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Showing posts with label Hubble. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hubble. Show all posts

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Hubble Movie Theater: Revelation



Take a thrill ride through 15 years of Hubble images, starting with Hubble’s first picture and ending with its anniversary image of the Whirlpool Galaxy. In less than three minutes, 800 Hubble images flash over the screen, sometimes as fast as 60 pictures per second.See:HUBBLE Site

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

NASA's Hubble Views a Cosmic Skyrocket

NASA
Source: Hubblesite.org

July 3, 2012: Resembling a Fourth of July skyrocket, Herbig-Haro 110 is a geyser of hot gas from a newborn star that splashes up against and ricochets from the dense core of a cloud of molecular hydrogen. This image was taken with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys in 2004 and 2005 and the Wide Field Camera 3 in April 2011. See: NASA's Hubble Views a Cosmic Skyrocket

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Hubble Legacy Archive



Welcome to the Hubble Legacy Archive 

 The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) is designed to optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online, enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The HLA is a joint project of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC).
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See Also: The Hubble Legacy Archive For You

Sunday, December 18, 2011

Snow Angel

Object Names: S106, Sh2-106, Sharpless 2-106
Image Type: Astronomical/Illustration
Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

December 15, 2011: The bipolar star-forming region, called Sharpless 2-106, or S106 for short, looks like a soaring, celestial snow angel. The outstretched "wings" of the nebula record the contrasting imprint of heat and motion against the backdrop of a colder medium. Twin lobes of super-hot gas, glowing blue in this image, stretch outward from the central star. This hot gas creates the "wings" of our angel. A ring of dust and gas orbiting the star acts like a belt, cinching the expanding nebula into an "hourglass" shape. See: Hubble Serves Up a Holiday Snow Angel

Thursday, September 10, 2009

Hubble Opens New Eyes on the Universe

Image above: From the left are astronauts Michael J. Massimino, Michael T. Good, both mission specialists; Gregory C. Johnson, pilot; Scott D. Altman, commander; K. Megan McArthur, John M. Grunsfeld and Andrew J. Feustel, all mission specialists. Image credit: NASA

Veteran astronaut Scott D. Altman commanded the final space shuttle mission to Hubble. Retired Navy Capt. Gregory C. Johnson served as pilot. Mission specialists included veteran spacewalkers John M. Grunsfeld and Michael J. Massimino and first-time space fliers Andrew J. Feustel, Michael T. Good and K. Megan McArthur.

Atlantis’ astronauts repaired and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope, conducting five spacewalks during their mission to extend the life of the orbiting observatory. They successfully installed two new instruments and repaired two others, bringing them back to life, replaced gyroscopes and batteries, and added new thermal insulation panels to protect the orbiting observatory. The result is six working, complementary science instruments with capabilities beyond what was available and an extended operational lifespan until at least 2014.

With the newly installed Wide Field Camera, Hubble will be able to observe in ultraviolet and infrared spectrums as well as visible light, peer deep onto the cosmic frontier in search of the earliest star systems and study planets in the solar system. The telescope’s new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph will allow it to study the grand-scale structure of the universe, including the star-driven chemical evolution that produce carbon and the other elements necessary for life. See: STS-125 Mission Information

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Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team-These four images are among the first observations made by the new Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the upgraded NASA Hubble Space Telescope.

The image at top left shows NGC 6302, a butterfly-shaped nebula surrounding a dying star. At top right is a picture of a clash among members of a galactic grouping called Stephan's Quintet. The image at bottom left gives viewers a panoramic portrait of a colorful assortment of 100,000 stars residing in the crowded core of Omega Centauri, a giant globular cluster. At bottom right, an eerie pillar of star birth in the Carina Nebula rises from a sea of greenish-colored clouds.



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September 9, 2009: NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is back in business, ready to uncover new worlds, peer ever deeper into space, and even map the invisible backbone of the universe. The first snapshots from the refurbished Hubble showcase the 19-year-old telescope's new vision. Topping the list of exciting new views are colorful multi-wavelength pictures of far-flung galaxies, a densely packed star cluster, an eerie "pillar of creation," and a "butterfly" nebula. With its new imaging camera, Hubble can view galaxies, star clusters, and other objects across a wide swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from ultraviolet to near-infrared light. A new spectrograph slices across billions of light-years to map the filamentary structure of the universe and trace the distribution of elements that are fundamental to life. The telescope's new instruments also are more sensitive to light and can observe in ways that are significantly more efficient and require less observing time than previous generations of Hubble instruments. NASA astronauts installed the new instruments during the space shuttle servicing mission in May 2009. Besides adding the instruments, the astronauts also completed a dizzying list of other chores that included performing unprecedented repairs on two other science instruments.An Early Observation Release

Tuesday, August 04, 2009

Pushing Back Time

Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/PSU/S.Park & D.Burrows.; Optical: NASA/STScI/CfA/P.Challis

February 24, 2007 marks the 20th anniversary of one of the most spectacular events observed by astronomers in modern times, Supernova 1987A. The destruction of a massive star in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby galaxy, spawned detailed observations by many different telescopes, including NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope. The outburst was visible to the naked eye, and is the brightest known supernova in almost 400 years.

This composite image shows the effects of a powerful shock wave moving away from the explosion. Bright spots of X-ray and optical emission arise where the shock collides with structures in the surrounding gas. These structures were carved out by the wind from the destroyed star. Hot-spots in the Hubble image (pink-white) now encircle Supernova 1987A like a necklace of incandescent diamonds. The Chandra data (blue-purple) reveals multimillion-degree gas at the location of the optical hot-spots. These data give valuable insight into the behavior of the doomed star in the years before it exploded.
See:Supernova 1987A:
Twenty Years Since a Spectacular Explosion
(Bold added by me for emphasis)


Supernova Starting Gun: Neutrinos

.....
Next they independently estimated how the hypothetical neutrinos would be picked up in a detector as massive as Super-Kamiokande in Japan, which contains 50,000 tons of water. The detector would only see a small fraction of the neutrinos. So the team outlined a method for matching the observed neutrinos to the supernova's expected luminosity curve to figure out the moment in time--to within about 10 milliseconds--when the sputtering star would have begun emitting neutrinos. In their supernova model, the bounce, the time of the first gravitational waves, occurs about 5 milliseconds before neutrino emission. So looking back at their data, gravitational wave hunters should focus on that point in time.
(again bold added for emphasis)

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See Also:SciDAC Computational Astrophysics Consortium

Saturday, June 06, 2009

Hubble Reveals Potential Titanium Oxide Deposits at Aristarchus and Schroter's Valley Rille

Credit: NASA, ESA, and J. Garvin (NASA/GSFC)Aristarchus Crater in False Color

This color composite focuses on the 26-mile-diameter (42-kilometer-diameter) Aristarchus impact crater, and employs ultraviolet- to visible-color-ratio information to accentuate differences that are potentially diagnostic of ilmenite- (i.e, titanium oxide) bearing materials as well as pyroclastic glasses. The symphony of color within the Aristarchus crater clearly shows a diversity of materials — anorthosite, basalt, and olivine. The images were acquired Aug. 21, 2005. The processing was accomplished by the Hubble Space Telescope Lunar Exploration Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Northwestern University, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. False-color images were constructed using the red channel as 502/250 nanometers; the green as 502 nanometers; and the blue as 250/658 nanometers. North is at the top in the image.




Credit: NASA, ESA and J. Garvin (NASA/GSFC)
This view of the lunar impact crater Aristarchus and adjacent features (Herodotus crater, Schroter's Valley rille) illustrates the ultraviolet and visible wavelength characteristics of this geologically diverse region of the Moon. The two inset images illustrate one preliminary approach for isolating differences due to such effects as composition, soil maturity, mixing, and impact ejecta emplacement. The color composite in the lower right focuses on the 26-mile-diameter (42-kilometer-diameter) Aristarchus impact crater, and employs ultraviolet- to visible-color-ratio information to accentuate differences that are potentially diagnostic of ilmenite- (i.e, titanium oxide) bearing materials as well as pyroclastic glasses.

The same is the case for the image of a section of Schroter's Valley (rille) in the upper right. Bluer units in these spectral-ratio images suggest enrichment in opaque phases in a relative sense. The magenta color indicates dark mantle material which scientists believe contains titanium-bearing pyroclastic material.

The symphony of color within the Aristarchus crater clearly shows a diversity of materials — anorthosite, basalt, and olivine. The impact crater actually cut through a mare highlands boundary with superposed pyroclastics - a unique geologic setting on the Moon! The distinctive tongue of material extending out of the crater's southeastern rim is thought to be very olivine-rich material, based on Earth-based spectra and Clementine visible and infrared imaging data.

North is at the top in these images.

These images were acquired Aug. 21, 2005. The processing was accomplished by the Hubble Space Telescope Lunar Exploration Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Northwestern University, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. False-color images were constructed using the red channel as 502/250 nanometers; the green as 502 nanometers; and the blue as 250/658 nanometers.



(Clementine, USGS slide 11)
Clementine color ratio composite image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon. This 42 km diameter crater is located on the corner of the Aristarchus plateau, at 24 N, 47 W. Ejecta from the plateau is visible as the blue material at the upper left (northwest), while material excavated from the Oceanus Procellarum area is the reddish color to the lower right (southeast). The colors in this image can be used to ascertain compositional properties of the materials making up the deep strata of these two regions.


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APOLLO

The points of reference for the earth-moon measurement are the earth-based telescope—in this case, the 3.5 meter telescope at Apache Point, and in particular, the intersection of the telescope mount axes—and the small, suitcase-sized retroreflector array placed on the lunar surface by Apollo astronauts (pictured is the Apollo 11 reflector at Tranquility Base). A total of four lunar retroreflectors are functional: three Apollo reflectors from Apollo 11, 14, and 15 (three times bigger than 11 & 14), and one French-built, Soviet landed (unmanned) unit from the Luna 21 mission. A significant part of the challenge of lunar range modeling is converting this point-to-point measurement into a distance between the center-of-mass of the earth and the center-of-mass of the moon. It is only after this reduction that one can consider the interesting part of the problem: the dynamics of the earth-moon-sun system. For more general information on the technique, see this description of how the technique works and why we're performing this experiment.


Location of the reflector landing sites

APOLLO Laser First Light

Another picture from July 24, 2005. Larry Carey is seen standing on the catwalk performing aircraft spotting duties. Bruce Gillespie is the other spotter, hidden by the pine tree. On some viewing screens, the green beam may be barely visible leaving the dome. The beam is about as visible as the Milky Way. Part of Ursa Minor is at right, and Draco at upper left. Photo by Gretchen van Doren.


A picture from the August 2005 run by Gretchen van Doren, showing the laser beam making its way to the (over-exposed) moon. No, the moon is not exploding under the influence of our 2.3 Watt laser! The edge-brightening of the beam can be seen, as the telescope secondary mirror robs the beam of light in its center. Orion is seen at right.


A picture from the June 2006 run showing the back of the telescope, the APOLLO laser enclosure (left), the beam heading moon-ward, and the moon intself. The moon is actually a crescent, but so terrifically overexposed (16 seconds) that it looks rather round.


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Question 4 : What is the structure of Mercury's core?


Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

More recently, Earth-based radar observations of Mercury have also determined that at least a portion of the large metal core is still liquid to this day! Having at least a partially molten core means that a very small but detectable variation in the spin-rate of Mercury has a larger amplitude because of decoupling between the solid mantle and liquid core. Knowing that the core has not completely solidified, even as Mercury has cooled over billions of years since its formation, places important constraints on the thermal history, evolution, and core composition of the planet.




Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

This MESSENGER image was taken from a distance of about 18,000 kilometers (11,000 miles) from the surface of Mercury, at 20:03 UTC, about 58 minutes after the closest approach point of the flyby. The region shown is about 500 kilometers (300 miles) across, and craters as small as 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) can be seen in this image.


The Gravity Field

Thursday, May 07, 2009

Defining the Space your Living In

The general theory of relativity is as yet incomplete insofar as it has been able to apply the general principle of relativity satisfactorily only to gravitational fields, but not to the total field. We do not yet know with certainty by what mathematical mechanism the total field in space is to be described and what the general invariant laws are to which this total field is subject. One thing, however, seems certain: namely, that the general principal of relativity will prove a necessary and effective tool for the solution of the problem for the total field.Out of My Later Years, Pg 48, Albert Einstein


Because Albert Einstein ended his career there, it did not mean such progressiveness would not move forward to include such an attempt to consider the "total field." By definition and allocation of a "step off point" people began to consider this possibility and sought such reformation in thinking as well

It is always the effort to see that such progressions in thought could have transformed any thinking person by the laws and rule of measure that will hold perspective toward the future. These are always being redefined by experiment, and such validations are adjusted then, to what we now use them for.

A new way to measure climate? A gravitational perspective held by Grace?

The calculation will be considered from the Earth frame of reference. The length is then unaffected since it is in the Earth frame. The halflife is in the muon frame, so must be considered to be time dilated in the Earth frame. You may substitute values for the height and the muon speed in the calculation below
See:Muon Experiment in Relativity

While one may use this knowledge then with an attempt to discover new vaults of "time in measure" and recorded for historical pursuance by civilizations hidden in the pyramids, such efforts revealed nothing. They were not thinking the right way. It is the model developmental aspect which I have demonstrated over and over again that we can conceal the history of memories under such a analogical tool for pathways in the human sphere of perspective?

Illustrations: Sandbox Studio See:Secrets of the Pyramids By Haley Bridger Symmetry Magazine

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Such dynamical thinking then is the realization that our views had been transformed from straight lines and such to geometric that help us to think dynamically in the world around us.




The Friedmann equation which models the expanding universe has a parameter k called the curvature parameter which is indicative of the rate of expansion and whether or not that expansion rate is increasing or decreasing. If k=0 then the density is equal to a critical value at which the universe will expand forever at a decreasing rate. This is often referred to as the Einstein-de Sitter universe in recognition of their work in modeling it. This k=0 condition can be used to express the critical density in terms of the present value of the Hubble parameter.

For k>0 the density is high enough that the gravitational attraction will eventually stop the expansion and it will collapse backward to a "big crunch". This kind of universe is described as being a closed universe, or a gravitationally bound universe. For k<0 the universe expands forever, there not being sufficient density for gravitational attraction to stop the expansion.




Friedman Equation What is pdensity.

What are the three models of geometry? k=-1, K=0, k+1

Negative curvature

Omega=the actual density to the critical density

If we triangulate Omega, the universe in which we are in, Omegam(mass)+ Omega(a vacuum), what position geometrically, would our universe hold from the coordinates given?

If such a progression is understood in the evolution of the geometry raised in non euclidean perspectives, this has in my view raised the stakes on how we perceive the dynamical valuation of a world that we were lead into from GR?

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"In a sentence, the observations are spectacular and the conclusions are stunning," said Brian Greene of Columbia University in New York City. "WMAP data support the notion that galaxies are nothing but quantum mechanics writ large across the sky." "To me, this is one of the marvels of the modern scientific age."


Such dynamics then are not just held to what we see of the earth frame but of what we hold in terms of our cosmological recognition of those same dynamics. How much sand then when reductionism has run it's limit that we say how far our perspective has gone into the powers of ten, that we see a limit had been reached?

This pursuance did not in the reductionist point of view reduce our apprehension of the world around us but we engaged the world to see that such length contractions are still vital measures for perspective.

IN the "mean time," we live in a vary dynamical world. If dark energy or dark matter seemed unrealistic then what measure of that space shall you consider to be, and that it shall not be, in the relationship of "time variable moments?"

IN the space of our cosmos we saw a satellite measure say that the expansion is speeding up/slowing down? Does this take away the dynamics of non euclidean geometries to say that this is an abstract version of math of what does not exist?



Here L is called the Lagrangian. In simple cases the Lagrangian is equal to the difference between the kinetic energy T and the potential energy V, that is, L = T – V. In this interactive document we will approximate a continuous worldline with a worldline made of straight connected segments. The computer then multiplies the value of (T – V) on each segment by the time lapse t for that segment and adds up the result for all segments, giving us an approximate value for the action S along the entire worldline. Our task is then to move the connected segments of the worldline so that they result in the minimum total value of the action S.


While such a explanation had been served by understanding how one can rescue another and how two different people can get their quicker is the idea that such a plan is possible in the recognition of the cosmos as well. You just had to learn to see inan dynamical way as well.

The Lagrange Points

The easiest way to see how Lagrange made his discovery is to adopt a frame of reference that rotates with the system. The forces exerted on a body at rest in this frame can be derived from an effective potential in much the same way that wind speeds can be inferred from a weather map. The forces are strongest when the contours of the effective potential are closest together and weakest when the contours are far apart.....


A contour plot of the effective potential (not drawn to scale!).

In the above contour plot we see that L4 and L5 correspond to hilltops and L1, L2 and L3 correspond to saddles (i.e. points where the potential is curving up in one direction and down in the other). This suggests that satellites placed at the Lagrange points will have a tendency to wander off (try sitting a marble on top of a watermelon or on top of a real saddle and you get the idea). A detailed analysis (PDF link) confirms our expectations for L1, L2 and L3, but not for L4 and L5. When a satellite parked at L4 or L5 starts to roll off the hill it picks up speed. At this point the Coriolis force comes into play - the same force that causes hurricanes to spin up on the earth - and sends the satellite into a stable orbit around the Lagrange point.


The geometries as a whole seen in a local region, is the rule of law, as we move outward in space, or how else could we consider the dynamical movement that least resistance can fuel a path traveled with the least amount of energy expended?

***


See:
  • Non Euclidean Geometry and the Universe
  • Principal of Least Action
  • Gran Sasso and the Pyramid
  • Wednesday, January 07, 2009

    Lost in Translation

    Photo Credit: NASA


    Supernova Remnant Turns 400

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Now, astronomers using NASA's three Great Observatories are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy.

    This combined image -- from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and e Chandra X-ray Observatory -- unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.
    See:Supernova Remnant Turns 400

    ***



    Given the idea that there is an original version to what is constituted as reality and attempts to describe it are really, "Births by approximation."

    Now you have to understand the previous blog posting by this name to understand that I presented supernovas and remnants as a illustration of what happens when we see the universe by itself, is laid out before us, while within that time frame (universe's birth to present), events have happened that are defined as Supernovas.

    Several types of supernovae exist that may be triggered in one of two ways, involving either turning off or suddenly turning on the production of energy through nuclear fusion. After the core of an aging massive star ceases to generate energy from nuclear fusion, it may undergo sudden gravitational collapse into a neutron star or black hole, releasing gravitational potential energy that heats and expels the star's outer layers.
    See:Supernova

    Now in terms of what we now know in what has been demonstrated by being lead by scientific process, a realization that such events as "the Spherical cow embeds parts of the universe in expression." We now know that such a view in terms of 13.7 billion years in the universe's age, has elements within it that are aged as well which should not exceed the age of the universe? How does gravity occur in the totality of the whole universe, for it not to be the same, as the Supernova unfolds.

    Type II

    Within a massive, evolved star (a) the onion-layered shells of elements undergo fusion, forming an iron core (b) that reaches Chandrasekhar-mass and starts to collapse. The inner part of the core is compressed into neutrons (c), causing infalling material to bounce (d) and form an outward-propagating shock front (red). The shock starts to stall (e), but it is re-invigorated by a process that may include neutrino interaction. The surrounding material is blasted away (f), leaving only a degenerate remnant.


    Stars with at least nine solar masses of material evolve in a complex fashion.[5] In the core of the star, hydrogen is fused into helium and the thermal energy released creates an outward pressure, which maintains the core in hydrostatic equilibrium and prevents collapse.

    When the core's supply of hydrogen is exhausted, this outward pressure is no longer created. The core begins to collapse, causing a rise in temperature and pressure which becomes great enough to ignite the helium and start a helium-to-carbon fusion cycle, creating sufficient outward pressure to halt the collapse. The core expands and cools slightly, with a hydrogen-fusion outer layer, and a hotter, higher pressure, helium-fusion center. (Other elements such as magnesium, sulfur and calcium are also created and in some cases burned in these further reactions.)


    ***


    The event itself and the resulting explosion has to have a basis in terms of geometrics. What shall we call these Supernovas when their previous existence may have been a blackhole? What do we call stars that collapse that make blackholes.

    Source: Image Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller/NSF


    Stars shine
    by burning hydrogen. The process is called nuclear fusion. Hydrogen burning produces helium "ash." As the star runs out of hydrogen (and nears the end of its life), it begins burning helium. The ashes of helium burning, such as carbon and oxygen, also get burned. The end result of this fusion is iron. Iron cannot be used for nuclear fuel. Without fuel, the star no longer has the energy to support its weight. The core collapses. If the star is massive enough, the core will collapse into a black hole. The black hole quickly forms jets; and shock waves reverberating through the star ultimately blow apart the outer shells. Gamma-ray bursts are the beacons of star death and black hole birth.
    Bold emphasis to encourage a conclusive realization about the classification of those events within the universe given to Gamma recordings in our measures.

    Hybrids in the Universe?-12.20.06X-ray image of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614 taken by the XRT instrument on Swift. The burst glowed in X-ray light for more than a week following the gamma-ray burst. This so-called "afterglow" gave an accurate position of the burst on the sky and enabled the deep optical observations made by ground-based observatories and the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/Swift Team
    A year ago scientists thought they had figured out the nature of gamma-ray bursts. They signal the birth of black holes and traditionally, fall into one of two categories: long or short. A newly discovered hybrid burst has properties of both known classes of gamma-ray bursts yet possesses features that remain unexplained.

    The long bursts are those that last more than two seconds. It is believed that they are ejected by massive stars at the furthest edge of the universe as they collapse to form black holes.

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    See:
  • Birth By Approximization
  • Spherical Cows and their X-ray Sources
  • Monday, December 29, 2008

    We are , What Stars are Made of?

    One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist's suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics Edward Witten


    Imagine indeed, that such a picture below is an approximate of how our Milky Way Galaxy would appear to the distant observer.

    "It is remarkable and ironic that this ferocious "mother of all explosions" involves the lowly neutrino, an elementary particle that seems otherwise to be the most inert and inconspicuous of all particles. Out blast the neutrinos, taking with them all of the outer matter of the star, the new synthesized elements producing a brilliant flash of light of many millions of times brighter than all the stars shining within a single galaxy. The outer shell of the body of the Titan, containing all the elements from hydrogen to iron, is blown into space. A dense, spinning neutron star or perhaps a blackhole, the tiny remnant of the pure neutron core of the Titan with a mass greater than that of our Sun, is left behind."1


    M51: Cosmic Whirlpool-Credit: S. Beckwith (STScI) Hubble Heritage Team, (STScI/AURA), ESA, NASA See also:Astronomy Picture of the Day

    I was a little perturbed by how scientists themself assuming 5% of the world population would think that such congregations must be "held to themself" and their "sphere of communications." These communications are based on what 20% of the world population currently sees in Internet communications worldwide, would relegate "this figure of 5%" much narrower, to a figure allotted to "internet viability and population reached by those are really see less then 5%." This will change as the Internet viability and population increase. An expanding market then sought by Magazines to take on board "Blogging groups?"

    We show that any massive cosmological relic particle with small self-interactions is a super-fluid today, due to the broadening of its wave packet, and lack of any elastic scattering. The WIMP dark matter picture is only consistent its mass M ≫ MPl in order to maintain classicality. The dynamics of a super-fluid are given by the excitation spectrum of bound state quasi-particles, rather than the center of mass motion of constituent particles. If this relic is a fermion with a repulsive interaction mediated by a heavy boson, such as neutrinos interacting via the Z0, the condensate has the same quantum numbers as the vierbein of General Relativity. Because there exists an enhanced global symmetry SO(3, 1)space × SO(3, 1)spin among the fermion’s self-interactions broken only by it’s kinetic term, the long wavelength fluctuation around this condensate is a Goldstone graviton. A gravitational theory exists in the low energy limit of the Standard Model’s Electroweak sector below the weak scale, with a strength that is parametrically similar to GN.2
    "

    So, your of this group who sought to sell themself to Discovery Magazine, and forfeit(?) all posts and topics as an article of some extrapolation from the ARxiv to the "select only," the few? What was achieved then by the lone scientist, when he sought to exemplify his work on the http://arxiv.org and by chance of discussion sell all their days pondering as work of the future to a magazine?

    If you open with a question(?) with something that is very public, you have to consider what market you are extending yourself too, by thinking to ignore public contribution under the guise of this Magazine's presentation of authors. A forum?

    A Job possibly? Money to allow them the comforts of spreading good cheer amongst the populations? Imagine, if the population was ever to see "this advance" of bought scientists to mine only what it shall transpire for "new information" for that magazine, by only the inclusion of their trade associates. "Shall you as scientists resist then" such a corporate takeover, and exemplify yourself to denouncing such a corporate structure limited to communications away from the public?

    George Musser while scouring the archives and forums for his stories at least sought to contribute to the stories as they unfolded for the public through magazine subscription, then to "mine by incentive, a detach impetus for "new information" about what the stars are made up of. What remnants are left to insight the reader, to think that gravity was formed by evidence of some relics and only held in the scientists mind?

    See Also:



    1Symmetry by Leon M. Lederman and Christopher T. Hill page 36-Children of the Titans
    2Emergent Electroweak Gravity" Bob McElrath CERN theory group, Geneva 23, CH 1211, Switzerland-

    Friday, August 01, 2008

    Light House Keeper

    Some will reconsider the effect that is portrayed here in terms of a mirror directed and reflects to one eyes, can cause an unsettling effect because of the focus of the beam.

    IN nature such a thing is an everyday occurrence as we catch such glimpses not only here in our everyday lives, but assign them to a cosmological occurrence as well. Now as illusive as the God nature of particles from space, whose energy considerations may be of value, they are very odd to such glimpses contained, and maybe even called "God particles.":)

    There is a limit to the knowledge, you have to remember and what is one to do when they invoke such a statement, to realize our knowledge is indeed limited? We theorize and we built gigantic devices for such measures, as to the certainty of our values assigned to those theoretics. It has to appear in some intellectual form before we can say yes they exist and the dependence on measure is what we are willing to build to become such realistic people.

    I tend to think such a thing is a "direct connection to to what the event is saying" not only in our lives as the decay process is the effect of all our psychological actions(emotive intellectual or spiritual), it is also the elemental consideration that such constituents are held together by "such a glue" whose measure is affected, and measured, by such a light.

    If light bends, what is it we are to saying about the path such a light has travelled that we would say "the light has an energy valuation to it" and such lensing occurs?

    The light then, becomes a gravitational indication of the space it travels through?

    Black Hole-Powered Jet of Electrons and Sub-Atomic Particles Streams From Center of Galaxy M87

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Yields Clear View of Optical Jet in Galaxy M87

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) view of a 4,000 light-year long jet of plasma emanating from the bright nucleus of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. This ultraviolet light image was made with the European Space Agency's Faint Object Camera (FOC), one of two imaging systems aboard HST. This photo is being presented on Thursday, January 16th at the 179th meeting of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. M87 is a giant elliptical galaxy with an estimated mass of 300 billion suns. Located 52 million light-years away at the heart of the neighboring Virgo cluster of galaxies, M87 is the nearest example of an active galactic nucleus with a bright optical jet. The jet appears as a string of knots within a widening cone extending out from the core of M87. The FOC image reveals unprecedented detail in these knots, resolving some features as small as ten light-years across. According to one theory, the jet is most likely powered by a 3 billion solar mass black hole at the nucleus of M87. Magnetic fields generated within a spinning accretion disk surrounding the black hole, spiral around the edge of the jet. The fields confine the jet to a long narrow tube of hot plasma and charged particles. High speed electrons and protons which are accelerated near the black hole race along the tube at nearly the speed of light. When electrons are caught up in the magnetic field they radiate in a process called synchrotron radiation. The Faint Object Camera image clearly resolves these localized electron acceleration, which seem to trace out the spiral pattern of the otherwise invisible magnetic field lines. A large bright knot located midway along the jet shows where the blue jet disrupts violently and becomes more chaotic. Farther out from the core the jet bends and dissipates as it rams into a wall of gas, invisible but present throughout the galaxy which the jet has plowed in front of itself. HST is ideally suited for studying extragalactic jets. The Telescope's UV sensitivity allows it to clearly separate a jet from the stellar background light of its host galaxy. What's more, the FOC's high angular resolution is comparable to sub arc second resolution achieved by large radio telescope arrays.
    See:Hubble Site>

    Just to draw further comparison here for consideration in light of this thread I apologize, but it is of importance, just not in that blog posting space.

    The significance in our every day life of such a thing "catches the eye,"( thanks again Paul in regards to Snowboarders.) and we do not realize it. To find such cosmological comparisons is really interesting in the unfolding of the events. How significant?


    We see a pulsar, then, when one of its beams of radiation crosses our line-of-sight. In this way, a pulsar is like a lighthouse. The light from a lighthouse appears to be "pulsing" because it only crosses our line-of-sight once each time it spins. Similarly, a pulsar "pulses" because we see bright flashes every time the star spins.
    See: Pulsars
    Link to tutorial site has been taken down, and belongs to Barb of  http://www.airynothing.com
    See Also:Pulsars and Cerenkov Radiation

    So What Did I mean By Olympics?

    Monday, March 24, 2008

    Dark Energy: Beyond Einstein Missions

    Adept

    Charles L. Bennett

    "ADEPT will measure these supernovae, but its real advance lies in a new, more powerful technique. Patterns in temperature of the very young universe provide a 'standard ruler' that is imprinted on the pattern of galaxies across the sky. ADEPT aims to map these through space and time," according to Bennett

    ADEPT promises to provide the galaxy positions needed to follow the historical development of the universe, so that astronomers can determine the role played by the dark energy. Bennett says that the ADEPT mission will help answer many questions about the role played by dark energy in both fundamental physics and cosmology. Jonathan Bagger, chair of the Johns Hopkins physics and astronomy department, agreed. "Twenty-first century physics is at a crossroads," he said. "Our fundamental theories of gravity and quantum mechanics are in conflict. Dark energy might point the way out."
    See: for Concept Development-Lisa De Nike">NASA Selects Hopkins-led "ADEPT" Space Mission
    for Concept Development


    Destiny

    Artist's rendition of the Destiny spacecraft-Image Credit: NASA/GSFC


    Known as Destiny, the Dark Energy Space Telescope, the small spacecraft would detect and observe more than 3,000 supernovae over its two-year primary mission to measure the expansion history of the Universe, followed by a year-long survey of 1,000 square-degrees of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths to measure how the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe has evolved since the Big Bang. Used together, the data from these two surveys will have 10 times the sensitivity of current ground-based projects to explore the properties of Dark Energy, and will provide data critical to understanding the origin of Dark Energy, which is poorly explained by existing physical theories.

    “Destiny’s strength is that it is a simple, low-cost mission designed to attack the puzzling problem of Dark Energy directly with high statistical precision,” said Tod R. Lauer, the Principal Investigator for Destiny and an astronomer at NOAO. “We build upon grism technology used in the Hubble Space Telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys to help us provide spectra of the supernovae as well as images. Spectra are critical to diagnosing the properties of the supernova, but are very difficult to obtain with more traditional cameras. Destiny’s grism camera, however, will take simultaneous spectra of all objects in its field. This is a major advantage of our approach, which greatly increases the ability to detect and characterize these distant stellar explosions.”
    See:NASA Funds Development of Destiny: The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Snap

    NASA will support the SNAP mission concept for probing dark energy by observing distant Type Ia supernova and studying weak gravitational lensing.

    SNAP, the SuperNova/Acceleration Probe, is an experiment designed to learn the nature of dark energy by precisely measuring the expansion history of the universe. At present scientists cannot say whether dark energy has a constant value or has changed over time — or even whether dark energy is an illusion, with accelerating expansion being due to a gravitational anomaly instead.

    "SNAP will investigate dark energy using two independent and powerful techniques," says Saul Perlmutter of Berkeley Lab's Physics Division, a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley who is principal investigator of SNAP and leader of the international Supernova Cosmology Project based at Berkeley Lab. "The best proven and most powerful current technique is to determine changes in the expansion rate by comparing the redshift and distance of Type Ia supernovae, but we are also targeting the most promising complementary technique, called 'weak gravitational lensing.'"
    See: SNAP Wins NASA Support for Joint Dark Energy Mission

    Monday, December 31, 2007

    "Lego Block" Galaxies in Early Universe

    Witten:

    One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist’s suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics.


    n this image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, several objects are identified as the faintest, most compact galaxies ever observed in the distant universe. They are so far away that we see them as they looked less than one billion years after the Big Bang. Blazing with the brilliance of millions of stars, each of the newly discovered galaxies is a hundred to a thousand times smaller than our Milky Way Galaxy.

    The bottom row of pictures shows several of these clumps (distance expressed in redshift value). Three of the galaxies appear to be slightly disrupted. Rather than being shaped like rounded blobs, they appear stretched into tadpole-like shapes. This is a sign that they may be interacting and merging with neighboring galaxies to form larger structures.

    The detection required joint observations between Hubble and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Blue light seen by Hubble shows the presence of young stars. The absence of infrared light from Spitzer observations conclusively shows that these are truly young galaxies without an earlier generation of stars.


    I always like to think that while we refrain from the actual Lego Building block that a child may use, the infancy in our views of the universe, are principles and terms that a condensed matter theorist might use.


    Likewise, if the very fabric of the Universe is in a quantum-critical state, then the "stuff" that underlies reality is totally irrelevant-it could be anything, says Laughlin. Even if the string theorists show that strings can give rise to the matter and natural laws we know, they won't have proved that strings are the answer-merely one of the infinite number of possible answers. It could as well be pool balls or Lego bricks or drunk sergeant majors.Robert Laughlin


    See:Welcome to ICAM-I2CAM



    Update:


    Tuesday, March 06, 2007

    The Physics of Mind

    It might be that the laws change absolutely with time; that gravity for instance varies with time and that this inverse square law has a strength which depends on how long it is since the beginning of time. In other words, it's possible that in the future we'll have more understanding of everything and physics may be completed by some kind of statement of how things started which are external to the laws of physics. Richard Feynman


    While by myself and my explanations, it may seem mystical indeed. In my years of research previous, it was much so. But the research is no less important then the realization that the world in which we live is governed by the list of ways that we measure. A selection from the "sensorium" to have it gain in "probable pictorial outcomes, by recognizing "the crossed wired" in our views, as one more variable?


    You may use the scientific measure to take "three pictures" of the same thing, and of this, what physics is attached to what we observe out there in space? What computer processes had we detailed in the "depth of seeing" as we explore the "physics of approach," and see what beautiful pictures of Hubble, or other satellites that we gain much from the beauty of pictures received.

    So a picture of the sun taken "over time" in gamma ray detection. What view is that in our depths of reason to understand the sun has certain processes to it? That what we seen in the relation to mind as a physics approach is no less important to what we observe, and are a part of.



    The Mind on Physics

    Is it possible to predict what a person is thinking of - or even what they are planning to do - based alone on their current brain activity? This project investigates ways to decode and predict a person’s thoughts from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The key is that each thought is associated with a unique brain activation pattern that can be used as a signature or for that specific thought. If we train a classifier to recognize these characteristic signatures we can read out a person’s thoughts from their brain activity alone. Such “thought reading” can reveal how information is neurally encoded in the brain. The idea is that it is only possible to decode a thought if one knows the correct code. This research has many potential application, as for example in detection of deception, in the control of computers and artificial prostheses by brain activity, or even (more controversial) in market research.


    So the onus is on the researcher to gain much more with the depth of reason. So in having sought science to help, one might deal with how we are relating to our world. Is it the beauty that detracts from what lies underneath, or that we understand with a greater measure the valuation we have had with that exchange with reality?

    Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Berlin-
    Brain regions from which it was possible to "read out" peoples' intentions. In specific regions fine-grained patterns of brain activity showed slight differences depending on whether a person was preparing to perform an addition or a subtraction. From activity patterns in the green regions it was possible to read out covert intentions before subjects began to perform the calculation. From the regions marked in red it was possible to read out intentions that were already being acted upon.


    A Scientists Multiversial Bubble



    I get excited sometimes when I write, and this is one of those times.

    I have see how the scientists engaged. I had lacked a "complete view" of their reality. I saw records of what the "bubble of experience allows them too" in their writings. That they could be, separate from all that exists around them, yet, they are apart of the greater aspect of reality. How dangerous are their voices in lacking, what those of the layman are lacking, when a layman speaks with authority?

    This is not to lash out at the scientist, but make him/her aware of the greater potential of information that exists. That speaking "from a solid foundation" just as important as what we read and take part in, as we read the journalism of science.

    Who is the Teacher

    For me it has been the many who now actively engage by participating in the world of blogging, that I can now say I been so lucky. That what was so distant from, can now become a part of my life. Before this it was books, and I had to piece meal, but now I see the result of many scientists who have helped, greatly developed by giving and that example.

    I lacked experience, and thus too, am trying to find my way. Live by example. So too, the teacher assumes that what he teaches, is lived by in his own history, and so of his forbears. So should we become humble in our approaches? That we have so much to learn, and that as human beings, we are not so far apart in our adventures into describing what reality is to us.

    There is this demand then of the qualitative measure of that reality that it could be infinite, holds uncertainty, yet we would only see part of it? We are a part of it.

    That the mind and it's subjective thoughts could now become part of science is the route "that many a scientists lacked" while holding all the technological values to what is seen in front of them. It to arose out into "validations of measure" as to how mind can be seen.

    So quickly I could be dispelled that I thought indeed am I a teacher? What credentials do I have? What gave me authority? While I most certainly say you would be right, and thus, I have been living my fate in amongst the world I develop by my opinion. By "how flowery" I had become.

    But without the "physical teacher" what said that we could not develop into "a teacher" and that all of us could not have this teacher within them? I would not dismiss the "rules of law" or be "sanctioned a journalist" when I too blog. But imagine the access to the "greater ability of information" has changed the way you and I can see. What is your history?

    WE give this empowerment to people by giving access of information to them. I would say that by seeing this empowerment "outside of themself," I would not want them to know that they could not live to the higher validation of what a good teacher may mean. I would have to say thus, that it is "by the parent in us," that we see what has been transmitted, and that what can be transmitted, will be sent on to further generations.

    That even those without being the parent, as a physical result in children raised, has this parent in them. Would a teacher as a parent know of this feeling as I would? I do not dismiss this in them because of what is real in them. Every measure of the parent in them is the advice they have unconsciously now used as this rule of measure. As they form their opinion of what is a good government had been the realizatin that as a adult now they can selectively say this is now my moral standard of law. I defne this government by what I value, and we had quickly lost the parent in all this? No that parent became a part of you. But you learnt to discern these difference between you as a adult and your parent as a adult. You realized your differences. You realized who you are as a adult.

    Now about Gravity

    What could I loose if such thoughts are introduced to "what may be possible" and you will have to line up all your sceptics, and it would still not dispel what I already know and have observed against all the gravitational laws as we know them.

    I do not ever say stop what you are doing as a scientist. Do not loose these values, but unfortunately, I had seen something that is much like the course of events that will change any person. A "license plate" that holds symmetry? Einstein who was given "the gift of the compass," and I in no way align myself with the brilliance of their moments. But point out that each of us may have been given our own anomalies in life which will propel our searches.

    I have mine.


    The medium DDHome levitating in front of witnesses during an 1868 séance. It was said on this occasion that Home became curiously “elongated” as he rose into the air. Shortly afterwards, he appeared to float upright outside a third floor window. Home had his detractors, but was never discredited.
    Image: Fortean Picture Library

    Saturday, February 24, 2007

    NASA's Hubble Telescope Celebrates SN 1987A's 20th Anniversary

    A String of 'Cosmic Pearls' Surrounds an Exploding Star-NASA, ESA, P. Challis, and R. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
    Twenty years ago, astronomers witnessed one of the brightest stellar explosions in more than 400 years. The titanic supernova, called SN 1987A, blazed with the power of 100 million suns for several months following its discovery on Feb. 23, 1987.

    Observations of SN 1987A, made over the past 20 years by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and many other major ground- and space-based telescopes, have significantly changed astronomers' views of how massive stars end their lives. Astronomers credit Hubble's sharp vision with yielding important clues about the massive star's demise.

    "The sharp pictures from the Hubble telescope help us ask and answer new questions about Supernova 1987A," said Robert Kirshner, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "In fact, without Hubble we wouldn't even know what to ask."

    Kirshner is the lead investigator of an international collaboration to study the doomed star. Studying supernovae like SN 1987A is important because the exploding stars create elements, such as carbon and iron, that make up new stars, galaxies, and even humans. The iron in a person's blood, for example, was manufactured in supernova explosions. SN 1987A ejected 20,000 Earth masses of radioactive iron. The core of the shredded star is now glowing because of radioactive titanium that was cooked up in the explosion.

    The star is 163,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It actually blew up about 161,000 B.C., but its light arrived here in 1987.




    If you get the chance take a look over at the post "Supernova 1987A" done by Stefan of Backreaction in regards to this issue. It is nice to be able to reflect where one was when such a event took place. Maybe you remember where you were and can comment?

    About the event itself I must say it has not triggered any remembrances other then what I choose to reflect on my own life, and that's something different.

    What is of interest to be is how these events unfold and what geometrics play within the design of this unfoldment. I do speak on that in various posts.

    Kepler's Supernova

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Now, astronomers using NASA's three Great Observatories are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy.


    See here for link to this story.


    This combined image -- from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and e Chandra X-ray Observatory -- unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.


    By designing the types of satellites we wish to use to measure, we create the image of the events as beautiful pictures of unfoldment within our universe as seen above. Maybe you can see something in "the theory proposed of SN1987a pictures" that will help understand what I mean?

    When one is doing mathematical work, there are essentially two different ways of thinking about the subject: the algebraic way, and the geometric way. With the algebraic way, one is all the time writing down equations and following rules of deduction, and interpreting these equations to get more equations. With the geometric way, one is thinking in terms of pictures; pictures which one imagines in space in some way, and one just tries to get a feeling for the relationships between the quantities occurring in those pictures. Now, a good mathematician has to be a master of both ways of those ways of thinking, but even so, he will have a preference for one or the other; I don't think he can avoid it. In my own case, my own preference is especially for the geometrical way. Paul Dirac


    This universe has events at a time in space, which allows us to construct this event as as geometrical function. Some of the values seen in the microscopic world have placed an interesting role for me in how I see this relationship of what unfolds within our microperspective views, as to what is on display in our cosmos.

    The Bohr model is a primitive model of the hydrogen atom. As a theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics, and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics.


    While I appreciate these events in the cosmos I also needed to understand how such microperspective were motivating the geometry within that event, so it is not possible for me not to include the arrangements of the physics of reductionism and not compare it to these motivations that create these beautiful events

    Update: It's 9:20 am and I was just over at Quasar9's blog and notice this entry in relation to SN1987a as well.

    Wednesday, February 07, 2007

    Angels and Demons on a Pinhead

    "Observations always involve theory."Edwin Hubble
    Curvature Parameters

    Of course I had to point to the cosmological understanding that took us to this "geometrical understanding of things that are large." But this is to be short, while I crunch the thoughts of the process to the pinhead. You can follow the "picture links" and learn more on your own time.


    Calabi-Yau manifold (3D projection made with Mathematica)-
    In either case, gravity acting in the hidden dimensions affects other non-gravitational forces such as electromagnetism. In fact, Kaluza and Klein's early work demonstrated that general relativity with five large dimensions and one small dimension actually predicts the existence of electromagnetism. However, because of the nature of Calabi-Yau manifolds, no new forces appear from the small dimensions, but their shape has a profound effect on how the forces between the strings appear in our four dimensional universe. In principle, therefore, it is possible to deduce the nature of those extra dimensions by requiring consistency with the standard model, but this is not yet a practical possibility. It is also possible to extract information regarding the hidden dimensions by precision tests of gravity, but so far these have only put upper limitations on the size of such hidden dimensions.


    How many would have thought that such a micro-perspective could have been ever be taken down to "this level" and found an analogy that is suitable? You needed something more here to consider, yet, I will call it "angel and demons" for those who like the mystery.


    Image: courtesy Andrew J. Hanson, Indiana University-A computer-generated rendering of a possible six-dimensional geometry similar to those studied by UW-Madison physicist Gary Shiu.

    I will try and spell out what is happening at such a microperspective level. You might wonder, how did such ideas become what is, "the good and evil of the world" is really a part of the dynamics that we see geometrically enhanced, as we delve ever deeper into this mystery of reductionism and such. On how, we may look at cosmology that "is different" with this perspective.

    Energy "is" Gravitationally Related

    At some point, those considering "all this energy" and the way reduction is assigned to the energy at all levels, what shall any calorimetric pick up as such collision processes seek to define "every contact" as we want to "map the pinhead" accordingly?

    Lubos Motl saids that he sees the relation to such dynamical situations as "fruitful research" toward the understanding of the cosmological descriptions implied from such micro states. To have it listed according to a "geometrical perspective" we might be able to assign each universe? Okay! He did not say that exactly, so check into his blog entry for an update.

    I'd like to thank Quasar9 for reporting on this as well.

    Orbitals



    My thoughts have been there toward reductionism's more cosmological counterpart for some time now. So I enjoy, that the views that I have had about the microperspective have indeed been sanctioned at some science level according to the scientist in the know. Yes, I can prove my thoughts here for you, so you know what I mean.


    The star Eta Carina is ejecting a pair of huge lobes that form a "propeller" shape. Jet-like structures are emanating from the center (or "waist"), where the star (quite small on this scale) is located.


    Now it is indeed a "greater depth of perception" that asks us to delve into the microperspective of string world. How is it the cosmological world can have such similarities, while the story of the Calabi Yau, makes itself a headlight news current in the research of string theory?

    The First Few Microseconds, by Michael Riordan and Willaim A. Zajc
    During those early moments, matter was an ultrahot, superdense brew of particles called quarks and gluons rushing hither and thither and crashing willy-nilly into one another. A sprinkling of electrons, photons and other light elementary particles seasoned the soup. This mixture had a temperature in the trillions of degrees, more than 100,000 times hotter than the sun's core.


    See:
  • Angels and Demons
  • Doppelgänger Favors Oscillate
  • Music of the Spheres
  • A Clear Presence-Friday