Pages

Showing posts with label Gravity. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Gravity. Show all posts

Thursday, August 28, 2014

The Extra Dimensions



The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters. See: Big Mysteries: The Extra Dimensions

***




The extra dimensions of string theory which were originally viewed as a source of embarrassment for the theory, have proven to be instrumental in resolving a number of puzzles associated with 3+1 dimensional physics. I discuss examples of this in the context of black holes, gauge theory and particle phenomenology. See: Strings and the Magic of Extra Dimensions - Cumrun Vafa

 ***

Savas Dimopoulos
(link now dead)Here’s an analogy to understand this: imagine that our universe is a two-dimensional pool table, which you look down on from the third spatial dimension. When the billiard balls collide on the table, they scatter into new trajectories across the surface. But we also hear the click of sound as they impact: that’s collision energy being radiated into a third dimension above and beyond the surface. In this picture, the billiard balls are like protons and neutrons, and the sound wave behaves like the graviton.

***

Wednesday, October 09, 2013

Lawrence Krauss - Debate in Stockholm, 2013



A discussion about the definition of nothing. And the relation of philosophy and theology to science. Attendees are Lawrence M Krauss, Bengt Gustafsson, Åsa Wikforss, Stefan Gustavsson and Ulrika Engström. Moderator: Christer SturmarkLawrence Krauss - Debate in Stockholm, 2013



See:

Saturday, May 04, 2013

The LIGO and Virgo Gravitational-Wave Detectors

An artist's impression of two stars orbiting each other (left). The orbit shrinks as the system emits gravitational waves (middle). When the stars merge (right), there is a resulting powerful emission of gravitational waves. [Image: NASA]

The LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors have been hunting for signals from the collisions of neutron stars and black holes, which are dense objects formed from the remains of stars many times more massive than our Sun. When two of these objects orbit each other in a binary system, the emission of gravitational waves will gradually carry away some of their orbital energy, forcing them to get closer and closer together. This happens slowly at first, but as the orbit gets tighter the gravitational waves get stronger and the process accelerates until eventually the stars collide and merge, emitting in the last few seconds one of the most powerful outflows of energy in the Universe. See: What gravitational waves can tell us about colliding stars and black holes




The LIGO Hanford Control Room
LIGO's mission is to directly observe gravitational waves of cosmic origin. These waves were first predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity in 1916, when the technology necessary for their detection did not yet exist. Gravitational waves were indirectly suggested to exist when observations were made of the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16, for which the Nobel Prize was awarded to Hulse and Taylor in 1993.
The Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16:




See Also:



Thursday, October 25, 2012

Gravimetry

Gravity map of the Southern Ocean around the Antarctic continent
This gravity field was computed from sea-surface height measurements collected by the US Navy GEOSAT altimeter between March, 1985, and January, 1990. The high density GEOSAT Geodetic Mission data that lie south of 30 deg. S were declassified by the Navy in May of 1992 and contribute most of the fine-scale gravity information.
The Antarctic continent itself is shaded in blue depending on the thickness of the ice sheet (blue shades in steps of 1000 m); light blue is shelf ice; gray lines are the major ice devides; pink spots are parts of the continent which are not covered by ice; gray areas have no data.

Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field. Gravimetry may be used when either the magnitude of gravitational field or the properties of matter responsible for its creation are of interest. The term gravimetry or gravimetric is also used in chemistry to define a class of analytical procedures, called gravimetric analysis relying upon weighing a sample of material.


 See Also:
Atom interferometry: In light-pulse atom interferometers, atomic matter waves are split and recombined using pulses of laser light. The splitting occurs because when an atom interacts with the photons of a laser beam, it exchanges the momentum of a number of photons. The atom may thus continue on either of two spatially separate paths, the interferometer arms. When the paths are recombined, the probability that the atom is found depends upon the phase difference between them, which determines whether the matter waves will add or cancel. This phase is shifted by the atom’s coupling to electromagnetic fields, gravity, inertial forces, and other influences. By selecting the geometry of the interferometer, the atomic species, and its quantum state, one can maximize the wanted influence and minimize others. Advances in the control of the quantum state of atoms and photons have led to an extraordinary sensitivity and accuracy.




See:

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Brian Clegg: Gravity

A history of gravity, and a study of its importance and relevance to our lives, as well as its influence on other areas of science. 
Physicists will tell you that four forces control the universe. Of these, gravity may the most obvious, but it is also the most mysterious. Newton managed to predict the force of gravity but couldn’t explain how it worked at a distance. Einstein picked up on the simple premise that gravity and acceleration are interchangeable to devise his mind-bending general relativity, showing how matter warps space and time. Not only did this explain how gravity worked – and how apparently simple gravitation has four separate components – but it predicted everything from black holes to gravity’s effect on time. Whether it’s the reality of anti-gravity or the unexpected discovery that a ball and a laser beam drop at the same rate, gravity is the force that fascinates. Gravity: How the Weakest Force in the Universe Shaped Our Lives




It is an interesting read so far. I have always had a fondness of the historical take information can  provide from that historical sense.  Each time an author can enlighten the world with our science forbears it makes for a deeper feel of what came out of these scientists as precursors to where we are today. I enjoy how Brian Clegg can fill in the gaps with what I had learn of Sir Isaac Newton. The historical progress from the ancient Greeks to what has transpire to today in terms of our definition of Gravity.

It allows one to look at around them and the way in which early ideas became foundations points from which development move on toward the world of the science we have today in terms of that gravity.


Sunday, November 14, 2010

Gravimetry

For the chemical analysis technique, see Gravimetric analysis.


Gravity map of the Southern Ocean around the Antarctic continent
Author-Hannes Grobe, AWI

This gravity field was computed from sea-surface height measurements collected by the US Navy GEOSAT altimeter between March, 1985, and January, 1990. The high density GEOSAT Geodetic Mission data that lie south of 30 deg. S were declassified by the Navy in May of 1992 and contribute most of the fine-scale gravity information.

The Antarctic continent itself is shaded in blue depending on the thickness of the ice sheet (blue shades in steps of 1000 m); light blue is shelf ice; gray lines are the major ice devides; pink spots are parts of the continent which are not covered by ice; gray areas have no data.
Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field. Gravimetry may be used when either the magnitude of gravitational field or the properties of matter responsible for its creation are of interest. The term gravimetry or gravimetric is also used in chemistry to define a class of analytical procedures, called gravimetric analysis relying upon weighing a sample of material.

Contents

Units of measurement

Gravity is usually measured in units of acceleration. In the SI system of units, the standard unit of acceleration is 1 metre per second squared (abbreviated as m/s2). Other units include the gal (sometimes known as a galileo, in either case with symbol Gal), which equals 1 centimetre per second squared, and the g (gn), equal to 9.80665 m/s2. The value of the gn approximately equals the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface (although the actual acceleration g varies fractionally from place to place).

How gravity is measured

An instrument used to measure gravity is known as a gravimeter, or gravitometer. Since general relativity regards the effects of gravity as indistinguishable from the effects of acceleration, gravimeters may be regarded as special purpose accelerometers. Many weighing scales may be regarded as simple gravimeters. In one common form, a spring is used to counteract the force of gravity pulling on an object. The change in length of the spring may be calibrated to the force required to balance the gravitational pull. The resulting measurement may be made in units of force (such as the newton), but is more commonly made in units of gals.

More sophisticated gravimeters are used when precise measurements are needed. When measuring the Earth's gravitational field, measurements are made to the precision of microgals to find density variations in the rocks making up the Earth. Several types of gravimeters exist for making these measurements, including some that are essentially refined versions of the spring scale described above. These measurements are used to define gravity anomalies.

Besides precision, also stability is an important property of a gravimeter, as it allows the monitoring of gravity changes. These changes can be the result of mass displacements inside the Earth, or of vertical movements of the Earth's crust on which measurements are being made: remember that gravity decreases 0.3 mGal for every metre of height. The study of gravity changes belongs to geodynamics.

The majority of modern gravimeters use specially-designed quartz zero-length springs to support the test mass. Zero length springs do not follow Hooke's Law, instead they have a force proportional to their length. The special property of these springs is that the natural resonant period of oscillation of the spring-mass system can be made very long - approaching a thousand seconds. This detunes the test mass from most local vibration and mechanical noise, increasing the sensitivity and utility of the gravimeter. The springs are quartz so that magnetic and electric fields do not affect measurements. The test mass is sealed in an air-tight container so that tiny changes of barometric pressure from blowing wind and other weather do not change the buoyancy of the test mass in air.

Spring gravimeters are, in practice, relative instruments which measure the difference in gravity between different locations. A relative instrument also requires calibration by comparing instrument readings taken at locations with known complete or absolute values of gravity. Absolute gravimeters provide such measurements by determining the gravitational acceleration of a test mass in vacuum. A test mass is allowed to fall freely inside a vacuum chamber and its position is measured with a laser interferometer and timed with an atomic clock. The laser wavelength is known to ±0.025 ppb and the clock is stable to ±0.03 ppb as well. Great care must be taken to minimize the effects of perturbing forces such as residual air resistance (even in vacuum) and magnetic forces. Such instruments are capable of an accuracy of a few parts per billion or 0.002 mGal and reference their measurement to atomic standards of length and time. Their primary use is for calibrating relative instruments, monitoring crustal deformation, and in geophysical studies requiring high accuracy and stability. However, absolute instruments are somewhat larger and significantly more expensive than relative spring gravimeters, and are thus relatively rare.

Gravimeters have been designed to mount in vehicles, including aircraft, ships and submarines. These special gravimeters isolate acceleration from the movement of the vehicle, and subtract it from measurements. The acceleration of the vehicles is often hundreds or thousands of times stronger than the changes being measured. A gravimeter (the Lunar Surface Gravimeter) was also deployed on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 17 mission, but did not work due to a design error. A second device (the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment) functioned as anticipated.

Microgravimetry

Microgravimetry is a rising and important branch developed on the foundation of classical gravimetry.

Microgravity investigations are carried out in order to solve various problems of engineering geology, mainly location of voids and their monitoring. Very detailed measurements of high accuracy can indicate voids of any origin, provided the size and depth are large enough to produce gravity effect stronger than is the level of confidence of relevant gravity signal.

History

The modern gravimeter was developed by Lucien LaCoste and Arnold Romberg in 1936.

They also invented most subsequent refinements, including the ship-mounted gravimeter, in 1965, temperature-resistant instruments for deep boreholes, and lightweight hand-carried instruments. Most of their designs remain in use (2005) with refinements in data collection and data processing.

See also

Thursday, May 07, 2009

Defining the Space your Living In

The general theory of relativity is as yet incomplete insofar as it has been able to apply the general principle of relativity satisfactorily only to gravitational fields, but not to the total field. We do not yet know with certainty by what mathematical mechanism the total field in space is to be described and what the general invariant laws are to which this total field is subject. One thing, however, seems certain: namely, that the general principal of relativity will prove a necessary and effective tool for the solution of the problem for the total field.Out of My Later Years, Pg 48, Albert Einstein


Because Albert Einstein ended his career there, it did not mean such progressiveness would not move forward to include such an attempt to consider the "total field." By definition and allocation of a "step off point" people began to consider this possibility and sought such reformation in thinking as well

It is always the effort to see that such progressions in thought could have transformed any thinking person by the laws and rule of measure that will hold perspective toward the future. These are always being redefined by experiment, and such validations are adjusted then, to what we now use them for.

A new way to measure climate? A gravitational perspective held by Grace?

The calculation will be considered from the Earth frame of reference. The length is then unaffected since it is in the Earth frame. The halflife is in the muon frame, so must be considered to be time dilated in the Earth frame. You may substitute values for the height and the muon speed in the calculation below
See:Muon Experiment in Relativity

While one may use this knowledge then with an attempt to discover new vaults of "time in measure" and recorded for historical pursuance by civilizations hidden in the pyramids, such efforts revealed nothing. They were not thinking the right way. It is the model developmental aspect which I have demonstrated over and over again that we can conceal the history of memories under such a analogical tool for pathways in the human sphere of perspective?

Illustrations: Sandbox Studio See:Secrets of the Pyramids By Haley Bridger Symmetry Magazine

***


Such dynamical thinking then is the realization that our views had been transformed from straight lines and such to geometric that help us to think dynamically in the world around us.




The Friedmann equation which models the expanding universe has a parameter k called the curvature parameter which is indicative of the rate of expansion and whether or not that expansion rate is increasing or decreasing. If k=0 then the density is equal to a critical value at which the universe will expand forever at a decreasing rate. This is often referred to as the Einstein-de Sitter universe in recognition of their work in modeling it. This k=0 condition can be used to express the critical density in terms of the present value of the Hubble parameter.

For k>0 the density is high enough that the gravitational attraction will eventually stop the expansion and it will collapse backward to a "big crunch". This kind of universe is described as being a closed universe, or a gravitationally bound universe. For k<0 the universe expands forever, there not being sufficient density for gravitational attraction to stop the expansion.




Friedman Equation What is pdensity.

What are the three models of geometry? k=-1, K=0, k+1

Negative curvature

Omega=the actual density to the critical density

If we triangulate Omega, the universe in which we are in, Omegam(mass)+ Omega(a vacuum), what position geometrically, would our universe hold from the coordinates given?

If such a progression is understood in the evolution of the geometry raised in non euclidean perspectives, this has in my view raised the stakes on how we perceive the dynamical valuation of a world that we were lead into from GR?

***


"In a sentence, the observations are spectacular and the conclusions are stunning," said Brian Greene of Columbia University in New York City. "WMAP data support the notion that galaxies are nothing but quantum mechanics writ large across the sky." "To me, this is one of the marvels of the modern scientific age."


Such dynamics then are not just held to what we see of the earth frame but of what we hold in terms of our cosmological recognition of those same dynamics. How much sand then when reductionism has run it's limit that we say how far our perspective has gone into the powers of ten, that we see a limit had been reached?

This pursuance did not in the reductionist point of view reduce our apprehension of the world around us but we engaged the world to see that such length contractions are still vital measures for perspective.

IN the "mean time," we live in a vary dynamical world. If dark energy or dark matter seemed unrealistic then what measure of that space shall you consider to be, and that it shall not be, in the relationship of "time variable moments?"

IN the space of our cosmos we saw a satellite measure say that the expansion is speeding up/slowing down? Does this take away the dynamics of non euclidean geometries to say that this is an abstract version of math of what does not exist?



Here L is called the Lagrangian. In simple cases the Lagrangian is equal to the difference between the kinetic energy T and the potential energy V, that is, L = T – V. In this interactive document we will approximate a continuous worldline with a worldline made of straight connected segments. The computer then multiplies the value of (T – V) on each segment by the time lapse t for that segment and adds up the result for all segments, giving us an approximate value for the action S along the entire worldline. Our task is then to move the connected segments of the worldline so that they result in the minimum total value of the action S.


While such a explanation had been served by understanding how one can rescue another and how two different people can get their quicker is the idea that such a plan is possible in the recognition of the cosmos as well. You just had to learn to see inan dynamical way as well.

The Lagrange Points

The easiest way to see how Lagrange made his discovery is to adopt a frame of reference that rotates with the system. The forces exerted on a body at rest in this frame can be derived from an effective potential in much the same way that wind speeds can be inferred from a weather map. The forces are strongest when the contours of the effective potential are closest together and weakest when the contours are far apart.....


A contour plot of the effective potential (not drawn to scale!).

In the above contour plot we see that L4 and L5 correspond to hilltops and L1, L2 and L3 correspond to saddles (i.e. points where the potential is curving up in one direction and down in the other). This suggests that satellites placed at the Lagrange points will have a tendency to wander off (try sitting a marble on top of a watermelon or on top of a real saddle and you get the idea). A detailed analysis (PDF link) confirms our expectations for L1, L2 and L3, but not for L4 and L5. When a satellite parked at L4 or L5 starts to roll off the hill it picks up speed. At this point the Coriolis force comes into play - the same force that causes hurricanes to spin up on the earth - and sends the satellite into a stable orbit around the Lagrange point.


The geometries as a whole seen in a local region, is the rule of law, as we move outward in space, or how else could we consider the dynamical movement that least resistance can fuel a path traveled with the least amount of energy expended?

***


See:
  • Non Euclidean Geometry and the Universe
  • Principal of Least Action
  • Gran Sasso and the Pyramid
  • Friday, December 07, 2007

    Kip Thorne on Space Place Live and Cosmc Colors

    The most important thing is to be motivated by your own intellectual curiosity. KIP THORNE




    Click here to watch Kip Thorne on Space Place Live.

    The "Color of Gravity to Sound" forces perspective. What can I say? It becomes an exercise into an artistic adventure. So there has to be a historical development in any idea to express gravity in such a way. So you develop new ideas, learn that detection methods in the aluminum bar for gravity detection holds ameaning for a new enquiring mind. What was Webber doing? Did Einstein hear gravity in such a way? He knew to measure time in terms of the hot stove and a beautiful girl?

    The "visible" images in the viewer are what we see with our unaided eyes or ordinary telescopes. The other images shown here were made by instruments that detect light our eyes cannot see. Then those images were colored so that we can see what the instrument saw.

    If a "wavelength" appears darkened in the viewer for a particular object, that means we don't yet have an image of that object in that wavelength.


    So we develop our measures and apply our colours. How nice these pictures look? Everybody's view the same.

    The Colour of the Emotive State

    This a person's coloured view of the world around them. The gravity of their situation.

    If we were to say that all life was expressed in such a way what would the vibrancy of our emotive states scream, if love is splashed onto a screen, or "anger" stopping in the red?

    A man sits under heavy questioning. There are no lie detectors attached to his being. No way is there a better way then to know that his voice, his disposition, cannot hide a lie he might like to tell? The colour tells all, and the deception, is the man's grounded position on life and truth he acquired.

    Wednesday, November 14, 2007

    The Ring of Truth

    Savas Dimopoulos:Here’s an analogy to understand this: imagine that our universe is a two-dimensional pool table, which you look down on from the third spatial dimension. When the billiard balls collide on the table, they scatter into new trajectories across the surface. But we also hear the click of sound as they impact: that’s collision energy being radiated into a third dimension above and beyond the surface. In this picture, the billiard balls are like protons and neutrons, and the sound wave behaves like the graviton.


    On the title it is important to understand what is being implied within the context of this post. What came to mind immediately when Bee wrote"Ring of Truth" in her post, "A Theoretically Simple Exception of Everything." Joseph Weber came to mind.

    Joseph Weber 1919 - 2000

    Joseph Weber, the accomplished physicist and electrical engineer, has died at the age of 81. Weber's diverse research interests included microwave spectroscopy and quantum electronics, but he is probably best known for his investigations into gravitational waves.

    In the late 1950s, Weber became intrigued by the relationship between gravitational theory and laboratory experiments. His book, General Relativity and Gravitational Radiation, was published in 1961, and his paper describing how to build a gravitational wave detector first appeared in 1969. Weber's first detector consisted of a freely suspended aluminium cylinder weighing a few tonnes. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Weber announced that he had recorded simultaneous oscillations in detectors 1000 km apart, waves he believed originated from an astrophysical event. Many physicists were sceptical about the results, but these early experiments initiated research into gravitational waves that is still ongoing. Current gravitational wave experiments, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are descendants of Weber's original work.

    Weber was born in 1919 in Paterson, New Jersey, and graduated in 1940. He spent eight years as an electrical engineer in the US Navy, and was assigned as navigator on the aircraft carrier Lexington during World War II. After his resignation from the Navy in 1948, Weber went on to obtain his PhD in 1951 from the Catholic University of America. He was appointed professor of electrical engineering at the University of Maryland, and he moved into the physics department in 1961 when he began his investigations into gravitational waves.

    Weber died on 30 September in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is survived by his wife, the astrophysicist Virginia Trimble.


    Bee writes about "Ring of Truth" from Lee Smolin's book,
    "But we are also fairly sure that we do not yet have all the pieces. Even with the recent successes, no idea yet has that absolute ring of truth." p. 255 (US hardcover).


    So I pulled this above from Bee's comment blog for further reference. To help make my point about gravitational wave detection and all the kinds of wav(Y)es in which gravity can now be looked at.

    So of course it is necessary to include the commentary from Bee's reference too, Garrett Lisi's comment section, to help one see the complex rotations that speaks to all manifestations(geometrical foresight on complex rotations in dimensional spaces), from the origins of all a particle creations to the elemental understanding given in context of the post by Bee.


    "With the discovery of sound waves in the CMB, we have entered a new era of precision cosmology in which we can begin to talk with certainty about the origin of structure and the content of matter and energy in the universe-Wayne Hu


    Stefan,

    Maybe I have a better chance to understand them when their relation to the original post is more than just the word "gravity" in both of them?

    Your "toying with the way we see gravitational and gravity waves?" Dealing with the objective world with ancient ideas?

    I pointed to the differences.

    Plato:Wherever there are no gravitational waves the spacetime is flat. One would have to define these two variances. One from understanding the relation to "radiation" and the other, "to the perfectly spherically symmetric."


    But still to see such dynamics in terms of the "mathematical abstract" I see see no reason why you would "lesson my points" on helping one to see these differences in the space around us.

    This recording was produced by converting into audible sounds some of the radar echoes received by Huygens during the last few kilometres of its descent onto Titan. As the probe approaches the ground, both the pitch and intensity increase. Scientists will use intensity of the echoes to speculate about the nature of the surface.


    So I may point to the ways in which one may synthesized the views of the world in relation to not only "sound" as Kris just talks about, but also about how one may transform that sound "to colour."

    3.1 As Cytowic notes, Plato and Socrates viewed emotion and reason as in a kind of struggle, one in which it was vitally important for reason to win out. Aristotle took a more moderate view, that both emotion and reason are integral parts of a complex human soul--a theory proposed by Aristotle in explicit opposition to Platonism (De Anima 414a 19ff). Cytowic appears to endorse the Platonic line, with the notable difference that he would apparently rather have emotion win out.


    Cosmic variance may talk about synesthesia yet you cannot stop the changes such understanding brings to the emotive forces that surround earth and us.

    Such a shift to bulk perspective is not without it's lessons on progressing the views of gravity in "all situations."

    I am not so smart, just that I may see differently then you Stefan. :)

    We can't actually hear gravitational waves, even with the most sophisticated equipment, because the sounds they make are the wrong frequency for our ears to hear. This is similar in principle to the frequency of dog whistles that canines can hear, but are too high for humans. The sounds of gravitational waves are probably too low for us to actually hear. However, the signals that scientists hope to measure with LISA and other gravitational wave detectors are best described as "sounds." If we could hear them, here are some of the possible sounds of a gravitational wave generated by the movement of a small body in spiralling into a black hole.


    Does anybody really understand what is happening when the conceptual foundation allows new perspective to form? New theories to make their way into challenging the very foundations of our reality?

    Every step in the production of the "conceptual framework" is an exercise in how perception is being changed. Can be changed.

    There are moderators of all sorts who govern the information that is being written. How one view can be portrayed and sits in contradiction to the way String theory uses E8 is not the reason one might of suspected problems with acceptance here or there.

    It s a organizational method on how to respond and place it accordingly. Peter is being paranoid? :)

    Monday, November 12, 2007

    Where Spacetime is flat?

    ......A Condensative Result exists. Where "energy concentrates" and expresses outward.

    I mean if I were to put on my eyeglasses, and these glasses were given to a way of seeing this universe, why not look at the whole universe bathed in such spacetime fabric?

    This a opportunity to get "two birds" with one stone?

    I was thinking of Garrett's E8 Theory article and Stefan's here.

    On March 31, 2006 the high-resolution gravity field model EIGEN-GL04C has been released. This model is a combination of GRACE and LAGEOS mission plus 0.5 x 0.5 degrees gravimetry and altimetry surface data and is complete to degree and order 360 in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients.

    High-resolution combination gravity models are essential for all applications where a precise knowledge of the static gravity potential and its gradients is needed in the medium and short wavelength spectrum. Typical examples are precise orbit determination of geodetic and altimeter satellites or the study of the Earth's crust and mantle mass distribution.

    But, various geodetic and altimeter applications request also a pure satellite-only gravity model. As an example, the ocean dynamic topography and the derived geostrophic surface currents, both derived from altimeter measurements and an oceanic geoid, would be strongly correlated with the mean sea surface height model used to derive terrestrial gravity data for the combination model.

    Therefore, the satellite-only part of EIGEN-GL04C is provided here as EIGEN-GL04S1. The contributing GRACE and Lageos data are already described in the EIGEN-GL04C description. The satellite-only model has been derived from EIGEN-GL04C by reduction of the terrestrial normal equation system and is complete up to degree and order 150.


    How many really understand/see the production of gravitational waves in regards to Taylor and Hulse?

    To see Stefan's correlation in terms of "wave production" is a dynamical quality to what is still be experimentally looked for by LIGO?

    As scientists, do you know this?

    6:41 AM, November 11, 2007
    See here

    Thus the binary pulsar PSR1913+16 provides a powerful test of the predictions of the behavior of time perceived by a distant observer according to Einstein's Theory of Relativity.


    Since we know the theory of Relativity is about Gravity, then how is it the applications can be extended to the way we see "anew" in our world?

    A sphere, our earth, not so round anymore.

    Uncle has tried to correct me on "isostatic adjustment."

    Derek Sears, professor of cosmochemistry at the University of Arkansas, explains. See here

    Planets are round because their gravitational field acts as though it originates from the center of the body and pulls everything toward it. With its large body and internal heating from radioactive elements, a planet behaves like a fluid, and over long periods of time succumbs to the gravitational pull from its center of gravity. The only way to get all the mass as close to planet's center of gravity as possible is to form a sphere. The technical name for this process is "isostatic adjustment."

    With much smaller bodies, such as the 20-kilometer asteroids we have seen in recent spacecraft images, the gravitational pull is too weak to overcome the asteroid's mechanical strength. As a result, these bodies do not form spheres. Rather they maintain irregular, fragmentary shapes. K. Shumacker. Scientific America


    Do not have time to follow up at this moment.

    7:02 AM, November 11, 2007
    .....and here.


    In context of the post and differences, I may not have pointed to the substance of the post, yet I would have dealt with my problem in seeing.

    In general terms, gravitational waves are radiated by objects whose motion involves acceleration, provided that the motion is not perfectly spherically symmetric (like a spinning, expanding or contracting sphere) or cylindrically symmetric (like a spinning disk).

    A simple example is the spinning dumbbell. Set upon one end, so that one side of the dumbell is on the ground and the other end is pointing up, the dumbbell will not radiate when it spins around its vertical axis but will radiate if it tumbles end-over-end. The heavier the dumbbell, and the faster it tumbles, the greater is the gravitational radiation it will give off. If we imagine an extreme case in which the two weights of the dumbbell are massive stars like neutron stars or black holes, orbiting each other quickly, then significant amounts of gravitational radiation would be given off.


    Given the context of the "whole universe" what is actually pervading, if one did not include gravity?



    So singularities are pointing to the beginning(i), yet, we do not know if we should just say, the Big Bang, because, one would had to have calculated the energy used and where did it come from "previous" to manifest?

    So some will have this philosophical position about "nothing(?)," and "everything as already existing."

    Wherever there are no gravitational waves the space time is flat. One would have to define these two variances. One from understanding the relation to "radiation" and the other "perfectly spherically symmetric."

    Saturday, September 29, 2007

    Production of Gravitational Waves

    "My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky."
    William Wordsworth-- My Heart Leaps Up



    This post is based on "the production" and not the detection of gravitational waves.

    It does serve it's purpose, that I explain what I have in terms of detection, that one moves from that process, to actual production of them.:) Now I am not talking about Taylor and Hulse and PSR 1913+16 either.


    Dr. Kip Thorne, Caltech 01-Relativity-The First 20th Century Revolution



    Weber developed an experiment using a large suspended bar of aluminum, with a high resonant Q at a frequency of about 1 kH; the oscillation of the bar after it had been excited could be measured by a series of piezoelectric crystals mounted on it. The output of the system was put on a chart recorder like those used to record earthquakes. Weber studied the excursions of the pen to look for the occasional tone of a gravitational wave passing through the bar...



  • Einstein@Home



  • LIGO:



  • Nor am I talking about Kip Thorne, Webber, or Ligo operation for that matter.

    I am actually talking about the creation of gravitational waves.

    Now imagine that you see this "slide of light," and you were to think that in front of you, this would help you see where the gravitational field would be falling away from you. You would be sliding "ahead" from where you pointed and created this effect.

    So now you get the idea here of what I propose in the production of gravitational waves versus the detection of them?:)


    Up until this point in time, I've used the term "generate" to describe the capability of producing a gravitational field, but since I'm not aware of any way of creating a gravitational field from nothing, a more accurate term might be to "access and amplify" a gravitational field. And this is what I mean when I use the term "generate". To understand how gravity is generated or "accessed and amplified", you must first know what gravity is.


    While watching a television program I listened to what he had to say. For people interested in gravity, Quantum or otherwise, this topic helped captured my change in thinking that is postulated, and one I am giving thought right now.

    The Problem


    Gravitational waves are produced when there is a change in the curvature of spacetime. Since the shape of spacetime depends only on how mass is distributed, events that change the distribution of mass cause gravitational waves. It takes events with a lot of energy to make gravitational waves that we can detect because spacetime is not very elastic. Remember the bowling ball analogy? Space-time is like a stiff trampoline, one that only sinks when you put something very heavy on it.


    So if we are to consider such a thing how would I go about it? Perhaps, "jumping up and down?":)


    “Every time you accelerate—say by jumping up and down—you’re generating gravitational waves,” says Rainer Weiss, Professor Emeritus of Physics at MIT. “There’s no doubt of it.” But just standing there won’t cut the mustard. To make a wave, your mass has to both move (have velocity) and have acceleration (change the rate of motion, direction, or both).

    Still, don’t get your hopes up. No matter how fast you jump, sprint, or cartwheel, the resulting warp your waves make on space is so weak that it’s utterly unmeasurable—perhaps 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 times less so than the warp made by massive exploding space objects. And LIGO has a tough enough time measuring those.


    So there are questions on my mind, about gravity creation.

    Plato writes:


    Dorigo,

    I am interested as a lay person in the collider experiments and wondered about "gravitational wave production."

    Considering quark gluon levels reached I wondered about the strength and the weakness as a measure of gravitational waves within that collider action. If microscopic blackhole are created then would it be wrong to observe, variation of gravity within the domain of the collider itself?

    regards,


    See following comment posted here.

    Dear Plato,

    quarks are microscopic bodies. The gravitational effects associated with the motion and interaction of masses that small are ridiculously small.

    In theories contemplating a low quantum gravity scale, black holes could in principle be created in high energy collisions, but if a chance of detecting their creation exists, it is not by gravitational effects, which remain billions of billions of billions of billions (and then some) of times smaller than those caused by strong interactions.

    Please check my post on Lisa Randall’s seminar (Sept. 29th), or the one on the seminar given by Steve Giddings last March. There is reading material that I tried to make accessible to most there.

    Cheers,
    T.


    I will be loking at this in much more detail. Something that immediately came to mind is Gran Sasso. "Muon creation" from the particle collisions. See: Neutrino Mixing in Sixty Seconds.

    This summer, CERN gave the starting signal for the long-distance neutrino race to Italy. The CNGS facility (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso), embedded in the laboratory's accelerator complex, produced its first neutrino beam. For the first time, billions of neutrinos were sent through the Earth's crust to the Gran Sasso laboratory, 732 kilometres away in Italy, a journey at almost the speed of light which they completed in less than 2.5 milliseconds. The OPERA experiment at the Gran Sasso laboratory was then commissioned, recording the first neutrino tracks. See Strangelets and Strange Matter


    The Distorted Lense

    It would seem to me that if any lens could direct "the focus of our vision" then why not the focus of the gravitational waves? I mean if there is a "inverse calculation" to waves, it would seem t me that such a process could point to a heavy concentration in terms of blackhole production?


    As one of the fields which obey the general inverse square law, the gravity field can be put in the form shown above, showing that the acceleration of gravity, g, is an expression of the intensity of the gravity field.


    As I am reading different thoughts are manifesting and one of these has to do with the "escape velocity of the photon." Why I am not sure at the moment. This used as a measure of determination of whether a blackhole exists? How did we arrive at such a point?


    Albert Einstein (1879–1955)


    One part of the theory of Relativity was inspired when a painter fell off a roof. Einstein found out that while the painter was falling freely, he felt weightless. This led Einstein to realize that gravity was a form of inertia, a result of the way things moved through space - and General Relativity was born.


    It is important for me to recognize the collider process in context of what it is experimentally doing. For me this is demonstrating a "geometrical process" even if it is being taken down to the such "weak gravitational ranges" that I would point to what would manifest,if a tunnelling effect occurred from one location to the next.

    Time travel

    Plato:Thus the initial idea here to follow is that the process had to have a physics relation. This is based on the understanding of anti-particle/particle, and what becomes evident in the cosmos as a closed loop process. Any variation within this context, is the idea of "blackhole anti-particle expression" based on what can be seen at the horizon?Tunneling in Faster then Light


    Warp Drives", "Hyperspace Drives", or any other term for Faster-than-light travel is at the level of speculation, with some facets edging into the realm of science. We are at the point where we know what we do know and know what we don’t, but do not know for sure if faster than light travel is possible.

    The bad news is that the bulk of scientific knowledge that we have accumulated to date concludes that faster than light travel is impossible. This is an artifact of Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. Yes, there are some other perspectives; tachyons, wormholes, inflationary universe, spacetime warping, quantum paradoxes...ideas that are in credible scientific literature, but it is still too soon to know if such ideas are viable.

    One of the issues that is evoked by any faster-than-light transport is time paradoxes: causality violations and implications of time travel. As if the faster than light issue wasn’t tough enough, it is possible to construct elaborate scenarios where faster-than-light travel results in time travel. Time travel is considered far more impossible than light travel.


    It would be suspect to me that such travelling in space would allow for the manufacture of gravitational influences to be pointed in the "direction of travel" and allow such slippage away from that current position.

    Gravitational Mass for a Photon

    The relativistic energy expression attributes a mass to any energetic particle, and for the photon



    The gravitational potential energy is then



    When the photon escapes the gravity field, it will have a different frequency




    Since it is reduced in frequency, this is called the gravitational red shift or the Einstein red shift.

    Escape Energy for Photon

    If the gravitational potential energy of the photon is exactly equal to the photon energy then



    Note that this condition is independent of the frequency, and for a given mass M establishes a critical radius. Actually, Schwarzchilds's calculated gravitational radius differs from this result by a factor of 2 and is coincidently equal to the non-relativistic escape velocity expression




    A black hole is an object so massive that even light cannot escape from it. This requires the idea of a gravitational mass for a photon, which then allows the calculation of an escape energy for an object of that mass. When the escape energy is equal to the photon energy, the implication is that the object is a "black hole."


    For more see "Time as a measure.

    By allowing new physics to emerge, what basis is being held relevant then to what is being created in the particle collisions that are indeed faster then light?


    As we know from Einstein’s theory of special relativity, nothing can travel faster than c, the velocity of light in a vacuum. The speed of the light that we see generally travels with a slower velocity c/n where n is the refractive index of the medium through which we view the light (in air at sea level, n is approximately 1.00029 whereas in water n is 1.33). Highly energetic, charged particles (which are only constrained to travel slower than c) tend to radiate photons when they pass through a medium and, consequently, can suddenly find themselves in the embarrassing position of actually travelling faster than the light they produce!

    The result of this can be illustrated by considering a moving particle which emits pulses of light that expand like ripples on a pond, as shown in the Figure (right). By the time the particle is at the position indicated by the purple spot, the spherical shell of light emitted when the particle was in the blue position will have expanded to the radius indicated by the open blue circle. Likewise, the light emitted when the particle was in the green position will have expanded to the radius indicated by the open green circle, and so on. Notice that these ripples overlap with each other to form an enhanced cone of light indicated by the dotted lines. This is analogous to the idea that leads to a sonic boom when planes such as Concorde travel faster than the speed of sound in air


    See also information on What is Cerenkov Radiation?

    Fifth Dimensional General Relativity

    It was a gradual process that using Grace to help me see the earth in new ways was paramount to the inclusion principle of electromagnetism contained within the move to GR.I may be mixed up here, and I have no one to say.

    "Color of gravity" assumes that you have seen the colour of gravity in relation to this slide of light. So seeing in such a way would seem relevant in the fifth dimensional perspective.

    In Kaku's preface of Hyperspace, page ix, we find a innocent enough statement that helps us orientate a view that previous to all understanding, is couched in the work of Kaluza.

    In para 3, he writes,

    Similarily, the laws of gravity and light seem totally dissimilar. They obey different physical assumptions and different mathematics. Attempts to splice these two forces have always failed. However, if we add one more dimension, a fifth dimension, to the previous four dimensions of space and time, then equations governing light and gravity appear to merge together like two pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Light, in fact, can be explained in the fifth dimension. In this way, we see the laws of light and gravity become simpler in five dimensions.


    I would think such a thought here by Kaku would have stimulated the brains of people to see that a direct result is needed in our reality to which such thoughts I am giving would allow you to see gravity in new ways?



    Lagrangian views with regards to relations between the Earth, Moon and Sun would help one to see the general outlay of gravitational influences in space. That is also part of the work I have been following to understand the spacetime fabric and how we may see this in our dealings.

    Saturday, July 21, 2007

    The Colour of Gravity

    Boy do I miss be able to do some of the bloggey work and research information. :)

    The thought on the color of gravity has been talked about on my site before. From a metaphysical standpoint, philosophical, I sometimes wonder, that if the choices we make are forever sealed in our emotive states, then how weak a measure it would be for us to question what the color of gravity would mean in relation.

    Rimimgton's Colour Organ-Professor Rimington's home demonstrations must have been unforgettable. The Colour Organ was some ten feet high, with a five octave keyboard which was similar to that of a church organ, being controlled by stops. A line of "colour keys" was situated above the conventional (sound) keyboard, and connected to a lens-and-filters system, so that "colour" was "played". Best effects were secured when the sound and colour were played from separate keyboards.

    I mean if we were to ever have been able to see the colour of our mental and emotive states, what would this plethoria of colour actually look like? What realms would we have been assigned too, by our own natures and constitutions, that we would see only what we are allowed to see, and nothing more?

    As if being held to this "frame of reference?" From a coordinated state of affairs, I always liked Greg Egan's animation examples.

    Monday, March 12, 2007

    Isostatic Adjustment is Why Planets are Round?

    Conclusion:The state of mind of the observer plays a crucial role in the perception of time.Einstein
    See here.

    If we thought of the "Colour of Gravity" posted here, what values could you assign any materials that arise from the centre out? Gravity would have it's way with these materials for us to assign them to their unique ordering?

    The Power of Myth With Bill Moyers, by Joseph Campbell , Introduction that Bill Moyers writes,

    "Campbell was no pessimist. He believed there is a "point of wisdom beyond the conflicts of illusion and truth by which lives can be put back together again." Finding it is the "prime question of the time." In his final years he was striving for a new synthesis of science and spirit. "The shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric world view," he wrote after the astronauts touched the moon, "seemed to have removed man from the center-and the center seemed so important...


    That we may say, the minerals on the moon have been assigned their valuation too? I would say it's the colour of gravity that we had assigned all of humanities thoughts and where is man/woman's centre?

    Image: NASA/JPL-
    Planets are round because their gravitational field acts as though it originates from the center of the body and pulls everything toward it. With its large body and internal heating from radioactive elements, a planet behaves like a fluid, and over long periods of time succumbs to the gravitational pull from its center of gravity. The only way to get all the mass as close to planet's center of gravity as possible is to form a sphere. The technical name for this process is "isostatic adjustment."

    With much smaller bodies, such as the 20-kilometer asteroids we have seen in recent spacecraft images, the gravitational pull is too weak to overcome the asteroid's mechanical strength. As a result, these bodies do not form spheres. Rather they maintain irregular, fragmentary shapes.


    By using Grace here, and the way we look at earth now, we get a better sense of what the actual shape of the earth is. WE had all thought it looked so round from space, that under a "time variable measure" we knew better. We knew that the variations in topographical locations would reveal something unique in relation to gravity. It took Grace to do that



    Our work is about comparing the data we collect in the STAR detector with modern calculations, so that we can write down equations on paper that exactly describe how the quark-gluon plasma behaves," says Jerome Lauret from Brookhaven National Laboratory. "One of the most important assumptions we've made is that, for very intense collisions, the quark-gluon plasma behaves according to hydrodynamic calculations in which the matter is like a liquid that flows with no viscosity whatsoever."
    See more here

    The Moon Clementine-Color ratio image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon-Clementine color ratio composite image of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon. This 42 km diameter crater is located on the corner of the Aristarchus plateau, at 24 N, 47 W. Ejecta from the plateau is visible as the blue material at the upper left (northwest), while material excavated from the Oceanus Procellarum area is the reddish color to the lower right (southeast). The colors in this image can be used to ascertain compositional properties of the materials making up the deep strata of these two regions. (Clementine, USGS slide 11)

    It is not so far fetched for the mind to think of the planet in question, as to it's roundness, or, the moon in relation to how we see those impact craters on it's surface. "The moon" quite revealing in the mineralogical decor for us. So there are two things to consider here.

    From the "boundary" of the planet "inward" and from the "centre" of the planet "outward."

    Wednesday, March 07, 2007

    Gravity Experiments

    No matter how absurd? :)

    From a early age, young Albert showed great interest in the world around him. When he was five years old, his father gave him a compass, and the child was enchanted by the device and intrigued by the fact the needle followed a invisible field to point always in the direction of the north pole.Reminiscing in old age, Einstein mentioned this incident as one of the factors that perhaps motivated him years later to study the gravitational field. God's Equation, by Amir D. Aczel, Pg 14

    So you fast forward a few years and what have you got with regards to nature accompany the man who fell off his roof?


    Albert Einstein (1879–1955)

    One part of the theory of Relativity was inspired when a painter fell off a roof. Einstein found out that while the painter was falling freely, he felt weightless. This led Einstein to realize that gravity was a form of inertia, a result of the way things moved through space - and General Relativity was born.


    So it is "by accident" General Relativity was born? Having things happen within context of natures own timing leaves one with some impressions it seems? How often have you noticed the outside world while you are doing your abstract thinking? What is so conducive that the open doorway allowed this other information to flow quite freely into the mind's cavity? You happebn to be working woth natures and it's puzzles yet what use any of these geometrical forms?

    Plato:
    It is of course with some concern that any scientific mind, held to the established rules of his organizational, "motto of acceptance of the stringent rules of science" would allow such room, as to imbue the human being with qualities greater then, the value assigned to subjective valuations.


    So having faced the idea of the "gravitonic condensation" what use this idea(a painting) in terms of what we see as we spell out the differences between micro lensing and "gravitational lensing" how light travels from those distant points in the universe?

    This miniature drop tower is used by Microgravity man and others to demonstrate the effects of reduced gravity on physical and chemical phenomena that are normally masked by Earth's gravity.

    I know about people distancing themselves from what may indeed trouble them, as if, one presented some "anomaly in nature" that I/you may have never seen before. Do I take them on face value for what we had know of them? While reading their blog over the years, months, days, what conclusion had you reached?? Superman, Spiderman, and Captain Marvel comics which glorify the hero? Spheres, as bubbles in gravity free environment are always a nice thing to consider.

    A bubble is a minimal-energy surface of the type that is formed by soap film.

    I selected Kuhn because I was speaking directly to what was evident in my own life. What was presented to me "as the experience" may have likewise captivated a young child of 5, while another is trouble by symmetry in a "qualitative style."

    I began my own investigations, and this set the course for my life to understand what had happened. How ever absurd one may find my statement in the previous post, it is a fact that I do not know how it was accomplished, but I did indeed see the effect of the person free of what we know as gravity holding the individual to her bosom.

    So you have this statement. Q9 said,"the outer gravity which keeps our feet firmly on the ground."



    So how was I suppose to react given the circumstances I had mentioned? If I said the mind was involved in the process "what proof do I have" that the person could indeed do the things that defy, what a frog may do for one who likes to wear shoes that make them light on their feet?

    So any concept which had spoken about gravity, to one extent or another, has entered my research, for me to find some way that would allow such a thing to entertain the sceptic, as well as take the form of flowery pot comments. "Concepts" as foolish as the bulk?

    Of course I want to know what happen in the way that young Einstein wondered about the mystery of nature assigned to that needle. We know now don't we? Oh, gravity is weak here on earth? Weaker then the magnet that is attached itself to the fridge.

    So when gravity had ever been strong? How strong, that it could reach only so far?