Showing posts with label Fermi. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Fermi. Show all posts

Tuesday, August 05, 2014

New Source of Gamma Rays Revealed by NASA's Fermi Space Telescope

These images show Fermi data centered on each of the four gamma-ray novae observed by the LAT. Colors indicate the number of detected gamma rays with energies greater than 100 million electron volts (blue indicates lowest, yellow highest).
Image Credit: 
NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration
One explanation for the gamma-ray emission is that the blast creates multiple shock waves that expand into space at slightly different speeds. Faster shocks could interact with slower ones, accelerating particles to near the speed of light. These particles ultimately could produce gamma rays. See NASA's Fermi Space Telescope Reveals New Source of Gamma Rays


Credit: Weiqun Zhang and Stan Woosley
This image is from a computer simulation of the beginning of a gamma-ray burst. Here we see the jet 9 seconds after its creation at the center of a Wolf Rayet star by the newly formed, accreting black hole within. The jet is now just erupting through the surface of the Wolf Rayet star, which has a radius comparable to that of the sun. Blue represents regions of low mass concentration, red is denser, and yellow denser still. Note the blue and red striations behind the head of the jet. These are bounded by internal shocks. See: "ROSETTA STONE" FOUND TO DECODE THE MYSTERY OF GAMMA RAY BURSTS

Sunday, January 26, 2014

Gravitational Waves, as Quantum Flunctuations

"According to modern understanding, even if all matter could be removed from a volume, it would still not be "empty" due to vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, transiting gamma- and cosmic rays, neutrinos, along with other phenomena in quantum physics. In modern particle physics, the vacuum state is considered as the ground state of matter." See: Vacuum
Bold added by me for emphasis.

While covering long distances(cosmic particles) what is examined that differences could have been determined in AMSII Calorimeter devices have been implored to be defined in configuration spaces. See Glast/Fermi. Use of calorimeter devices against the backdrop of LHC.

When cosmic particle meet earth's boundary with space, forward faster then light effects are generated. It is important to me that space be given it proper context in relation too, what is actually being transmitted across distances. Speed of light is medium dependent. So energy depenence value is necessary for those forward measure faster then light measure, exemplified in ICECUBE.

The idea then, that these space fluctuation as vacua are in expression and are sensitive aside what else is also being transmitted across those long distances. This, in relation with cosmic particles that were also created in events.

The most important thing is to be motivated by your own intellectual curiosity.

Dr. Kip Thorne, Caltech 01-Relativity-The First 20th Century Revolution

In my mind Kip Thorne's determinations as to the length of measure and value of LiGO arms, also seen as beam of light very sensitive to those vacuum fluctuations.

Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of Earth-based gravitational wave observatories1–4 is seeking to directly detect this faint radiation using precision laser interferometry. Photon shot noise, due to the quantum nature of light, imposes a fundamental limit on the attometre-level sensitivity of the kilometre-scale Michelson interferometers deployed for this task. Here, we inject squeezed states to improve the performance of one of the detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) beyond the quantum noise limit, most notably in the frequency region down to 150 Hz, critically important for several astrophysical sources, with no deterioration of performance observed at any frequency. With the injection of squeezed states, this LIGO detector demonstrated the best broadband sensitivity to gravitational waves ever achieved, with important implications for observing the gravitational-wave Universe with unprecedented sensitivity. A fundamental limit to the sensitivitySee: Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of lightPUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2013.177

Sunday, December 01, 2013

Fermi's Now Deeper Study of the High-Energy Cosmos

This compilation summarizes the wide range of science from the first five years of NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Fermi is a NASA observatory designed to reveal the high-energy universe in never-before-seen detail. Launched in 2008, Fermi continues to give astronomers a unique tool for exploring high-energy processes associated with solar flares, spinning neutron stars, outbursts from black holes, exploding stars, supernova remnants and energetic particles to gain insight into how the universe works.NASA | Fermi at Five Years

The Crab Nebula, created by a supernova seen nearly a thousand years ago, is one of the sky's most famous "star wrecks." For decades, most astronomers have regarded it as the steadiest beacon at X-ray energies, but data from orbiting observatories show unexpected variations. Since 2008, it has faded by 7 percent, activity likely tied to the environment around its central neutron star. (Video Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center)

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Slac-All Access

Three hundred and fifty miles overhead, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope silently glides through space. From this serene vantage point, the satellite's instruments watch the fiercest processes in the universe unfold. Pulsars spin up to 700 times a second, sweeping powerful beams of gamma-ray light through the cosmos. The hyperactive cores of distant galaxies spew bright jets of plasma. Far beyond, something mysterious explodes with unfathomable power, sending energy waves crashing through the universe. Stanford professor and KIPAC member Roger W. Romani talks about this orbiting telescope, the most advanced ever to view the sky in gamma rays, a form of light at the highest end of the energy spectrum that's created in the hottest regions of the universe.

See Also:

Friday, May 03, 2013

GRB 130427A: Highest-energy Light Ever Detected

The maps in this animation show how the sky looks at gamma-ray energies above 100 million electron volts (MeV) with a view centered on the north galactic pole. The first frame shows the sky during a three-hour interval prior to GRB 130427A. The second frame shows a three-hour interval starting 2.5 hours before the burst, and ending 30 minutes into the event. The Fermi team chose this interval to demonstrate how bright the burst was relative to the rest of the gamma-ray sky. This burst was bright enough that Fermi autonomously left its normal surveying mode to give the LAT instrument a better view, so the three-hour exposure following the burst does not cover the whole sky in the usual way.
Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration See: NASA's Fermi, Swift See 'Shockingly Bright' Burst

See Also:

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

Cosmic Particle Creation

The husks of exploded stars produce some of the fastest particles in the cosmos. New findings by NASA's Fermi show that two supernova remnants accelerate protons to near the speed of light. The protons interact with nearby interstellar gas clouds, which then emit gamma rays. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center See:Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Make Cosmic Rays

See Also:

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Supernova Remnant W49B

Credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/L.Lopez et al; Infrared: Palomar; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA 

The highly distorted supernova remnant shown in this image may contain the most recent black hole formed in the Milky Way galaxy. The image combines X-rays from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory in blue and green, radio data from the NSF's Very Large Array in pink, and infrared data from Caltech's Palomar Observatory in yellow.

The remnant, called W49B, is about a thousand years old, as seen from Earth, and is at a distance about 26,000 light years away.

The supernova explosions that destroy massive stars are generally symmetrical, with the stellar material blasting away more or less evenly in all directions. However, in the W49B supernova, material near the poles of the doomed rotating star was ejected at a much higher speed than material emanating from its equator. Jets shooting away from the star's poles mainly shaped the supernova explosion and its aftermath.

By tracing the distribution and amounts of different elements in the stellar debris field, researchers were able to compare the Chandra data to theoretical models of how a star explodes. For example, they found iron in only half of the remnant while other elements such as sulfur and silicon were spread throughout. This matches predictions for an asymmetric explosion. Also, W49B is much more barrel-shaped than most other remnants in X-rays and several other wavelengths, pointing to an unusual demise for this star.......
See:Supernova Remnant W49B

 See Also:

Wednesday, December 05, 2012

Astrophysical Signals for Quantum Gravity Signals

Logo for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/Sonoma State University/Aurore Simonnet

NASA's newest observatory, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, or GLAST, has begun its mission of exploring the universe in high-energy gamma rays. The spacecraft and its revolutionary instruments passed their orbital checkout with flying colors.

NASA announced August 26 that GLAST has been renamed the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The new name honors Prof. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), a pioneer in high-energy physics.
See:NASA Renames Observatory for Fermi, Reveals Entire Gamma-Ray Sky

See Also:

Saturday, October 13, 2012

When You Look at the Cosmos......?

Scientists have turned up rare evidence that space-time is smooth as Einstein predicted, while pushing closer to a complete theory of gravity. From NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. See: might be enamored with how you might see the cosmos as I am.

The question of continuity of expression as some mathematical construct with out seeing the uniqueness of  lets say might we associate with such dynamics of that continuity?

According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, the sun's gravity causes starlight to bend, shifting the apparent position of stars in the sky.

It's the way in which the Lagrangian expressions are understood or how satellite travel helps to denote the pathways throughout our universe. Are traverse pathways being suggested as we might see the holes in the cosmos as unique just to satellite travel alone? Ask yourself how the photon is influenced then? What pathways are traveled that we may see the evidence on the screen that such association measure in the spectrum are revealing of events across space and time.

Astronomers use the light-bending properties of gravity to view very distant galaxies--such as the arc shapes in this image--in a technique called "gravitational lensing.

This book describes a revolutionary new approach to determining low energy routes for spacecraft and comets by exploiting regions in space where motion is very sensitive (or chaotic). It also represents an ideal introductory text to celestial mechanics, dynamical systems, and dynamical astronomy. Bringing together wide-ranging research by others with his own original work, much of it new or previously unpublished, Edward Belbruno argues that regions supporting chaotic motions, termed weak stability boundaries, can be estimated. Although controversial until quite recently, this method was in fact first applied in 1991, when Belbruno used a new route developed from this theory to get a stray Japanese satellite back on course to the moon. This application provided a major verification of his theory, representing the first application of chaos to space travel.

See Also:

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Volcano and Aurora

Volcano and Aurora in Iceland
Image Credit & Copyright: Sigurdur H. Stefnisson

Explanation: Sometimes both heaven and Earth erupt. In Iceland in 1991, the volcano Hekla erupted at the same time that auroras were visible overhead. Hekla, one of the most famous volcanoes in the world, has erupted at least 20 times over the past millennium, sometimes causing great destruction. The last eruption occurred only twelve years ago but caused only minor damage. The green auroral band occurred fortuitously about 100 kilometers above the erupting lava. Is Earth the Solar System's only planet with both auroras and volcanos? See: Astronomy Picture of the Day

It is of great consequence that while we understand the sun has it's place in the sky,  do we understand the interactions that are taking place as the Earth radiates as well? If thunderstorms can releases information for us,  then it puts a whole new spin on what is happening within Earth's space.


Also See:

Friday, July 06, 2012

The Bolshoi simulation

A virtual world?

 The more complex the data base the more accurate one's simulation is achieved. The point is though that you have to capture scientific processes through calorimeter examinations just as you do in the LHC.

So these backdrops are processes in identifying particle examinations as they approach earth or are produced on earth. See Fermi and capture of thunder storms and one might of asked how Fermi's picture taking would have looked had they pointed it toward the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster?

So the idea here is how you map particulates as a measure of natural processes? The virtual world lacks the depth of measure with which correlation can exist in the natural world? Why? Because it asks the designers of computation and memory to directly map the results of the experiments. So who designs the experiments to meet the data?

 How did they know the energy range that the Higg's Boson would be detected in?

The Bolshoi simulation is the most accurate cosmological simulation of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the universe yet made ("bolshoi" is the Russian word for "great" or "grand"). The first two of a series of research papers describing Bolshoi and its implications have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. The first data release of Bolshoi outputs, including output from Bolshoi and also the BigBolshoi or MultiDark simulation of a volume 64 times bigger than Bolshoi, has just been made publicly available to the world's astronomers and astrophysicists. The starting point for Bolshoi was the best ground- and space-based observations, including NASA's long-running and highly successful WMAP Explorer mission that has been mapping the light of the Big Bang in the entire sky. One of the world's fastest supercomputers then calculated the evolution of a typical region of the universe a billion light years across.

The Bolshoi simulation took 6 million cpu hours to run on the Pleiades supercomputer—recently ranked as seventh fastest of the world's top 500 supercomputers—at NASA Ames Research Center. This visualization of dark matter is 1/1000 of the gigantic Bolshoi cosmological simulation, zooming in on a region centered on the dark matter halo of a very large cluster of galaxies.Chris Henze, NASA Ames Research Center-Introduction: The Bolshoi Simulation

Snapshot from the Bolshoi simulation at a red shift z=0 (meaning at the present time), showing filaments of dark matter along which galaxies are predicted to form.
CREDIT: Anatoly Klypin (New Mexico State University), Joel R. Primack (University of California, Santa Cruz), and Stefan Gottloeber (AIP, Germany).

Pleiades Supercomputer

 MOFFETT FIELD, Calif. – Scientists have generated the largest and most realistic cosmological simulations of the evolving universe to-date, thanks to NASA’s powerful Pleiades supercomputer. Using the "Bolshoi" simulation code, researchers hope to explain how galaxies and other very large structures in the universe changed since the Big Bang.

To complete the enormous Bolshoi simulation, which traces how largest galaxies and galaxy structures in the universe were formed billions of years ago, astrophysicists at New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico and the University of California High-Performance Astrocomputing Center (UC-HIPACC), Santa Cruz, Calif. ran their code on Pleiades for 18 days, consumed millions of hours of computer time, and generating enormous amounts of data. Pleiades is the seventh most powerful supercomputer in the world.

“NASA installs systems like Pleiades, that are able to run single jobs that span tens of thousands of processors, to facilitate scientific discovery,” said William Thigpen, systems and engineering branch chief in the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at NASA's Ames Research Center.
See|:NASA Supercomputer Enables Largest Cosmological Simulations

See Also: Dark matter’s tendrils revealed

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Living With A Star

The Living With a Star (LWS) program emphasizes the science necessary to understand those aspects of the Sun and the Earth's space environment that affect life and society. The ultimate goal is to provide a predictive understanding of the system, and specifically of the space weather conditions at Earth and in the interplanetary medium.

LWS missions have been formulated to answer specific science questions needed to understand the linkages among the interconnected systems that impact us. LWS products impact technology associated with space systems, communications and navigation, and ground systems such as power grids.The coordinated LWS program includes strategic missions, targeted research and technology development, a space environment test bed flight opportunity, and partnerships with other agencies and nations.
Living With A Star

Who would have ever thought to consider our own Sun as a member of the Cosmos,  as a Star?

Solar Probe Fact Sheet(click on Image)

Solar Probe+ will be an extraordinary and historic mission, exploring what is arguably the last region of the solar system to be visited by a spacecraft, the Sun’s outer atmosphere or corona as it extends out into space. Approaching as close as 9.5 solar radii* (8.5 solar radii above the Sun’s surface), Solar Probe+ will repeatedly sample the near-Sun environment, revolutionizing our knowledge and understanding of coronal heating and of the origin and evolution of the solar wind and answering critical questions in heliophysics that have been ranked as top priorities for decades. Moreover, by making direct, in-situ measurements of the region where some of the most hazardous solar energetic particles are energized, Solar Probe+ will make a fundamental contribution to our ability to characterize and forecast the radiation environment in which future space explorers will work and live. See:Solar Probe Plus

As with anything if we want peer deeper in the construction of the world around us it is necessary sometimes to put on different glasses for different perspectives. So it is about how we can look at the universe around us.

HelioPhysics Research

Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observes particles of solar, interplanetary, interstellar, and galactic origins, spanning the energy range from solar wind ions to galactic cosmic ray nuclei. This mission is part of SMD's Explorers Program. This mission is part of SMD's ...
19970827 08-27-1997Operating

Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) is a mission to determine the causes of the highest altitude clouds in the Earth's atmosphere. The number of clouds in the middle atmosphere (mesosphere) over the Earth's poles has been increasing over ...
20070425 04-25-2007Operating

The Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses mission is a balloon-based Mission of Opportunity to augment the measurements of NASA's RBSP spacecraft. This mission is part of SMD's LWS program.

The Coupled Ion-Neutral Dynamics Investigations (CINDI) is a mission to understand the dynamics of the Earth's ionosphere. CINDI will provide two instruments for the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite, a project of the United States Air Force. This mission ...
20080416 04-16-2008Operating

Cluster is a European Space Agency program with major NASA involvement. The 4 Cluster spacecraft are providing a detailed three-dimensional map of the magnetosphere, with surprising results. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
20000716 07-16-2000Operating

Equator-S was a German Space Agency project, with contributions from ESA and NASA, related to the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics program. The mission provided high-resolution plasma, magnetic, and electric field measurements in several regions not adequately covered by any of the ...
19971202 12-02-1997Past

Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) studies the detailed plasma physics of the Earth's auroral regions. Ground support campaigns coordinate satellite measurements with ground observations of the Aurora Borealis, commonly referred to as the Northern Lights. The science instruments on board ...
19960821 08-21-1996Past

The GEOTAIL mission is a collaborative project undertaken by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and NASA. Its primary objective is to study the tail of the Earth's magnetosphere. The information gathered is allowing scientists to model ...
19920724 07-24-1992Operating

Hinode (Solar-B)
Hinode (formerly known as Solar-B) is a Japanese ISAS mission proposed as a follow-on to the highly successful Japan/US/UK Yohkoh (Solar-A) collaboration. The mission consists of a coordinated set of optical, EUV and X-ray instruments that are studying the interaction ...
20060923 09-23-2006Operating

IBEX will be the first mission designed to detect the edge of the Solar System. As the solar wind from the sun flows out beyond Pluto, it collides with the material between the stars, forming a shock front. This mission ...
20081019 10-19-2008Operating

IMAGE studied the global response of the magnetosphere to changes in the solar wind. Major changes occur to the configuration of the magnetosphere as a result of changes in and on the Sun, which in turn change the solar wind.
20000325 03-25-2000Past

IMP 8 has deepened understanding of the space environment near Earth in many ways. Observations from IMP 8 provided insight into plasma physics, the Earth's magnetic field, the structure of the solar wind and the nature of cosmic rays.
19731026 10-26-1973Past

The primary goal of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) explorer is to understand how the solar atmosphere is energized. The IRIS investigation combines advanced numerical modeling with a high resolution UV imaging spectrograph.
20121201 12-01-2012Development

The ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) program was an international cooperative program between NASA and ESA to study the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere.
19971022 10-22-1997Past

The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission will determine the small-scale basic plasma processes which transport, accelerate and energize plasmas in thin boundary and current layers – and which control the structure and dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. MMS will for the first ...
20140814 08-14-2014Development

Polar is the second of two NASA spacecraft in the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative and part of the ISTP Project. GGS is designed to improve greatly the understanding of the flow of energy, mass and momentum in the solar-terrestrial ...
19960224 02-24-1996Past

The RBSP mission will provide scientific understanding, ideally to the point of predictability, of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form and change in response to variable inputs of energy from the Sun.
20120518 05-18-2012Development

Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) studies solar flares in X-rays and gamma-rays. It explores the basic physics of particle acceleration and explosive energy release in these energetic events in the Sun's atmosphere. This is accomplished by imaging ...
20020205 02-05-2002Operating

The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer is investigating the composition of local interstellar matter and solar material and the transport of magnetospheric charged particles into the Earth's atmosphere.
19920703 07-03-1992Past

SNOE ("snowy") was a small satellite investigating the effects of energy from the Sun and from the magnetosphere on the density of nitric oxide in the Earth's upper atmosphere.
19980226 02-26-1998Past

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a solar observatory studying the structure, chemical composition, and dynamics of the solar interior. SOHO a joint venture of the European Space Agency and NASA. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
19951202 12-02-1995Operating

Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)
The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the first mission and crown jewel in a fleet of NASA missions to study our sun. The mission is the cornerstone of a NASA science program called Living With a Star (LWS). The goal ...
20100211 02-11-2010Operating

Solar Orbiter
Solar Orbiter is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission to study the Sun from a distance closer than any spacecraft previously has, and will provide images and measurements in unprecedented resolution and detail. This mission is part of SMD's LWS ...
Under Study

Solar Probe Plus
Solar Probe Plus will be a historic mission, flying into one of the last unexplored regions of the solar system, the Sun’s atmosphere or corona, for the first time. This mission is part of SMD's LWS Program.
Under Study

Space Environment Testbeds
The Space Environment Testbeds (SET) Project performs flight and ground investigations to understand how the Sun/Earth interactions affect humanity.
20121001 10-01-2012Development

Spartan 201
Spartan is a small, Shuttle-launched and retrieved satellite. Spartan 201, whose mission is to study the Sun, has a science payload consisting of two telescopes: the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) and the White Light Coronagraph (WLC). Spartan 201 was launched ...
19940913 09-13-1994Past

Space Technology 5 (ST5) flight tested its miniaturized satellites and innovative technologies in the harsh environment of Earth's magnetosphere.
20060322 03-22-2006Past

The goal of STEREO is to understand the origin the Sun's coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their consequences for Earth. The mission consists of two spacecraft, one leading and the other lagging Earth in its orbit. The spacecraft carries instrumentation ...
20061025 10-25-2006Operating

Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) is a study of the onset of magnetic storms within the tail of the Earth's magnetosphere. THEMIS will fly five microsatellite probes through different regions of the magnetosphere and observe ...
20070217 02-17-2007Operating

Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) explores the energy transfer into and out of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere/Ionosphere (MLTI) region of the Earth's atmosphere. This mission is part of SMD's Solar Terrestrial Probes Program.
20011207 12-07-2001Operating

Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observes the effects of the emergence of magnetic flux from deep inside the Sun to the outer corona with high spatial and temporal resolution. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Explorers program. This ...
19980401 04-01-1998Past

TWINS will provide stereo imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere, the region surrounding the planet controlled by its magnetic field and containing the Van Allen radiation belts and other energetic charged particles. This mission is part of SMD's Explorers Program. This ...
20080313 03-13-2008Operating

The Ulysses Mission is the first spacecraft to explore interplanetary space at high solar latitudes, orbiting the Sun nearly perpendicular to the plane in which the planets orbit. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
19901006 10-06-1990Past

The twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft continue exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. In the 25th year after their 1977 launches, they each are much farther away from Earth and the Sun than Pluto is and approaching ...
19770905 09-05-1977Operating

Wind studies the solar wind and its impact on the near-Earth environment. This mission is part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
19941101 11-01-1994Operating

Yohkoh, an observatory for studying X-rays and gamma-rays from the Sun, is a project of the Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences, Japan.
19910830 08-30-1991Past

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Turn Fermi Toward Japan Skies

Tokyo Electric Power Co./AP  View of damaged No.  4 unit of the Fukushima nuclear plant in northeastern Japan.

Workers abandoned Japan's quake-stricken nuclear plant on the verge of meltdown Tuesday when increasing radiation levels made it too dangerous to remain.See: Japan nuclear crisis: Workers halt desperate struggle to stop meltdown at Fukushima plant

Sometimes the tools in which we use to measure events in space as satellites out, can be used to help detection flow patterns of radiation emissions from the Nuclear Reactors affected by Earthquakes in Japan?

2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami

A massive 8.9/9.0 magnitude earthquake hit the Pacific Ocean nearby Northeastern Japan at around 2:46pm on March 11 (JST) causing damage with blackouts, fire and tsunami. On this page we are providing the information regarding the disaster and damage with realtime updates.

The large earthquake triggered a tsunami warning for countries all around the Pacific ocean.


Thursday, March 10, 2011

NASA's Fermi Catches Thunderstorms Hurling Antimatter into Space

How thunderstorms launch particle beams into space

Scientists using NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have detected beams of antimatter produced above thunderstorms on Earth, a phenomenon never seen before.

Scientists think the antimatter particles were formed in a terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF), a brief burst produced inside thunderstorms and shown to be associated with lightning. It is estimated that about 500 TGFs occur daily worldwide, but most go undetected.

"These signals are the first direct evidence that thunderstorms make antimatter particle beams," said Michael Briggs, a member of Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) team at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). He presented the findings Monday, during a news briefing at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle.
See:NASA's Fermi Catches Thunderstorms Hurling Antimatter into Space

Friday, January 07, 2011

Crab Nebula

This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope of the Crab Nebula, a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star's supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded this violent event nearly 1,000 years ago in 1054, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans.

The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula's eerie interior bluish glow. The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star. The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star's rotation. A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star.

The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord Rosse in 1844, using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes such as the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away.

The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen, green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.


January 6, 2011 - Fermi's Large Area Telescope Sees Surprising Flares in Crab Nebula

Each of the two flares the LAT observed lasted a few days before the Crab Nebula's gamma-ray output returned to more normal levels. According to Funk, the short duration of the flares points to synchrotron radiation, or radiation emitted by electrons accelerating in the magnetic field of the nebula, as the cause. And not just any accelerated electrons: the flares were caused by super-charged electrons of up to 1015 electron volts, or 10 quadrillion electron volts, approximately 1,000 times more energetic than the protons accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider in Europe, the world's most powerful man-made particle accelerator, and more than 15 orders of magnitude greater than photons of visible light.
"The strength of the gamma-ray flares shows us they were emitted by the highest-energy particles we can associate with any discrete astrophysical object," Funk said. January 6, 2011 - Fermi's Large Area Telescope Sees Surprising Flares in Crab Nebula-Date Issued: January 6, 2011 Contact: Melinda Lee, SLAC Media Manager

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Fermi Records Lighthouse Effect

John Keats talked of "unweaving the rainbow", suggesting that Newton destroyed the beauty of nature by analysing light with a prism and splitting it into different colours. Keats was being a prat. Physicists also smile when we see rainbows, but our emotional reaction is doubled by our understanding of the deep physics relating to the prismatic effects of raindrops. Similarly, physicists appreciate sunsets more than anybody else, because we can enjoy the myriad colours and at the same time grasp the nuclear physics that created the energy that created the photons that travelled for millions of years to the surface of the Sun, which then travelled eight minutes through space to Earth, which were then scattered by the atmosphere to create the colourful sunset. Understanding physics only enhances the beauty of nature.See:'Keats claimed physics destroyed beauty. Keats was being a prat'

In this illustration, one photon (purple) carries a million times the energy of another (yellow). Some theorists predict travel delays for higher-energy photons, which interact more strongly with the proposed frothy nature of space-time. Yet Fermi data on two photons from a gamma-ray burst fail to show this effect, eliminating some approaches to a new theory of gravity. The animation link below shows the delay scientists had expected to observe. Credit: NASA/Sonoma State University/Aurore Simonnet
See: Fermi Telescope Caps First Year With Glimpse of Space-Time

"This measurement eliminates any approach to a new theory of gravity that predicts a strong energy dependent change in the speed of light," Michelson said. "To one part in 100 million billion, these two photons travelled at the same speed. Einstein still rules."

What I want people to know now is that a question arises about "theoretical conclusions drawn" about joining, "Electromagnetism and Gravity." This basically what their saying?

We see a pulsar, then, when one of its beams of radiation crosses our line-of-sight. In this way, a pulsar is like a lighthouse. The light from a lighthouse appears to be "pulsing" because it only crosses our line-of-sight once each time it spins. Similarly, a pulsar "pulses" because we see bright flashes every time the star spins. See: Pulsars
Link to tutorial site has been taken down, and belongs to Barb of

For some it is not a hard thing to remember when the Sun, or a light has blinded one to seeing what is in front of you, it aligns to the realization, that if one shifts to the right or left, they can come out of the bright directional gaze of emissions from that other time.

M87's Energetic Jet., HST image. The blue light from the jet emerging from the bright AGN core, towards the lower right, is due to synchrotron radiation.

See Also: Light House Keeper as well as Label Lighthouse at bottom of Post entry.

Simple Jet Model. A simple model for a jet is a relativistic sphere emitting synchrotron radiation. This simple model hides the complexity of a real jet but can still be used to illustrate the principles of relativistic beaming.

Electrons inside the blob(Crab Nebula) travel at speeds just a tiny fraction below the speed of light and are whipped around by the magnetic field. Each change in direction by an electron is accompanied by the release of energy in the form of a photon. With enough electrons and a powerful enough magnetic field the relativistic sphere can emit a huge number of photons, ranging from those at relatively weak radio frequencies to powerful X-ray photons.-(In brackets added by me)See: Relativistic beaming

So the spectrum at this end reveals Gamma ray perspective that when considered under this watchful eye, reveals views of our Sun and views of the Cosmos of very different ranges used in that spectrum, still, shows the Sun.

It is not so difficult to realize then how much energy is directed that one could say that what we had seen in the light effect can help spotters on ships realize the coastlines during those frightful storms at sea.

(click on image for larger viewing)
The bluish glow from the central region of the nebula is due to synchrotron radiation.

Synchrotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation, similar to cyclotron radiation, but generated by the acceleration of ultrarelativistic (i.e., moving near the speed of light) charged particles through magnetic fields. This may be achieved artificially in synchrotronsstorage rings, or naturally by fast electrons moving through magnetic fields in space. The radiation produced may range over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio wavesinfrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. It is distinguished by its characteristic polarization and spectrum.

Sunday, January 04, 2009

Birth By Approximization

Of course I am acknowledging the universe in a big way here, "that by measure," we can arrive at "some ideas" about the nature of this universe. Fundamental constants acknowledged.

This post was to raise awareness of the "idea about noise that can be created by people," layman like myself, as to questions we can have about the universe's birth. How can I be more specific? While these questions are not specific to an analysis of the way and approaches in experiment at the forefront, or theoretics, I can wonder and do voice from "information specific as lead by science" that the "science trades embedded" are in the analysis, and am working toward this resolution of a "factual and actual representation."

There is an assumption on my part that gravity existed "before this universe" and "came into expression" as this universe. How does one qualify this statement? I do not discount that I was lead here by Veneziano. I do not discount and acknowledge an astronomer would be happy with just accepting the universe as the way it is, in a nice box. But yes, I too think outside the box in more ways then one.:) Shall I not acknowledge, such heat generated in my thinking mind may propel new universes in idea expression?

These are just two of the measures below that have, and will, allow us to interpret the very outlay and expression motivated, as it is.

Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results. Credit Source: WMAP Science Team

The temperature (TT) and temperature-polarization correlation (TE) power spectra based on the 5 year WMAP data. Additional data provide more sensitive measurements of the third peak in TT and the high-l TE spectrum, especially the second trough.
See: Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

Now, I develop this post knowing that Clifford and Robert and Sean, look to discuss respectively and abstractly Boltzmann Brains, gravity inherent, a description of the universe at large. That some work from "purely abstract levels in mathematics." It is not always certain and clear for me how this math is deduced, but from holding "bench marks of the constants" as an progression to further questions. Future theoretics.

It is planned to launch Planck in early April of 2009 together with the Herschel satellite. After launch, Planck and Herschel will separate and will be placed in different orbits around the second Lagrangian point of the Earth-Sun System.Credit Source: Planck Science Team Home

Planck will help provide answers to one of the most important sets of questions asked in modern science - how did the Universe begin, how did it evolve to the state we observe today, and how will it continue to evolve in the future? Planck's objective is to analyse, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the Universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the Cosmic Microwave Background.

While they all do say that they do not have the full knowledge, would it be safe to say, that they all are arriving at their conclusions by approximations as well? That these approximations in context of the real thing, real knowledge, is far from an adequate description of the birth of this universe and would still be considered as noise?:)

Monday, December 29, 2008

We are , What Stars are Made of?

One thing I can tell you, though, is that most string theorist's suspect that spacetime is a emergent Phenomena in the language of condensed matter physics Edward Witten

Imagine indeed, that such a picture below is an approximate of how our Milky Way Galaxy would appear to the distant observer.

"It is remarkable and ironic that this ferocious "mother of all explosions" involves the lowly neutrino, an elementary particle that seems otherwise to be the most inert and inconspicuous of all particles. Out blast the neutrinos, taking with them all of the outer matter of the star, the new synthesized elements producing a brilliant flash of light of many millions of times brighter than all the stars shining within a single galaxy. The outer shell of the body of the Titan, containing all the elements from hydrogen to iron, is blown into space. A dense, spinning neutron star or perhaps a blackhole, the tiny remnant of the pure neutron core of the Titan with a mass greater than that of our Sun, is left behind."1

M51: Cosmic Whirlpool-Credit: S. Beckwith (STScI) Hubble Heritage Team, (STScI/AURA), ESA, NASA See also:Astronomy Picture of the Day

I was a little perturbed by how scientists themself assuming 5% of the world population would think that such congregations must be "held to themself" and their "sphere of communications." These communications are based on what 20% of the world population currently sees in Internet communications worldwide, would relegate "this figure of 5%" much narrower, to a figure allotted to "internet viability and population reached by those are really see less then 5%." This will change as the Internet viability and population increase. An expanding market then sought by Magazines to take on board "Blogging groups?"

We show that any massive cosmological relic particle with small self-interactions is a super-fluid today, due to the broadening of its wave packet, and lack of any elastic scattering. The WIMP dark matter picture is only consistent its mass M ≫ MPl in order to maintain classicality. The dynamics of a super-fluid are given by the excitation spectrum of bound state quasi-particles, rather than the center of mass motion of constituent particles. If this relic is a fermion with a repulsive interaction mediated by a heavy boson, such as neutrinos interacting via the Z0, the condensate has the same quantum numbers as the vierbein of General Relativity. Because there exists an enhanced global symmetry SO(3, 1)space × SO(3, 1)spin among the fermion’s self-interactions broken only by it’s kinetic term, the long wavelength fluctuation around this condensate is a Goldstone graviton. A gravitational theory exists in the low energy limit of the Standard Model’s Electroweak sector below the weak scale, with a strength that is parametrically similar to GN.2

So, your of this group who sought to sell themself to Discovery Magazine, and forfeit(?) all posts and topics as an article of some extrapolation from the ARxiv to the "select only," the few? What was achieved then by the lone scientist, when he sought to exemplify his work on the and by chance of discussion sell all their days pondering as work of the future to a magazine?

If you open with a question(?) with something that is very public, you have to consider what market you are extending yourself too, by thinking to ignore public contribution under the guise of this Magazine's presentation of authors. A forum?

A Job possibly? Money to allow them the comforts of spreading good cheer amongst the populations? Imagine, if the population was ever to see "this advance" of bought scientists to mine only what it shall transpire for "new information" for that magazine, by only the inclusion of their trade associates. "Shall you as scientists resist then" such a corporate takeover, and exemplify yourself to denouncing such a corporate structure limited to communications away from the public?

George Musser while scouring the archives and forums for his stories at least sought to contribute to the stories as they unfolded for the public through magazine subscription, then to "mine by incentive, a detach impetus for "new information" about what the stars are made up of. What remnants are left to insight the reader, to think that gravity was formed by evidence of some relics and only held in the scientists mind?

See Also:

1Symmetry by Leon M. Lederman and Christopher T. Hill page 36-Children of the Titans
2Emergent Electroweak Gravity" Bob McElrath CERN theory group, Geneva 23, CH 1211, Switzerland-