898-99), where the fourth dimension was time, not space.


So given some insight in to artist rendition what value, when we find such moments conducive to sitting at a stream, and it;s ability to let the mind wonder free with that creative flow? You had to know yourself, and understand what was inspirational.



Penrose's Influence on Escher
During the later half of the 1950’s, Maurits Cornelius Escher received a letter from Lionel and Roger Penrose. This letter consisted of a report by the father and son team that focused on impossible figures. By this time, Escher had begun exploring impossible worlds. He had recently produced the lithograph Belvedere based on the “rib-cube,” an impossible cuboid named by Escher (Teuber 161). However, the letter by the Penroses, which would later appear in the British Journal of Psychology, enlightened Escher to two new impossible objects; the Penrose triangle and the Penrose stairs. With these figures, Escher went on to create further impossible worlds that break the laws of three-dimensional space, mystify one’s mind, and give a window to the artist heart.


To do with Less

So it comes full circle then that demands placed on people given the change i society, asks that we look to what we really need in life to support not only one's family, but the ability to work responsibly within in the confines of the dollars we work for. What is it's meaning then?

If we see the direction Gold is taking, can we then not surmise the valuation of monetary systems need to undergo a correction? Given that circumstance, what value do you place in Pensions knowing it is part of a unfunded liability that could disappear in a heart beat?

So immediately the baby boomers need to some calculations as well as set the pace for reforms. This will transfer down with the framework of society through that adjustment become what is acceptable once dependency on a manufacturing based is realized again. New technologies, replacing worn out old ones.

What about oil and gas, electricity as energy dependencies?

This presents the opportunity to apply the skills we need to undergo change and develop societal valuations on it's commodities.

Tabula rasa (Latin: scraped tablet or clean slate) refers to the epistemological thesis that individual human beings are born with no innate or built-in mental content, in a word, "blank", and that their entire resource of knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the outside world. See Tabula rasa: The Glass Room

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Progress on the House

(Please ignore the date on the picture as it was taken yesterday by my wife.)

One of the first things that I will be doing is getting a new satellite system called Xplorinet to replace the dial up service I am now using.

Can you image the patience that is needed in order to complete any blog posting?

Yes, I have looked at all the ways in which to speed this up, and to no avail. One can take for granted the speeds at which they work, especially if they use University internet services with the high rate of speed that goes along with it.

You know when we were younger I can remember the need to move lots and adjust to what we would like in the future. Maybe it was not like the young folk who with their degrees need to travel to the new locations in which to practise they trade, but still it was a up rooting.

So having stability for any new science person would be a "dreamy thing" in which to explore the trade and travel according to that trade, but always appreciative of the home based with which they could return.

These are my thoughts about what the PI institute could do for the people it attracts. For keeping new science individuals here in Canada under this prospect. Allows, the creative ingenuity to thrive. Knowing full well of course that some of the benefits of working at that Institute are taken care of. We all have to live.

Warmth Frees us from the "Agitation of Being Cold"

I do not think a lot of people understand the need for getting focused, requires that we take care of some of the things that allow us to think creatively and allow ingenuity to be set free.



In the picture to the right, here I had decided to to use the in floor heating after all. I was made an attractive offer I could not economically refuse. Using those Styrofoam templates for the piping convinced me. I was going to purchase the styrofoam anyway, and it would have cost me the same as if I spent it. It would not have included the new heating system.

Anyway the heating system was fired up yesterday to allow for the heat needed for the dry wallers to begin their work. The insulators will be in on Friday, so things are progressing.

Living Space

You notice how open it is in picture above? We built the house this way to allow for the outlay of the heating system, and once the concrete is poured, we construct our interior walls.



One of the things that I found interesting, was the bridge we had to build in the centre of that room to allow us to handle the trusses being put up. The bridge is an idea that came out of my son's mind in his house as well. So this is the origination.

Once done I removed it to begin the other work necessary.

Monday, March 19, 2007

Pasquale Del Pezzo and E8 Origination?

"I’m a Platonist — a follower of Plato — who believes that one didn’t invent these sorts of things, that one discovers them. In a sense, all these mathematical facts are right there waiting to be discovered."Donald (H. S. M.) Coxeter


There are two reasons that having mapped E8 is so important. The practical one is that E8 has major applications: mathematical analysis of the most recent versions of string theory and supergravity theories all keep revealing structure based on E8. E8 seems to be part of the structure of our universe.

The other reason is just that the complete mapping of E8 is the largest mathematical structure ever mapped out in full detail by human beings. It takes 60 gigabytes to store the map of E8. If you were to write it out on paper in 6-point print (that's really small print), you'd need a piece of paper bigger than the island of Manhattan. This thing is huge.


Clifford of Asymptotia drew our attention to this for examination and gives further information and links with which to follow.

He goes on to write,"Let’s not get carried away though. Having more data does not mean that you worked harder to get it. Mapping the human genome project involves a much harder task, but the analogy is still a good one, if not taken too far."

Of course since the particular comment of mine was deleted there, and of course I am okay with that. It did not mean I could not carry on here. It did not mean that I was not speaking directly to the way these values in dimensional perspective were not being considered.

Projective Geometries?

A theorem which is valid for a geometry in this sequence is automatically valid for the ones that follow. The theorems of projective geometry are automatically valid theorems of Euclidean geometry. We say that topological geometry is more abstract than projective geometry which is turn is more abstract than Euclidean geometry.


There had to be a route to follow that would lead one to think in such abstract spaces. Of course, one does not want to be divorced from reality. So one should not think that because the geometry of GR is understood, that you think nothing can come from the microseconds after the universe came into expression.

At this point in the development, although geometry provided a common framework for all the forces, there was still no way to complete the unification by combining quantum theory and general relativity. Since quantum theory deals with the very small and general relativity with the very large, many physicists feel that, for all practical purposes, there is no need to attempt such an ultimate unification. Others however disagree, arguing that physicists should never give up on this ultimate search, and for these the hunt for this final unification is the ‘holy grail’. Michael Atiyah


The Holy Grail sure comes up lots doesn't it:) Without invoking the pseudoscience that Peter Woit spoke of. I thought, if they could use Babar, and Alice then I could use the Holy Grail?

See more info on Coxeter here.

Like Peter I will have to address the "gut feelings" and the way Clifford expressed it. I do not want to practise pseudoscience as Peter is about the landscape.:)



When ones sees the constituent properties of that Gossett polytope 421 in all it's colours, the complexity of that situation is quite revealing. Might we not think in the time of supergravity, gravity will become weak, in the matter constitutions that form.

As in Neutrino mixing I am asking you to think of the particles as sound as well as think them in relation to the Colour of Gravity. If you were just to see grvaity in it's colourful design and what value that gravity in face of the photon moving within this gravitational field?

We detect the resulting "wah-wah-wah" in properties of the neutrino that appear and disappear. For example, when neutrinos interact with matter they produce specific kinds of other particles.

For example, when neutrinos interact with matter they produce specific kinds of other particles. Catch the neutrino at one moment, and it will interact to produce an electron. A moment later, it might interact to produce a different particle. "Neutrino mixing" describes the original mixture of waves that produces this oscillation effect.


The "geometry of curvature" had to be implied in the outcome, from that quantum world? Yet at it's centre, what is realized? You had to be lead there in terms of particle research to know that you are arriving at the "crossover point." The superfluid does this for examination.

5. Regular polytope: If you keep pulling the hypercube into higher and higher dimensions you get a polytope. Coxeter is famous for his work on regular polytopes. When they involve coordinates made of complex numbers they are called complex polytopes.

Pasquale Del Pezzo, Duke of Cajanello, (1859–1936), was "the most Neapolitan of Neapolitan Mathematicians".

He was born in Berlin (where his father was a representative of the Neapolitan king) on 2 May 1859. He died in Naples on 20 June 1936. His first wife was the Swedish writer Anne Charlotte Leffler, sister of the great mathematician Gösta Mittag-Leffler (1846-1927).

At the University of Naples, he received first a law degree in 1880 and then in 1882 a math degree. He became a pre-eminent professor at that university, teaching Projective Geometry, and remained at that University, as rector, faculty president, etc.

He was mayor of Naples starting in 1919, and he became a senator in the Kingdom of Naples.

His scientific achievements were few, but they reveal a keen ingenuity. He is remembered particularly for first describing what became known as a Del Pezzo surface. He might have become one of the strongest mathematicians of that time, but he was distracted by politics and other interests.


So what chance do we have, if we did not think this geometry was attached to processes that would unfold into the bucky ball or the fullerene of science. To say that the outcome had a point of view that is not popular. I do not count myself as attached to any intelligent design agenda, so I hope people will think I do not care about that.

NATHAN MYHRVOLD

I found the email debate between Smolin and Susskind to be quite interesting. Unfortunately, it mixes several issues. The Anthropic Principle (AP) gets mixed up with their other agendas. Smolin advocates his CNS, and less explicitly loop quantum gravity. Susskind is an advocate of eternal inflation and string theory. These biases are completely natural, but in the process the purported question of the value of the AP gets somewhat lost in the shuffle. I would have liked more discussion of the AP directly


See here for more information

So all the while you see the complexity of that circle and how long it took a computer to map it, it has gravity in it's design, whether we like to think about it or not?

But of course we are talking about the symmetry and any thing less then this would have been assign a matter state, as if symmetrical breaking would have said, this is the direction you are going is what we have of earth?

Isostatic Adjustment is Why Planets are Round?

While one thinks of "rotational values" then indeed one would have to say not any planets is formed in the way the sun does. Yet, in the "time variable understanding" of the earth, we understand why it's shape is not exactly round.



Do you think the earth and moon look round if your were considering Grace?

On the moon what gives us perspective when a crater is formed to see it's geological structure? It's just not a concern of the mining industry, as to what is mined on other orbs, but what the time variable reveals of the orbs structure as well.



Clementine color ratio composite image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon. This 42 km diameter crater is located on the corner of the Aristarchus plateau, at 24 N, 47 W. Ejecta from the plateau is visible as the blue material at the upper left (northwest), while material excavated from the Oceanus Procellarum area is the reddish color to the lower right (southeast). The colors in this image can be used to ascertain compositional properties of the materials making up the deep strata of these two regions. (Clementine, USGS slide 11)

See more here

Thursday, January 18, 2007

Collider Detector at Fermilab and Slac

Current evidence shows that neutrinos do oscillate, which indicates that neutrinos do have mass. The Los Alamos data revealed a muon anti-neutrino cross over to an electron neutrino. This type of oscillation is difficult to explain using only the three known types of neutrinos. Therefore, there might be a fourth neutrino, which is currently being called a "sterile" neutrino, which interacts more weakly than the other three neutrinos.


If for one moment you thought strings had some relation to the very nature as "building blocks of this universe," at what "energies" would we have said they had made their appearance? Microseconds perhaps after the universe came into expression?

The CDF Detector. Image from Fermilab

Three trillion times per second--that's how fast quarks in the B sub s (Bs) particle "oscillate," or switch between their matter and antimatter states, according to scientists from the Collider Detector at Fermilab collaboration. The CDF physicists measured this rapid oscillation with the help of the world's most powerful particle accelerator, Fermilab’s Tevatron, unprecedented computing power made available through the Open Science Grid and the LHC Computing Grid, and a healthy dose of ingenuity.

"Bs oscillation is a very subtle and rapid effect," says Jacobo Konigsberg from the University of Florida, co-spokesperson for the CDF collaboration. "It's astonishing that we can measure it at all."


When you look at these events, the cascading effect of this interaction with the earth's upper atmosphere, why did not one think of the constituent properties that would be exhibited at the beginning of that same universe?

Multi-Jet Hadronic Events


Event 12637_6353_600_z_3jet

In some hadronic events, the initial high-energy quark and or antiquark pair may radiate a high-energy gluon before the production of additional quarks and antiquarks in the strong force field is completed. These gluons also show up in the event picture, because they provide a different pattern. The momentum of each high-energy gluon appears as an additional jet of hadrons. This process results in three, four, or even five jet events. Sometimes though, as these pictures show, it is very clear to see.


I do not understand why people did not understand this relation to what was happening within the cosmos, would not be produced in our colliders? That what was happening at the beginning of our universe had some relation to what was being produced in those colliders?

Cosmic Rays


Cosmic rays are caused by protons from outer space. When a proton (shown in yellow) hits the air in the earth's upper atmosphere it produces many particles. Most of these decay or are absorbed in the atmosphere. One type of particle, called muons (shown in red), lives long enough that some reach the earth's surface.

SLAC's Cosmic Ray Detector: The Cosmic Ray Detector consists of three pairs of scintillator panels for muon detection. Sets A, B, and C (see below) are oriented with the flat surface of the panels horizontally, at 45°, and vertically, respectively. In each pair, the panels measure 4.875 inches (12.4 cm) wide by 8 inches (20.3 cm) long, and the distance between them is 18.5 inches (47.0 cm). The panels are shielded from light with aluminum foil, black plastic sheets, and black tape. When muons penetrate through these panels, chemicals within will scintillate (emit flashes of light).

Saturday, January 13, 2007

Gravity Free Environment on Earth

It's taken some time from a layman perspective to try and "place this experiment" in a setting that helps orientate views. Well, at least in my case. :)

So here is a "guide below" that may seem trivial to some, yet, directed to the "microperspective" on this experiment, speak to cosmology as well. While it may seem easy from a "cosmological standpoint" gravities "effect" is of some importance in "condense matter views."

A "Top/down approach" pointing you toward LHC and the "anomaly of relativity" in the perfect fluid, seems like going "full circle?"

See:"Cosmic Variance"

Anyway to the essence of what has been instigated by the post of Seans, and what came about from the "Aerogel and Stardust" Post.


Microgravity Science Glove Box-The MSG will enable astronauts on board the ISS to perform a wide variety of materials, combustion, fluids and biotechnology experiments as well as investigations in the microgravity environment. It can also accommodate minor repairs and servicing of hardware requiring a controlled working environment. The facility offers users a wide range of innovative, utilization alternatives from manual control by astronauts via laptop computers to fully automated and remote control from Earth (telescience). A permanent data exchange link with ground stations is also ensured.The MSG will be integrated and used in the US Destiny Laboratory for a projected operational period of ten years.ESA is planning to use the facility for European experiments. The first time MSG will be used by a European astronaut to perform European experiments will be during a Soyuz taxi flight mission in October 2002. ESA's Belgian astronaut Frank De Winne will perform four different experiments in the MSG in the field of protein crystallization, zeolites crystallization, combustion and fluid science.
Frank De Winne works with the Microgravity Science Glovebox(MSG)Credits: ESA


Why is it we cannot create this environment, other then, the method described in terms of the drop tower, or, out in space? What ways do you know that such simulation can be developed to move the ideas of product development "done there in space." To make it feasible to create the condense matter states that are purer free from the effect of gravity on earth.

“On Earth, buoyancy continuously deforms and moves fluids in complex manners, making it difficult to study how materials that solidify from the melt form semiconductors and other products,” said Dr. Aleksandar Ostrogorsky, the SUBSA principal investigator who also teaches and conducts research at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N.Y. “In microgravity, the fluids are almost stagnant, resembling solids. The absence of motion makes it easier to observe and mathematically describe what is occurring when the crystals are melted, and how the materials solidify to form a new crystal.”


The idea occurred to me today to find a way in which to "create the environment" that is conducive to perfecting the "purity of alignment of substances" in a gravity free environment. I mentioned the aerogel in the previous article and how developing that product in space gives the product superior qualities, that one might not have here on earth.


Aircraft: A two-engine turbofan aircraft similar to the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9
A typical mission is 2 to 3 hours long and consists of 40 to 50 parabolas. These parabolas can be flown in succession or with short breaks between maneuvers to reconfigure test equipment. The Reduced Gravity Office provides scheduling, test coordination, and in-flight direction for the test programs.


So, we create the conditions for it. Whether it be the Space Shuttle, the Airplane or the Miniature Drop Tower.

NASA's "Weightless Wonder" KC-135a Reduced Gravity Laboratory

By comparing the results from fuel vaporization in a reduced-gravity environment with those under normal conditions, the students aim to gain a better understanding of how fuel droplets behave under different conditions to optimize the fuel injection process. The findings may be used in helping promote changes in engine design while improving efficiency and reducing emissions.


By understanding the process from "space to earth" we see where ingenuity of mind applies the differences of "time clocks" and such.


As one of the fields which obey the general inverse square law, the gravity field can be put in the form shown above, showing that the acceleration of gravity, g, is an expression of the intensity of the gravity field.


In a manner that "it's effects" in relation to gravity may be considered from a cosmological and micro-gravity perspective, in relation to "Inverse Square law( I use sound in the example, but click on the image provided)" and "Inverse Fourth Power Law."


This miniature drop tower is used by Microgravity man and others to demonstrate the effects of reduced gravity on physical and chemical phenomena that are normally masked by Earth's gravity.


So here we are "to the experiment" in a microperspective that is currently being explored.

Eric Adelberger on Aug 12th, 2005 at 2:37 pm

Please don’t get too excited yet about rumors concerning the Eot-Wash test of the 1/r^2 law. We can exclude gravitational strength (|alpha|=1) Yukawa violations of the 1/r^2 law for lambda>80 microns at 95% confidence. It is true that we are seeing an anomaly at shorter length scales but we have to show first that the anomaly is not some experimental artifact. Then, if it holds up, we have to check if the anomaly is due to new fundamental physics or to some subtle electromagnetic effect that penetrates our conducting shield. We are now checking for experimental artifacts by making a small change to our apparatus that causes a big change in the Newtonian signal but should have essentially no effect on a short-range anomaly. Then we will replace our molybdenum detector ring with an aluminum one. This will reduce any signal from interactions coupled to mass, but will have little effect on subtle electromagnetic backgrounds. These experiments are tricky and measure very small forces. It takes time to get them right. We will not be able to say anything definite about the anomaly for several months at least.


Update:

Check out Backreaction's Water in Zero Gravity

Friday, November 24, 2006

Status of "Warp Drive"

Time is of your own making;
its clock ticks in your head.
The moment you stop thought
time too stops dead.
Angelus Silesius


The plot created here in this post in this fictional sense(?) so that I too may deal with the issues of time travel?

Of course time travel is on my mind for reason that some may not suspect, yet it is with "past history" that we are "embedded with knowledge" from our past attempts. From these, if knowledge is acquired for each soul, then how is it that it sat for for the day to be awaken properly? Where did we begin?

Two main difficulties arise from Plato's view of Transmigration. First, Plato says that we have knowledge of universals because of the experiences of our souls in past lives. However, whence comes the knowledge of the first soul? In purely Platonic theory, it must have had no knowledge at all, and hence Plato's concept of transmigration as the basis for innate knowledge fails. A second difficulty lies in explaining the varying, and especially the apparently increasing number of incarnated souls over history.


So this knowledge is somewhere? Is it as if we move our focus on the Tonal, and we see differently, or, that by profound shifts in our perspective on model apprehension, that we see anew?


Sir Isaac Newton



If we had been changed then, had it been from the Tabula Rusa being blank?

It is as if, "the cosmologist has been detained," bewteen the beginning and end of this universe, yet, shall not ask, "what is it" and, "how did it begin?" That it's very existance it came from nothing, thus, shall never end? How illogical is this?

Plato:One of the things that appeared so strange to me was in how we could look at gravitational variances with scientific means. As we know now, this is being accomplished in ways that test the minds imagination, as to how we would apply these features here to earth, and beyond. Timespeak

How "warped the mind then," to create such a controversy. Use this to exemplify a point about creativity? Have I some how degraded "the wording" to show that "what is possssible" is indeed the imaginary mind that likes to play tricks, whilst it developes this whole new train of thought? Simultaneity?


Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)


Sir William Shakespeare



Sir Francis Bacon, disguised by "Shakespearean thought," was just an actor of "creativity," portraying a role of a political man? Yet, the thoughts extended, as if this man was in another place and time? Is it that easy? This story true?

Plato:Creativity? Ways in which we allow "information" to travel through? Play the game? Allow "ingenuity" as the "poetic river that flows" to the surface on you, from everything, or, the blank slate?

Is it useless knowledge then or that science requires this blank slate to allow us to deliver on the basis of science? Each starting position, that we write clearly and hence know that from that time forward, what is being built upon?

Time travel

Plato:Thus the initial idea here to follow is that the process had to have a physics relation. This is based on the understanding of anti-particle/particle, and what becomes evident in the cosmos as a closed loop process. Any variation within this context, is the idea of "blackhole anti-particle expression" based on what can be seen at the horizon?Tunneling in Faster then Light

Warp Drives", "Hyperspace Drives", or any other term for Faster-than-light travel is at the level of speculation, with some facets edging into the realm of science. We are at the point where we know what we do know and know what we don’t, but do not know for sure if faster than light travel is possible.

The bad news is that the bulk of scientific knowledge that we have accumulated to date concludes that faster than light travel is impossible. This is an artifact of Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. Yes, there are some other perspectives; tachyons, wormholes, inflationary universe, spacetime warping, quantum paradoxes...ideas that are in credible scientific literature, but it is still too soon to know if such ideas are viable.

One of the issues that is evoked by any faster-than-light transport is time paradoxes: causality violations and implications of time travel. As if the faster than light issue wasn’t tough enough, it is possible to construct elaborate scenarios where faster-than-light travel results in time travel. Time travel is considered far more impossible than light travel.


So previous(Tunneling in Faster than Light) to this post, I tried to show where my thinking was currently held in regards to anti-particle/particle, as examples of what is happening in LHC.

Also, I cleared the air of what was held in mind in terms of the Cerenkov radiation transported ahead of, in faster then light medium capabilities as the blue light. This does not remove my speculations in terms of what is happening in probing the "perfect fluid" and the dissipative effect of microstate blackhole creation. What happens in that moment of high energy collision processes.

Saturday, November 18, 2006

Bacon is Shakespeare?

A modern day puzzle, becomes, blogger world signatures? Taken to a, "Whole....nother....Level.



Creativity? Ways in which we allow "information" to travel through? Play the game? Allow "ingenuity" as the "poetic river that flows" to the surface on you, from everything, or, the blank slate?

What kind of person are you who reveals them self in the words chosen, or the picture highlighted? Humor, as a deeper response for those who look beyond the confines of words, and laugh? We just intuitively get it?

What use that language?

Tragedies, where allowed "the other to speak," and let loose all the mournings of words lost, are covered by our heart's responses? "Released." The soul without it's burdens, carries on. Not really.

Describes the "fictional" in face of the real, while "highlighting the injustices" performing characters, as individual/politicians saved? Another place, and time?


Francis Bacon, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum, 1623.


The knowledge of Cyphering, hath drawne on with it a knowledge relative unto it, which is the knowledge of Discyphering, or of Discreting Cyphers, though a man were utterly ignorant of the Alphabet of the Cypher, and the Capitulations of secrecy past between the Parties. Certainly it is an Art which requires great paines and a good witt and is (as the other was) consecrate to the Counsels of Princes: yet notwithstanding by diligent prevision it may be made unprofitable, though, as things are, it be of great use. For if good and faithfull Cyphers were invented & practised, many of them would delude and forestall all the Cunning of the Decypherer, which yet are very apt and easie to be read or written: but the rawnesse and unskilfulnesse of Secretaries, and Clarks in the Courts of Princes, is such, that many times the greatest matters are Committed to futile and weake Cyphers.
But it may be, that in the enumeration, and, as it were, taxation of Arts, some may thinke that we goe about to make a great Muster-rowle of Sciences, that the multiplication of them may be more admired; when their number perchance may be displayed, but their forces in so short a Treatise can hardly be tried. But for our parts wee doe faithfully pursue our purpose, and in making this Globe of Sciences, we would not omitt the lesser and remoter Ilands. Neither have we (in our opinion) touched these Arts perfunctorily, though cursorily; but with a piercing stile extracted the marrow and pith of them out of a masse of matter. The judgement hereof we referre to those who are most able to judge of these Arts. For seeing it is the fashion of many who would be thought to know much, that every where making ostentation of words and outward termes of Arts, they become a wonder to the ignorant, but a derision to those that are Masters of those Arts: we hope that our Labours shall have a contrarie successe, which is, that they may arrest the judgment of every one who is best vers'd in every particular Art; and be undervalued by the rest . As for those Arts which may seeme to bee of inferior ranke and order, if any man thinke wee attribute too much unto them; Let him looke about him and hee shall see that there bee many of speciall note and great account in their owne Countrie, who when they come to the chiefe City or feat of the Estate, are but of mean ranke and scarcely regarded: so it is no marvaile if these sleighter Arts, placed by the Principall and supreme Sciences, seeme pettie things; yet to those that have chosen to spend their labours and studies in them, they seeme great and excellent matters. And thus much of the Organ of Speech. -- Francis Bacon, The Advancement and Proficience of Learning, p 257-71, Book VI, 1640.


Sciences current work in Cryptography? A Vast difference then what is reveal in the Shakespearean language? Maybe, it is here, where I see the questions of Susskind's thought experiment about the elephant in two places?

We've learnt in the natural sciences that the key to understanding can often be found if we lift certain dividing lines in our minds. Newton showed that the apple falls to the ground according to the same laws that govern the Moon's orbit of the Earth. And with this he made the old differentiation between earthly and heavenly phenomena obsolete. Darwin showed that there is no dividing line between man and animal. And Einstein lifted the line dividing space and time. But in our heads, we still draw a dividing line between "reality" and "knowledge about reality", in other words between reality and information. And you cannot draw this line. There is no recipe, no process for distinguishing between reality and information. All this thinking and talking about reality is about information, which is why one should not make a distinction in the formulation of laws of nature. Quantum theory, correctly interpreted, is information theory.


So we find the methods to determine the beginning(Tabula Rusa) and what had always existed in a ideological discourse about which was before "form?"

Innatism is a philosophical doctrine introduced by Plato in the socratic dialogue Meno which holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a tabula rasa at birth. It asserts therefore that not all knowledge is obtained from experience and the senses. Innatism is the opposite of empiricism.

Plato claimed that humans are born with ideas/forms in the mind that are in a dormant state. He claimed that we have acquired these ideas prior to our birth when we existed as souls in the world of Forms. To access these, humans need to be reminded of them through proper education and experience.


So shall one then debate about what existed in the beginning of this universe, if we are presented with the thought that we are already born with knowledge and ideas? That we should start from such a blank slate? So then for you, nothing existed before? Or has something philosophically and profoundly, always existed?

This means you can never discard what you set in motion, only that what you started has consequences, and moves into the next life? So we try and do it right in this one. We accept the burden/choice for growth, and learn.

But this is a personal choice. We do not in face of "what lies in the dormant state" disregard empiricism. You see Plato and Aristotle together, don't you?

So we come to what is of value after we have learn about Cerenkov radiation and what did not exist before, now exists? Time travel? How is this possible in the scenario of LHC? Have we accepted faster then light entities in our assessment of what goes beyond the speed of light? Then I have to show how this is so?