Showing posts with label Glast. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Glast. Show all posts

Monday, September 08, 2014

Muon Tomography (cont)

It is the case of an article on Muon Tomography, titled New Muon Detector Could Find Hidden Nukes. The article appeared a few days ago on Wired. It is centered on Lisa Grossman's interview to Marcus Hohlmann, a colleague from the Florida Institute of Technology. In a nutshell, the article explains how muon particles from cosmic rays can be used to detect heavy elements (as in nuclear fuel) hidden in transport containers. And what makes things sexier is that the used technology is a spin-off from experiments from particle physics. See: Muon Tomography: Who Is Leading The Research ?
See Also:

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Beginning next year, two detectors (shown here in green) on either side of Fukushima Daiichi’s Unit 2 will record the path of muons (represented by the orange line) that have passed through the reactor. By determining how the muons scatter between the detectors, scientists will compile the first picture of the damaged reactor’s interior. See:
Particle physics to aid nuclear cleanup
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The progression of Muon Tomography,  is an interesting subject in relation to what can be used to help us understand issues we face here on earth. Situations that need new ways in which to diagnostically deal with extreme situations. Example given in relation too, rock density, magma flows, or, even nuclear reactors.

One has to learn to understand "links that are dropped" which pursue a thread of evolution. These help one to understand the processional use of the technologies as used to understand the ways things are measured in those extreme situations. Sensor-ability,  then takes on a new meaning while using current scientific research and understandings in particle physics.

Sunday, January 26, 2014

Gravitational Waves, as Quantum Flunctuations

"According to modern understanding, even if all matter could be removed from a volume, it would still not be "empty" due to vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, transiting gamma- and cosmic rays, neutrinos, along with other phenomena in quantum physics. In modern particle physics, the vacuum state is considered as the ground state of matter." See: Vacuum
Bold added by me for emphasis.

While covering long distances(cosmic particles) what is examined that differences could have been determined in AMSII Calorimeter devices have been implored to be defined in configuration spaces. See Glast/Fermi. Use of calorimeter devices against the backdrop of LHC.


When cosmic particle meet earth's boundary with space, forward faster then light effects are generated. It is important to me that space be given it proper context in relation too, what is actually being transmitted across distances. Speed of light is medium dependent. So energy depenence value is necessary for those forward measure faster then light measure, exemplified in ICECUBE.

The idea then, that these space fluctuation as vacua are in expression and are sensitive aside what else is also being transmitted across those long distances. This, in relation with cosmic particles that were also created in events.

The most important thing is to be motivated by your own intellectual curiosity.
KIP THORNE

Dr. Kip Thorne, Caltech 01-Relativity-The First 20th Century Revolution


In my mind Kip Thorne's determinations as to the length of measure and value of LiGO arms, also seen as beam of light very sensitive to those vacuum fluctuations.


Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of Earth-based gravitational wave observatories1–4 is seeking to directly detect this faint radiation using precision laser interferometry. Photon shot noise, due to the quantum nature of light, imposes a fundamental limit on the attometre-level sensitivity of the kilometre-scale Michelson interferometers deployed for this task. Here, we inject squeezed states to improve the performance of one of the detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) beyond the quantum noise limit, most notably in the frequency region down to 150 Hz, critically important for several astrophysical sources, with no deterioration of performance observed at any frequency. With the injection of squeezed states, this LIGO detector demonstrated the best broadband sensitivity to gravitational waves ever achieved, with important implications for observing the gravitational-wave Universe with unprecedented sensitivity. A fundamental limit to the sensitivitySee: Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of lightPUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2013.177

Sunday, December 01, 2013

Fermi's Now Deeper Study of the High-Energy Cosmos



This compilation summarizes the wide range of science from the first five years of NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Fermi is a NASA observatory designed to reveal the high-energy universe in never-before-seen detail. Launched in 2008, Fermi continues to give astronomers a unique tool for exploring high-energy processes associated with solar flares, spinning neutron stars, outbursts from black holes, exploding stars, supernova remnants and energetic particles to gain insight into how the universe works.NASA | Fermi at Five Years



The Crab Nebula, created by a supernova seen nearly a thousand years ago, is one of the sky's most famous "star wrecks." For decades, most astronomers have regarded it as the steadiest beacon at X-ray energies, but data from orbiting observatories show unexpected variations. Since 2008, it has faded by 7 percent, activity likely tied to the environment around its central neutron star. (Video Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center)

Wednesday, December 05, 2012

Astrophysical Signals for Quantum Gravity Signals







Logo for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/Sonoma State University/Aurore Simonnet

NASA's newest observatory, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, or GLAST, has begun its mission of exploring the universe in high-energy gamma rays. The spacecraft and its revolutionary instruments passed their orbital checkout with flying colors.

NASA announced August 26 that GLAST has been renamed the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The new name honors Prof. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), a pioneer in high-energy physics.
See:NASA Renames Observatory for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky




 
See Also:



Friday, January 07, 2011

Crab Nebula


This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope of the Crab Nebula, a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star's supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded this violent event nearly 1,000 years ago in 1054, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans.

The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula's eerie interior bluish glow. The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star. The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star's rotation. A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star.

The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord Rosse in 1844, using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes such as the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away.

The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen, green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.

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January 6, 2011 - Fermi's Large Area Telescope Sees Surprising Flares in Crab Nebula

Each of the two flares the LAT observed lasted a few days before the Crab Nebula's gamma-ray output returned to more normal levels. According to Funk, the short duration of the flares points to synchrotron radiation, or radiation emitted by electrons accelerating in the magnetic field of the nebula, as the cause. And not just any accelerated electrons: the flares were caused by super-charged electrons of up to 1015 electron volts, or 10 quadrillion electron volts, approximately 1,000 times more energetic than the protons accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider in Europe, the world's most powerful man-made particle accelerator, and more than 15 orders of magnitude greater than photons of visible light.
"The strength of the gamma-ray flares shows us they were emitted by the highest-energy particles we can associate with any discrete astrophysical object," Funk said. January 6, 2011 - Fermi's Large Area Telescope Sees Surprising Flares in Crab Nebula-Date Issued: January 6, 2011 Contact: Melinda Lee, SLAC Media Manager

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Fermi Records Lighthouse Effect

John Keats talked of "unweaving the rainbow", suggesting that Newton destroyed the beauty of nature by analysing light with a prism and splitting it into different colours. Keats was being a prat. Physicists also smile when we see rainbows, but our emotional reaction is doubled by our understanding of the deep physics relating to the prismatic effects of raindrops. Similarly, physicists appreciate sunsets more than anybody else, because we can enjoy the myriad colours and at the same time grasp the nuclear physics that created the energy that created the photons that travelled for millions of years to the surface of the Sun, which then travelled eight minutes through space to Earth, which were then scattered by the atmosphere to create the colourful sunset. Understanding physics only enhances the beauty of nature.See:'Keats claimed physics destroyed beauty. Keats was being a prat'

In this illustration, one photon (purple) carries a million times the energy of another (yellow). Some theorists predict travel delays for higher-energy photons, which interact more strongly with the proposed frothy nature of space-time. Yet Fermi data on two photons from a gamma-ray burst fail to show this effect, eliminating some approaches to a new theory of gravity. The animation link below shows the delay scientists had expected to observe. Credit: NASA/Sonoma State University/Aurore Simonnet
See: Fermi Telescope Caps First Year With Glimpse of Space-Time

"This measurement eliminates any approach to a new theory of gravity that predicts a strong energy dependent change in the speed of light," Michelson said. "To one part in 100 million billion, these two photons travelled at the same speed. Einstein still rules."

What I want people to know now is that a question arises about "theoretical conclusions drawn" about joining, "Electromagnetism and Gravity." This basically what their saying?
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We see a pulsar, then, when one of its beams of radiation crosses our line-of-sight. In this way, a pulsar is like a lighthouse. The light from a lighthouse appears to be "pulsing" because it only crosses our line-of-sight once each time it spins. Similarly, a pulsar "pulses" because we see bright flashes every time the star spins. See: Pulsars
Link to tutorial site has been taken down, and belongs to Barb of  http://www.airynothing.com

For some it is not a hard thing to remember when the Sun, or a light has blinded one to seeing what is in front of you, it aligns to the realization, that if one shifts to the right or left, they can come out of the bright directional gaze of emissions from that other time.

M87's Energetic Jet., HST image. The blue light from the jet emerging from the bright AGN core, towards the lower right, is due to synchrotron radiation.

See Also: Light House Keeper as well as Label Lighthouse at bottom of Post entry.
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Simple Jet Model. A simple model for a jet is a relativistic sphere emitting synchrotron radiation. This simple model hides the complexity of a real jet but can still be used to illustrate the principles of relativistic beaming.

Electrons inside the blob(Crab Nebula) travel at speeds just a tiny fraction below the speed of light and are whipped around by the magnetic field. Each change in direction by an electron is accompanied by the release of energy in the form of a photon. With enough electrons and a powerful enough magnetic field the relativistic sphere can emit a huge number of photons, ranging from those at relatively weak radio frequencies to powerful X-ray photons.-(In brackets added by me)See: Relativistic beaming

So the spectrum at this end reveals Gamma ray perspective that when considered under this watchful eye, reveals views of our Sun and views of the Cosmos of very different ranges used in that spectrum, still, shows the Sun.

It is not so difficult to realize then how much energy is directed that one could say that what we had seen in the light effect can help spotters on ships realize the coastlines during those frightful storms at sea.

(click on image for larger viewing)
The bluish glow from the central region of the nebula is due to synchrotron radiation.

Synchrotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation, similar to cyclotron radiation, but generated by the acceleration of ultrarelativistic (i.e., moving near the speed of light) charged particles through magnetic fields. This may be achieved artificially in synchrotronsstorage rings, or naturally by fast electrons moving through magnetic fields in space. The radiation produced may range over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio wavesinfrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. It is distinguished by its characteristic polarization and spectrum.

Sunday, January 04, 2009

Birth By Approximization

Of course I am acknowledging the universe in a big way here, "that by measure," we can arrive at "some ideas" about the nature of this universe. Fundamental constants acknowledged.

This post was to raise awareness of the "idea about noise that can be created by people," layman like myself, as to questions we can have about the universe's birth. How can I be more specific? While these questions are not specific to an analysis of the way and approaches in experiment at the forefront, or theoretics, I can wonder and do voice from "information specific as lead by science" that the "science trades embedded" are in the analysis, and am working toward this resolution of a "factual and actual representation."

There is an assumption on my part that gravity existed "before this universe" and "came into expression" as this universe. How does one qualify this statement? I do not discount that I was lead here by Veneziano. I do not discount and acknowledge an astronomer would be happy with just accepting the universe as the way it is, in a nice box. But yes, I too think outside the box in more ways then one.:) Shall I not acknowledge, such heat generated in my thinking mind may propel new universes in idea expression?
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These are just two of the measures below that have, and will, allow us to interpret the very outlay and expression motivated, as it is.



Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results. Credit Source: WMAP Science Team

The temperature (TT) and temperature-polarization correlation (TE) power spectra based on the 5 year WMAP data. Additional data provide more sensitive measurements of the third peak in TT and the high-l TE spectrum, especially the second trough.
See: Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

Now, I develop this post knowing that Clifford and Robert and Sean, look to discuss respectively and abstractly Boltzmann Brains, gravity inherent, a description of the universe at large. That some work from "purely abstract levels in mathematics." It is not always certain and clear for me how this math is deduced, but from holding "bench marks of the constants" as an progression to further questions. Future theoretics.

It is planned to launch Planck in early April of 2009 together with the Herschel satellite. After launch, Planck and Herschel will separate and will be placed in different orbits around the second Lagrangian point of the Earth-Sun System.Credit Source: Planck Science Team Home

THE MISSION:
Planck will help provide answers to one of the most important sets of questions asked in modern science - how did the Universe begin, how did it evolve to the state we observe today, and how will it continue to evolve in the future? Planck's objective is to analyse, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the Universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the Cosmic Microwave Background.


While they all do say that they do not have the full knowledge, would it be safe to say, that they all are arriving at their conclusions by approximations as well? That these approximations in context of the real thing, real knowledge, is far from an adequate description of the birth of this universe and would still be considered as noise?:)

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Plato and Justice



A just society must be governed by men of reason.Inventing a new social myth to replace the old. Socrates calls those who rule for the benefit of the whole society and not to it's detriment golden men: in his myth they rightfully govern the men of silver and bronze.
This is the myth of metals(415a ff.) the centrepiece of a second accusation that has dogged Plato through the centuries. Plato made clear that merit and not heredity defined the gold man and that gold could be found in all parts of society. Nonetheless, Plato has never escaped the charge that he imposes upon society an elitist and authoritarian rule. The charge is pressed even though in Book IV Plato makes justice in the individual the condition of justice in society.
--Pg 16, Para 2 and 3, of Plato the Republic Introduction by Richard W. Sterling and William C. Scott.






Plato prove that justice does not depend upon a chance, convention or upon external force. It is the right condition of the human soul by the very nature of man when seen in the fullness of his environment. It is in this way that Plato condemned the position taken by Glaucon that justice is something which is external. According to Plato, it is internal as it resides in the human soul. "It is now regarded as an inward grace and its understanding is shown to involve a study of the inner man." It is, therefore, natural and no artificial. It is therefore, not born of fear of the weak but of the longing of the human soul to do a duty according to its nature.
Plato's Concept Of Justice: An Analysis Bold was added by me for emphasis.

There is something extremely important about this term that comes from understanding it at a soul level then to think its administering is implied as external and there after, settles all accounts from what was done by telling lies stealing etc. It is an account expressed by Cephalus, Polymarchus, Thrasymachus and Glaucon, while Plato is the understanding of justice to imply it as a "human virtue' that makes a person self-consistent and good."


If the heart was free from the impurities of sin, and therefore lighter than the feather, then the dead person could enter the eternal afterlife

Now these are ancient notions about justice. It is something much more, when you understand what happens inside. What happens when you review your position to ask whether or not the heart is indeed "lighter then the feather." In these situations that one may extend themself beyond the issues of science here, to include the extensions of what is happening out there in our economies and our social institutions. It is very important to understand what the feather represent in that culture(truth) that would depict the plate for consideration, in line with, the concepts of Plato and what I feel is relevant to who you are and what happens inside.

It is even more real to have experienced this weighting process in one 's life when you know that to defy the mass consideration and physics therein, that a mind might consider to be lighter then, indeed such a state may have found that gravity no longer exists to keep the body home on earth. That it can float. Alas though no repeatability will ever the measure of in your case, so I cannot say this is a method with which you will ever experience, and will have thought better to let it arrive at the illusions of, then to sanction the validity of what is being presented here.


You would have to know of colour of gravity has been built throughout this site to know, that colour of gravity is a "real measure of the internal nature of the human being" that extends beyond it's home.

Scotch tape is nothing new Arun, and neither is Kirlian photography? It is not this external measure as to what one should weigh, but of what is inside, that leads to such colours.

Thus it is with some knowledge that Plato's pyramid is more the understanding of an "internal structure" and it's ascent, placing a value to the ephemeral nature of colour in the mind's evolution, and it's final discourse thoughtfully constructed as to who you are.

Wednesday, August 27, 2008

Glast now Known as "Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope"

BEHOLDING beauty with the eye of the mind, he will be enabled to bring forth, not images of beauty, but realities, for he has hold not of an image but of a reality, and bringing forth and nourishing true virtue to become the friend of God and be immortal, if mortal man may. Would that be an ignoble life? Plato


I came across this information after visiting "The Quantum Diaries Survivors," blog by Dorigo. Hmmmm....my comment 23 there should read August 27 as posted and it's reads Aug 28. It would not make sense if this post was made on the 27 and I commented on the 28th, unless one thought I purposely changed the date, which I didn't.:)I wonder if one edits the post from an "admin status" if this is what happens? Anyway, on to the rest of the post here.

Astronomers wrapped the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's first all-sky map over a sphere to produce this view of the gamma-ray universe. Credit: NASA/DOE/International LAT Team

The article seems most appropriate in context of my other post on "Spherical Cows" this day, as a way in which to interpret calorimetric evidence in the form of motivated Gamma Rays. Dorigo's earlier link on the "calorimetric description in LHC is crucial in my view to what the gamma ray is doing out there in space with regard to the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

Logo for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/Sonoma State University/Aurore Simonnet

NASA's newest observatory, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, or GLAST, has begun its mission of exploring the universe in high-energy gamma rays. The spacecraft and its revolutionary instruments passed their orbital checkout with flying colors.

NASA announced August 26 that GLAST has been renamed the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The new name honors Prof. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), a pioneer in high-energy physics.
See:NASA Renames Observatory for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky

This close-up shows the Vela pulsar, which beams radiation every 89 milliseconds as it spins. The pulses are shown slowed by 20 times. Credit: NASA/DOE/International LAT Team

If one is keen enough, one might come across an interesting reference to the "Lighthouse" in this blog. Such rotations and the effect of the jet, has an interesting effect on the eye in analogy when the light shines very brightly for the briefest of seconds. IN this same way, the energy valuations from this brightness, is of some importance I suspect. Not just in blinding oneself when one sees this ray of light, but as it manifests in M87 as well in relation to this measure.

Update:The value of a spherical cow

Monday, April 14, 2008

Calorimetric Views

BEHOLDING beauty with the eye of the mind, he will be enabled to bring forth, not images of beauty, but realities, for he has hold not of an image but of a reality, and bringing forth and nourishing true virtue to become the friend of God and be immortal, if mortal man may. Would that be an ignoble life? PLATO



The calorimeter design for GLAST produces flashes of light that are used to determine how much energy is in each gamma-ray. A calorimeter ("calorie-meter") is a device that measures the energy (heat: calor) of a particle when it is totally absorbed. CsI(Tl) bars, arranged in a segmented manner, give both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. Once a gamma ray penetrates through the anticoincidence shield, the silicon-strip tracker and lead converter planes, it then passes into the cesium-iodide calorimeters. This causes a scintillation reaction in the cesium-iodide, and the resultant light flash is photoelectrically converted to a voltage. This voltage is then digitized, recorded and relayed to earth by the spacecraft's onboard computer and telemetry antenna. Cesium-iodide blocks are arranged in two perpendicular directions, to provide additional positional information about the shower.


The complexity and sum over histories leaves an indelible pathway for all energy Disposition patterns(photons in the Electromagnetic Calorimeters), as well as, an adventure "within the confines of the Hadronic Calorimeters views."

In a sense when referenced to a "configuration space," then what design of the calorimeter that we would measure the earliest signs o the universe in expression as the "supposed productions of the cosmos." That we could say, we have a "new view in the window of that same cosmos?"

Iron wedges of the CMS forward calorimeter-Source from Quantum Diaries Survivor.

The future

If new detectors will ever be built to explore a yet higher energy regime than the one about to be probed by LHC, calorimeters will be as necessary as they are today. The following characteristics will be desirable in a design of new generation:

* self-triggering (the ability of independent portions of the system to identify and measure a signal, interpreting it and sending an accept signal to the data aquisition system)
* stand-alone tracking (the ability of the calorimeter system to independently determine the direction of crossing particles)
* an integrated time-of-flight measurement (the capability to separate different particle signals based on the delay between their arrival time and the interaction time)
* high resolution and granularity (attainable with silicon technology)

The needs of these fancy features, however, rests on the specific hunt that we will decide to embark on. Which, in turn, critically depends on the discoveries that the Large Hadron Collider will produce!
Calorimeters for High-Energy Physics - part 2, by Tommaso Dorigo


See:

Calorimeters for High Energy Physics experiments - part 1
Calorimeters for High-Energy Physics - part 2 April 11, 2008

Wednesday, March 28, 2007

Time as a Measure

SuperCosmologists Think Out of the Box, by Clifford at 1:13 am, August 3rd, 2005

From what we have learned so far about string theory, the natural starting point for doing physics which makes contact with our world seems to be to start in 9+1 dimensional spacetime. A modern perspective tells us to go further: Strings are not the only important objects in the game, but extended objects of more dimensions called “branes” are also important. (The term comes from starting with “membrane” which is a two dimensional object, calling it a “2-brane” and then having the idea of a “3-brane”, “4-brane” etc. Or just “brane” when you want to be non-specific.) It turns out that we need to consider these objects too. Fully non-perturbative considerations also encourage us to consider “M-theory”, which (at least at low energy) appears as an eleven dimensional (10+1) theory with no strings at all, just branes of a couple of sorts.


Do we suspect we had gone so far from reality to think about science we had somehow left our thought processes out of the loop, for what is demanded from science? I still like to think that with what ever process that one like Lee Smolin would want to talk abut on a philosophical level had it's counterpart in some process that I am speaking about below.

It's only fitting that while one could deal with the "abstractness spoken by Clifford" that we could have of course said the same thing with Lee Smolin's philosophical sojourns. In regards to "time," as an element of where we had taken reductionism too. To the depths of perception that speak to the very early universe. The microseconds of our universe spoken too, settled here to the 3+1 world of matter constituents.

So you see it began someplace else in dimensional perspective that is not so disconnected from the reality with which we like to work.




Experimentalists probe the structure of the proton by scattering electrons (white line) off quarks which interact by exchanging a quantum of light (wavy line) known as a photon.
See Compton and Graviton Scatterings?

How did one get to that level with which to discern the nature of the energy in relation to the photon? I have assume a certain position, in terms of what the photon represents as it speak to the very colouring of the gravitational field.



So how was one to look at the landscape without understanding that there is a measure to the nature of the gravitational field represented by that Photon?

IN relation to the landscape. This is not what stood out when I went to look at Lee Smolin’s reference to chapter 5 with regards to comment #148 I hope this shift is okay for posting?

Just drawing attention to the dates of publication and comparison of views. I was thinking of “Benchmarks” in terms of the progressions, that could have been marked as successes, and help one to realize that there was still a process unfolding?

I thought these two views countering one another?

A second obstacle arises from the theory’s reliance on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking to explain why each of the elementary particles we see in the world has different properties. While this is a beautiful idea, there is a certain ad hoc quality to how it is realized. To this date, no one has so far observed a Higg’s particle and we have only a very imprecise idea of their properties. Page 61, The Life of the Cosmos by Lee Smolin ISBN 0-19-510837-x 1997


As a Lay person I was thinking of the word “ad hoc” in Lee’s statement, and wonder if this is still reflected in his views of today. This was a build up and precursor to the statement about string theory in question according to Lee’s book statement??

Unravelling String Theory,by Edward Witten 29 Dec 2005

String theory is the only known generalization of relativistic quantum field theory that makes sense. The framework of special relativity plus quantum mechanics is so rigid that it practically forces quantum field theory upon us. The tightness of the modern framework is one of the main reasons why physicists were able to discover what has become the standard model of elementary particles.


Have we moved past this today and “all” in agreement?


Of course being the layman I am it is important that information that is given on Clifford's board is correct. One can quickly swipe out any statement quite easily without understanding the historical aspect of what Lee Smolin is suggesting. What is he suggesting?

Lee Smolin Mar 27th, 2007 at 8:23 am

For one thing the existence of the string landscape has been, at least for me, a great stimulus to revising the notion of time in quantum cosmology. Beyond that the context in which the role of time in quantum cosmology has to be discussed is that of attempts to formulate background independent theories, to the extent that efforts are made to construct a manifestly background independent framework for string theory in the compact case-with no asymptotic symmetries or boundary conditions, the problem of time has to be confronted.


Now of course after this I had been thinking when Lee Smolin made his statement in the selected paragraph above, some things that I had been thinking about.

Gravitational Mass for a Photon

The relativistic energy expression attributes a mass to any energetic particle, and for the photon



The gravitational potential energy is then



When the photon escapes the gravity field, it will have a different frequency




Since it is reduced in frequency, this is called the gravitational red shift or the Einstein red shift.

Escape Energy for Photon

If the gravitational potential energy of the photon is exactly equal to the photon energy then



Note that this condition is independent of the frequency, and for a given mass M establishes a critical radius. Actually, Schwarzchilds's calculated gravitational radius differs from this result by a factor of 2 and is coincidently equal to the non-relativistic escape velocity expression



A black hole is an object so massive that even light cannot escape from it. This requires the idea of a gravitational mass for a photon, which then allows the calculation of an escape energy for an object of that mass. When the escape energy is equal to the photon energy, the implication is that the object is a "black hole."


For the longest time I have tried to understand what could be used to answer Lee's statement above. While I have no substituted I looked at what the physics had to say and what we may learn from the horizon.

The elephant and the event horizon by Amanda Gefter

Hawking radiation owes its existence to the weirdness of the quantum world, in which pairs of virtual particles pop up out of empty space, annihilate each other and disappear. Around a black hole, virtual particles and anti-particles can be separated by the event horizon. Unable to annihilate, they become real. The properties of each pair are linked, or entangled. What happens to one affects the other, even if one is inside the black hole.
See here for article.

This process itself. Would it not instigate the position of Lee to ask what can be revealed in the nature of the photon? While there is calorimetric measures designed in Glast, was it not with the understanding that "high energy" photons could exist? We are using the "escape velocity of the photon" to discern the nature of the blackhole?

This is Lee's current measure of time in any discussion?



See this link for what was deleted from Clifford's blog and I will try and expand and clear up what was quick to be discarded. You had to follow the comments in that section, to get the idea of what "entanglement may mean" for what we see of what exists on the boundary of the blackhole,as a indicator represented by the colour of that photon. Now of course I have exceeded the perspective limited by the 3+1 as a Relativity, yet I go as far as implement the fabric of the spactime as a correlate of what we see of that photon.

Sunday, November 12, 2006

Graviton in a Can?

After you consume "graviton in a can," you might never be the same? Brane thinking may then dominate your every view of the world. Then, it will all make sense?

Imagine while we peer deeper into the subject of the "perfect fluid/soup" we find that certain aspects of the reductionist work done, has indeed lead us to speculate on how the "new physics" formed through the research and understanding currently being worked in the LHC?

Is there some architectural design to the "Degree's of Freedom?" Why anything more then the spacetime we have come to recognize, which placed new parameters on our thinking? Moved it from the recogition of Maxwellian and Gaussian coordinates to Riemann geometries in the theory of General Relativity, to become known, as the Theory of gravity. Why "anything" more then that?


A picture of flux lines in QED (left) and QCD (right).
Although it didn't properly describe strong interactions, in studying string theory physicists stumbled upon an amazing mathematical structure. String theory has turned out to be far richer than people originally anticipated. For example, people found that a certain vibrational state of the string has zero mass and spin 2. According to Einstein's theory of gravity, the gravitational force is mediated by a particle with zero mass and spin 2. So string theory is, among many other things, a theory of gravity!


I mean how are such abstract notions in the mathematics supposed to make sense, if we can not see the logic of these formulations working in some kind of reality frame of reference?


by Jacob D. Bekenstein
TWO UNIVERSES of different dimension and obeying disparate physical laws are rendered completely equivalent by the holographic principle. Theorists have demonstrated this principle mathematically for a specific type of five-dimensional spacetime ("anti–de Sitter") and its four-dimensional boundary. In effect, the 5-D universe is recorded like a hologram on the 4-D surface at its periphery. Superstring theory rules in the 5-D spacetime, but a so-called conformal field theory of point particles operates on the 4-D hologram. A black hole in the 5-D spacetime is equivalent to hot radiation on the hologram--for example, the hole and the radiation have the same entropy even though the physical origin of the entropy is completely different for each case. Although these two descriptions of the universe seem utterly unalike, no experiment could distinguish between them, even in principle.


So we have these diagrams and thought processes developed from individuals like Jacob D. Bekenstein to help us visualize what is taking place. Gives us key indicators of the valuation needed, in order to determine what maths are going to be used? In this case the subject of Conformal Filed Theory makes itself known, for the thought process to hone in on what is going to be spoken too?

Holography encodes the information in a region of space onto a surface one dimension lower. It sees to be the property of gravity, as is shown by the fact that the area of th event horizon measures the number of internal states of a blackhole, holography would be a one-to-one correspondence between states in our four dimensional world and states in higher dimensions. From a positivist viewpoint, one cannot distinguish which description is more fundamental.Pg 198, The Universe in Nutshell, by Stephen Hawking


So we are given the label in which to speak about the holographical ntions of what is being talked about in the case of the blackhole's horizon.


Campbell's Soup Can by Andy Warhol Exhibited in New York (USA), Leo Castelli Gallery


While it is difficult of such images to be found displayed in the bloggery here to show what Dr. Gary Horowitz is saying you get the jest when you go right to the image of the tomato soup can.

Spacetime in String Theory-Dr. Gary Horowitz, UCSB-Apr 20, 2005

This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's "miraculous year", 1905, when he formulated special relativity, and explained the origin of the black body spectrum and Brownian motion. In honor of this occasion, I will describe the modern view of spacetime. After reviewing the properties of spacetime in general relativity, I will provide an overview of the nature of spacetime emerging from string theory. This is radically different from relativity. At a perturbative level, the spacetime metric appears as ``coupling constants" in a two-dimensional quantum field theory. Nonperturbatively (with certain boundary conditions), spacetime is not fundamental but must be reconstructed from a holographic, dual theory. I will conclude with some recent ideas about the big bang arising from string theory.


Imagine containing everything we know in this can. Yet,we find that the "soup image" has somehow been translated to other factors and values that seem beyond what we know is real. Is real within the confines and boundaries, and is not evidence of the "infinities" that arise from such non containment?

So, what of the "dilation field" that accumulates, as we speak to what the photon is in the measure of Glast. High energy photon determinations that may also be the valuation of the graviton in expression, as the photon travels through these fields?

Such unification is important once we move into the bulk perspective and what we see of the 2d image of the brane, as a value, and discernation of the label of the soup can?


The ALICE TPC in its clean room, where it is undergoing commissioning of all its sectors.

One of the first cosmic-ray events recorded and reconstructed in two sectors of the TPC.
The tests use the ALICE cosmic muon trigger detector ACORDE, as well as a specially designed UV laser system, to produce tracks in the detector. Preliminary analysis of the cosmic-ray events and the laser-induced tracks indicate that the drift velocity and diffusion of electrons liberated by traversing charged particles, as well as the spatial resolution, are very close to the design values.


So here we are then, having graduated in perspective about what is real, as one may ask the sociological aspect of this whole adventure?



If such missing energy is, "not accounted for" then what happens to the graviton as it is produced and causes energy to travel with them?

For example, people found that a certain vibrational state of the string has zero mass and spin 2. According to Einstein's theory of gravity, the gravitational force is mediated by a particle with zero mass and spin 2. So string theory is, among many other things, a theory of gravity!

Thursday, November 09, 2006

The Cosmic Connection to Climate


Cars and industrial activity contribute to the 7 gigatons of carbon dioxide released each year into the atmosphere.Credits: EuroNews

Some thoughts about this were being contemplates as I was slowly awaking this morning. I was actually thinking of one more image about seeing Gr being measured by how Grace is looking at and being used to look at the planet in other ways as well.



I'll add that later.

Variation of Cosmic ray flux and Global cloud coverage by Henri Svensmark and Eigil Friis-Christensen, 26 NOvember 1996

Some historical perspective about eight years ago below here raises question about what this cosmic connection might mean from a wider perspective.

CERN plans global-warming experiment(1998)

A controversial theory proposing that cosmic rays are responsible for global warming is to be put to the test at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics. Put forward two years ago by two Danish scientists, Henrik Svensmark and Eigil Friis-Christensen, the theory suggests that it is changes in the Sun's magnetic field, and not the emission of greenhouse gases, that has led to recent rises in global temperatures.

Experimentalists at CERN will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and determine whether cloud formation is influenced by solar activity. According to the Danish theory, charged particles from the Sun deflect galactic cosmic rays (streams of high-energy particles from outer space) that would otherwise have ionized the Earth's lower atmosphere and formed clouds.


Looking at this places some extra thinking about what could be taking place in the cosmos, effectively creating the circumstance "also" for changes with regard to earth's climate?



At what point would such intensity of the event in the cosmos cause the larger scenario to be played out, that it also, may have been a contributing factor to what we think about global warming here?



See this link here for further thoughts about the increase in the "lighthouse effect" and how such intensities may be considered in light of the following thoughts being demonstrated here.


This is not to dissuade people from thinking about the current considerations that are man made but raised questions in my mind about the consequences of other factors which may or may not be contributing to global climate changes.

A missing link in climate theory

The Danish National Space Center (DNSC) is a research center under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. The research activities include astrophysics, solar system physics, geodesy and space technology.
The experimental results lend strong empirical support to the theory proposed a decade ago by Henrik Svensmark and Eigil Friis-Christensen that cosmic rays influence Earth’s climate through their effect on cloud formation. The original theory rested on data showing a strong correlation between variation in the intensity of cosmic radiation penetrating the atmosphere and the amount of low-altitude clouds. Cloud cover increases when the intensity of cosmic rays grows and decreases when the intensity declines.

It is known that low-altitude clouds have an overall cooling effect on the Earth’s surface. Hence, variations in cloud cover caused by cosmic rays can change the surface temperature. The existence of such a cosmic connection to Earth’s climate might thus help to explain past and present variations in Earth’s climate.

Interestingly, during the 20th Century, the Sun’s magnetic field which shields Earth from cosmic rays more than doubled, thereby reducing the average influx of cosmic rays. The resulting reduction in cloudiness, especially of low-altitude clouds, may be a significant factor in the global warming Earth has undergone during the last century. However, until now, there has been no experimental evidence of how the causal mechanism linking cosmic rays and cloud formation may work.

‘Many climate scientists have considered the linkages from cosmic rays to clouds to climate as unproven,’ comments Eigil Friis-Christensen, who is now Director of the Danish National Space Center. ‘Some said there was no conceivable way in which cosmic rays could influence cloud cover. The SKY experiment now shows how they do so, and should help to put the cosmic-ray connection firmly onto the agenda of international climate research.’


Friday, November 03, 2006

Back to the Beginning of Time



While some of us who had been engaged in a little prehistory examination of earliest QGP states as glast determination of high energy photons, the question, "to Be or not to be," how could we not ask what Professor Susskind offered up for examination under the title, "the elephant and the event horizon?"

What happens when you throw an elephant into a black hole? It sounds like a bad joke, but it's a question that has been weighing heavily on Leonard Susskind's mind. Susskind, a physicist at Stanford University in California, has been trying to save that elephant for decades. He has finally found a way to do it, but the consequences shake the foundations of what we thought we knew about space and time. If his calculations are correct, the elephant must be in more than one place at the same time.


I think there is still this far reaching philosophical question about what really started time? If "nothing" existed then how could we assume anything could arise from it?

While empirically Aristotle has lead the thinking, you know how I think don’t you:) Do you see me stand apart from Aristotle?




So I resolve this question in my own mind, even if I do refer to Gabriele Veneziano and his introduction of what began as string theory.

How could I resolve "anything" that has been taken down to the very first microseconds, while recognizing the value of anything "underneath the guise of building blocks of matter," and have said, "that this is the theory of everything?"

It only helped us to the point of the singularity, but it is much different then a complete death. The whole time reductionistic thinking has dominated the move back in history, there were other things going on, that us simple lay people were not aware of. Maybe for some scientists too?:)


Colliding galaxies, NGC 4676, known as "The Mice" (credit: Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (UCSC/LO), M.Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA )
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope, scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way Galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. JWST's instruments will be designed to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range.

JWST will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters (21.3 feet) in diameter and a sunshield the size of a tennis court. Both the mirror and sunshade won't fit onto the rocket fully open, so both will fold up and open only once JWST is in outer space. JWST will reside in an orbit about 1.5 million km (1 million miles) from the Earth.

JWST Science

The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The key objective of The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme is to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The key objective of The Assembly of Galaxies theme is to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The key objective of The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme is to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-enshrouded protostars to the genesis of planetary systems. The key objective of The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme is to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems including our own, and investigate the potential for the origins of life in those systems.


So again, we are being lead by science here to look ahead to what plans for the future may have influenced, or caused the decsisons they did, on another trip to refurbish the Hubble Space Telescope?

The Dark Ages of the UniverseBy Abraham Loeb

What makes modern cosmology an empirical science is that we are literally able to peer into the past. When you look at your image reflected off a mirror one meter away, you see the way you looked six nanoseconds ago--the light's travel time to the mirror and back. Similarly, cosmologists do not need to guess how the universe evolved; we can watch its history through telescopes. Because the universe appears to be statistically identical in every direction, what we see billions of light-years away is probably a fair representation of what our own patch of space looked like billions of years ago.


So then I am at a loss to explain that what happened billions of years ago near the beginning of this universe, could have ever been created in this universe now? Some body may say to you, "that the beginning of time and the distance of the beginning of the universe to now, has no correlation?"

If the circumstance are to be created in our colliders, then what said that mass determinations will ever arise from our research into the HiGG's, is not relevant, to what can be created in this space and time now?

Remember, everywhere you look in the cosmos this possibility exists. The WMAP is indictive of what I am saying.

So you say, the beginning of the universe and "the time created" to produce the particles of new physics, has no correlation into how this universe came into being?

Perhaps you may like to read Stephen Hawkings perspective on the beginning of time?

The conclusion of this lecture is that the universe has not existed forever. Rather, the universe, and time itself, had a beginning in the Big Bang, about 15 billion years ago. The beginning of real time, would have been a singularity, at which the laws of physics would have broken down. Nevertheless, the way the universe began would have been determined by the laws of physics, if the universe satisfied the no boundary condition. This says that in the imaginary time direction, space-time is finite in extent, but doesn't have any boundary or edge. The predictions of the no boundary proposal seem to agree with observation. The no boundary hypothesis also predicts that the universe will eventually collapse again. However, the contracting phase, will not have the opposite arrow of time, to the expanding phase. So we will keep on getting older, and we won't return to our youth. Because time is not going to go backwards, I think I better stop now.

Monday, October 16, 2006

Monster of the Milky Way

Lubos Motl, it does not have to be "ten billion souls" that we find of just one the same. How many scientists do you know that refer to Plato?

If enough is captured as "part of the original," then why not a view of what was the attempt to descibe "the very complex" of what nature has in store for us discretely?

But maybe, Plato had something more in mind, and not the protection of the "bloodline." :)


Campbell's Soup Can by A. Warhol


You see how this instigates the public to look behind the scenes, while, science was at work. Who understood the "Bekenstein bound" to assert that CFT would have some reason to be "the process" by which thermodynamic and entropic understanding would allow such views of the blackhole?

A "window" perhaps, on what science is doing? Glast's deeper look? So is there then more of the story to tell if any affront to the trouble of Physics is not considered here, while we debate how far our views have been taken?


The Milky Way's light distorted at the event horizon of a black hole.
Deep in the heart of our galaxy lurks a monster of incomprehensible size and ferocity... a black hole. Two competing groups of astronomers -- one led by Andrea Ghez from UCLA, the other by Reinhart Genzel from Germany -- are racing to discern its true nature.

Monster of the Milky Way recounts the chain of discoveries these groups have made about our resident black hole. The program will follow each team in a major campaign to understand powerful pulses of energy rushing out of the monster daily.

The teams are competing to settle one of the hottest debates in all of science... how did supermassive black holes like the Monster of the Milky Way reach such incredible sizes -- from millions to billions of times the mass of our Sun? And how did they influence the evolution of their host galaxies... and worlds like ours?


While I had listed a link to a pdf file on strangelets and the number of people that worked on it, as well as the universities. The point here, is that out there in the public, the creative principle arises in the minds of that public, just as it does in any scientist. If any one individual is capable of extending their understanding and vision of the window of the universe then it is not so unlikely that the next step could have made it's way into their mind.

We are all repositories of the ideas/concepts/theories that can manifest?

The garden indeed may be an complex analysis. Yet, such freedom to gain access, seems unlimited, if, the flows just happen to be sparked in the right way and forthcoming, regarding all that you had learnt.

See:

  • New Non-geometrical Generalization of the Principles of CFT Found?
  • The Right Spin for a Neutrino Superfluid
  • Sunday, October 15, 2006

    Part of Facing the Trouble With Physics

    It might be that the laws change absolutely with time; that gravity for instance varies with time and that this inverse square law has a strength which depends on how long it is since the beginning of time. In other words, it's possible that in the future we'll have more understanding of everything and physics may be completed by some kind of statement of how things started which are external to the laws of physics. Richard Feynman


    Faced with the task of showing the connection between string theory and reductionistic consideration is quite a task, as I am sure in most eyes? To me it just seems that everytime we adjust our view and include new views, what shall we say of "gamma ray detection" when we look at high energy photons describing the early universe for us?



    Hey, it makes my heart jump too.

    Here is a case, with which I like to make my point. Having someone corrected makes it that much better now to make comparisons like I do. The simple point of "order" enlightened greatly the situation for us, in what I am exemplifying here. We wil not forget the paper offered up after, in that comment thread either. Thanks

    A realization 1; 2; 3 that QGP at RHIC is not a weakly coupled gas but rather a strongly coupled liquid has lead to a paradigm shift in the field. It was extensively debated at the “discovery” BNL workshop in 2004 4 (at which the abbreviation sQGP was established) and multiple other meetings since.

    In the intervening three years we had to learn a lot, some new some from other ranches of physics which happened to have some experience with strongly coupled systems. Those range from quantum gases to classical plasmas to string theory. In short, there seem to be not one but actually two difficult issues we are facing. One is to understand why QGP at T ∼ 2Tc is strongly coupled, and what exactly it means.


    In Extracting Beauty From Chaos I am recognizing this depth of perception enhancement that is supplied by JoAnne of Cosmic Variance. Would you rather look at "Seans moon" in gamma?

    CERN planned a global-warming experiment in 1998?

    Experimentalists at CERN will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and determine whether cloud formation is influenced by solar activity. According to the Danish theory, charged particles from the Sun deflect galactic cosmic rays (streams of high-energy particles from outer space) that would otherwise have ionized the Earth's lower atmosphere and formed clouds.



    What shall I say to you as SNO investigated the "cerenkov effect" from the cosmos ray particle collisions? Shall I speak about the "weather predictions" that arise. This is a interference and a "weak measure" of what is fast becoming the thought in my mind of the diversity of global painting, to include, that blue light as each of the detectors "pick" the overall pattern of high energy exchanges in the detectors as inherent image understanding. It has been transcribed from the "sun's energy value" and applied to high energy considerations?

    "Atmospheric" neutrinos, produced by interactions of cosmic ray particles with the earth's atmosphere, might be useful for studying the properties of neutrinos. But if you're hunting sources of neutrinos in the universe, atmospheric neutrinos are nothing but noise.



    Now, I may reference Glast indications here in the experimental validation of those high energy photons, gamma ray indication is a wonderful jesture to extending the depth of perception, as I have tried to do here by helping Q see the relevance of the quantum dynamical perception. From ,the beginning of this universe.

    So we see where the " Window of the universe" has helped me to see in ways that we were not accustomed. It is "the physics" that has taken us there.

    So, while the picture of JoAnnes is highlighted, the lesser of the views is the "gamma ray detection" while I have pointed to the neutrino here in experimentation.

    Should we loose sight of what the KK tower exemplifies?



    I am sorry about the "dead link picture to topology" but blogger does not go back to 2004 so that I can adjust it.

    Now why would I then reference "quantum gravity" behind the picture of the KK tower, and the information about topology? Possibly, that we have for the first time thought here that the Navier-Stokes equations could have been applied at a fundamental level while thinking of what the QGP has given us, as we witness "cerenkov radiation" from a long line of reductionistic reasoning? Is this worth a million from the Clay Instituted by generalization alone?:)

    If not, at least, if held in line with lagrangian views of gravitonic perceptions in the bulk as we phyically see the relation between the sun and earth?

    It is thus my mind has been held to the idea of the "conical flows[Volcanos, to jet engines in analogy of the laval nozzle]" as the energy is released for the dissemmination from the collider of nature enhanced, to all that follows from the cosmic particle interactions. Right to the neutrinos resulting from the fluidity of the QGP pertaining to viscosity?

    What was not present before? Muon detectors hmmmm..... and the road from muon neutrinos too?? What am I missing here?

    The muons are stopped by the rock. Impervious to all such obstacles, the muon neutrinos will leave the CERN tunnels and streak through the rock on their 732 kilometre journey to Italy.


    Hold that picture of JoAnnes, while you think of Glast. In the determinates of the gamma ray detection, we have therefor faced the "Trouble with Physics?":)

    Sunday, September 10, 2006

    Window on the Universe

    Michio Kaku:
    I like to compare it to wandering in the desert, and stumbling over a tiny pebble. When we push away the sand, we find that this "pebble" is actually the tip of a gargantuan pyramid. After years of excavation, we find wondrous hieroglyphics, strange tunnels and secret passageways. Every time we think we are at the bottom stage, we find a stage below it. Finally, we think we are at the very bottom, and can see the doorway.

    One day, some bright, enterprising physicist, perhaps inspired by this article, will complete the theory, open the doorway, and use the power of pure thought to determine if string theory is a theory of everything, anything, or nothing.

    Only time will tell if Einstein was correct when he said, "But the creative principle resides in mathematics. In a certain sense, therefore, I hold it true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed."




    An Intermediate Polar Binary System. Credit & Copyright: Mark Garlick


    Consider any physical system, made of anything at all- let us call it, The Thing. We require only that The Thing can be enclosed within a finite boundary, which we shall call the Screen(Figure39). We would like to know as much as possible about The Thing. But we cannot touch it directly-we are restrictied to making measurements of it on The Screen. We may send any kind of radiation we like through The Screen, and record what ever changes result The Screen. The Bekenstein bound says that there is a general limit to how many yes/no questions we can answer about The Thing by making observations through The Screen that surrounds it. The number must be less then one quarter the area of The Screen, in Planck units. What if we ask more questions? The principle tells us that either of two things must happen. Either the area of the screen will increase, as a result of doing an experiment that ask questions beyond the limit; or the experiments we do that go beyond the limit will erase or invalidate, the answers to some of the previous questions. At no time can we know more about The thing than the limit, imposed by the area of the Screen.


    Page 171 and 172 0f, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity, by Lee Smolin

    Now you have to understand something here that the views of those who push our perceptions have gone even further then this, in how we look at the universe. I am showing you work that was progressing from understanding and bringing together what was going on then in 2004, to show you indeed that such an progression has taken place.

    I also point out where "Conformal Field Theory" has planted itself, as we look at the images of Bekenstein bound. Such determinations and the roads taken by Strominger point specifically to what we can measure and what we have yet to measure. This did nt relegate any theoretcial view to the "garbage dump" but allowed visionaries to see beyond the SUN/Earth relation in Lagrangian views.

    ISCAP will demonstratively help you "adjust your view" in a cosmological re-adjustment that is necessary. Not only from Glast views that arose from some fantasy, but culminates today in the use of a scientific device(calorimeter) for such measures.

    In Gamma Ray detection and the Early Universe I point the direction in how Glast in it's preparation has given us new views on how we look at the universe.

    Dust torus around a supermassive black hole
    The Astrophysical Journal, in an article titled "Integral IBIS Extragalactic survey: Active Galactic Nuclei Selected at 20-100 keV", by L. Bassani et al., published on 10 January 2006 (vol. 636, pp L65-L68).


    Meanwhile, the NASA team is now planning to extend his search for hidden black holes further out into the universe. "This is just the tip of the iceberg. In a few more months we will have a larger survey completed with the Swift mission. Our goal is to push this kind of observation deeper and deeper into the universe to see black hole activity at early epochs. That’s the next great challenge for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomers," concluded Beckmann.


    Sun Earth Relation

    Part of devloping this vision was to see in ways that the Grace satelitte allowed you to see. In what use "climate functions were happening" within the earth's atmosphere how it was being regarded. Time clock functiosn are necessary views, even within this context and such mapping allowed you to see th eearth as it had never been seen before.



    No longer is it the surprize of the "first man to step out in space" to see such a blue marble and be aw struck by it's beauty. Now we have progressed in the same views that I allude too beyound what glast has done. Glast is your measure for now. Mine, and others, excell beyond this. As I show you why.

    Dr. Mark Haskins:
    On a wider class of complex manifolds - the so-called Calabi-Yau manifolds - there is also a natural notion of special Lagrangian geometry. Since the late 1980s these Calabi-Yau manifolds have played a prominent role in developments in High Energy Physics and String Theory. In the late 1990s it was realized that calibrated geometries play a fundamental role in the physical theory, and calibrated geometries have become synonymous with "Branes" and "Supersymmetry".


    Now how abtract these views that I will show you to think indeed "theoretcial surmize exists for the potential to push perception." Then, I will give you a real image to ponder, as satellites now progress through this superhighway.

    The second of five Lagrangian equilbrium points, approximately 1.5 million kilometers beyond Earth, where the gravitational forces of Earth and Sun balance to keep a satellite at a nearly fixed position relative to Earth.


    In order to understand this sun/earth relation, you needed to see beyond what Glast had to impart to you. Yet, I do not say that it is irrelelavnt such experimental fashion to help us see even further. You understand this now?

    So now, I'll show you what the universe looks like.

    Diagram of the Lagrange Point gravitational forces associated with the Sun-Earth system. WMAP orbits around L2, which is about 1.5 million km from the Earth. Lagrange Points are positions in space where the gravitational forces of a two body system like the Sun and the Earth produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion. The forces at L2 tend to keep WMAP aligned on the Sun-Earth axis, but requires course correction to keep the spacecraft from moving toward or away from the Earth.


    Now having this perspective in place, I am telling you what this does for perception, had I not carefully taken you through the roads to discovery. What the scale for gravity does for us in our estimation of what that universe actually looks like, when you put on glasses that change the very ideas of how we see.

    While you may see refracting of the pencil in a glass of water, you may also see that the grvaiational relation is also apparent inhow we look at the universe?

    If you do not think about the force carrier of the gravity then such extension to the standard model will only hold so much for you, while others in vision had been extended far beyond what you are accustom.

    A Better Researcher, Not a Cynic...Yessss?:)

    Sometimes there are wiser words then my own, to show what is "healthy and happy" with the research into quantum gravity? "A cynic" needs to wipe the spit from their chin, while recogizing what is really going on? We want a well balanced approach.

    Approaches to the Quantum Theory of Gravity by the PI Institute

    Two methods evolved in the theory of elementary particles to describe such quantized flux tubes. The one, called the loop method, studies them using the basic laws of electricity and magnetism, combined with quantum theory. The second, called string theory, postulates that the quantized flux tubes may be treated as fundamental in their own right, and the laws of electricity and magnetism derived from them.

    Many theorists believe that these two points of view are actually equivalent—just different ways of studying the same thing from different points of view. The idea that they are the same is called duality, which here, as in other areas, signals that the same object is being studied with different ideas and methods.