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Showing posts with label Cymatics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cymatics. Show all posts

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Binaural beats by Wiki

Binaural beats or binaural tones are auditory processing artifacts, or apparent sounds, the perception of which arises in the brain for specific physical stimuli. This effect was discovered in 1839 by Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, and earned greater public awareness in the late 20th century based on claims that binaural beats could help induce relaxation, meditation, creativity and other desirable mental states. The effect on the brainwaves depends on the difference in frequencies of each tone: for example, if 300 Hz was played in one ear and 310 in the other, then the binaural beat would have a frequency of 10 Hz.[1][2]
The brain produces a phenomenon resulting in low-frequency pulsations in the amplitude and sound localization of a perceived sound when two tones at slightly different frequencies are presented separately, one to each of a subject's ears, using stereo headphones. A beating tone will be perceived, as if the two tones mixed naturally, out of the brain. The frequencies of the tones must be below 1,000 hertz for the beating to be noticeable.[3] The difference between the two frequencies must be small (less than or equal to 30 Hz) for the effect to occur; otherwise, the two tones will be heard separately and no beat will be perceived.

Binaural beats are of interest to neurophysiologists investigating the sense of hearing.[4][5][6][7]

Binaural beats reportedly influence the brain in more subtle ways through the entrainment of brainwaves[3][8][9] and have been claimed to reduce anxiety[10] and to provide other health benefits such as control over pain.[11]

Contents

 

 

Acoustical background

 


Interaural time differences (ITD) of binaural beats
For sound localization the human auditory system analyses interaural time differences between both ears inside small frequency ranges, called critical bands. For frequencies below 1000 to 1500 Hz interaural time differences are evaluated from interaural phase differences between both ear signals.[12] The perceived sound is also evaluated from the analysis of both ear signals.

If different pure tones (sinusoidal signals with different frequencies) are presented to each ear, there will be time dependent phase and time differences between both ears (see figure). The perceived sound depends on the frequency difference between both ear signals:

  • If the frequency difference between the ear signals is lower than some hertz, the auditory system can follow the changes in the interaural time differences. As a result an auditory event is perceived, which is moving through the head. The perceived direction corresponds to the instantaneous interaural time difference.
  • For slightly bigger frequency differences between the ear signals (more than 10 Hz) the auditory system can no longer follow the changes in the interaural parameters. A diffuse auditory event appears. The sound corresponds to an overlay of both ear signals, which means amplitude and loudness are changing rapidly (see figure in the chapter above).
  • For frequency differences between the ear signals of above 30 Hz the cocktail party effect begins to work, and the auditory system is able to analyze the presented ear signals in terms of two different sound sources at two different locations, and two distinct signals are perceived.

Binaural beats can also be experienced without headphones, they appear when playing two different pure tones through loudspeakers. The sound perceived is quite similar: with auditory events which move through the room, at low frequency differences, and diffuse sound at slightly bigger frequency differences. At bigger frequency differences apparent localized sound sources appear.[13] However, it is more effective to use headphones than loudspeakers.

History

Heinrich Wilhelm Dove discovered binaural beats in 1839. While research about them continued after that, the subject remained something of a scientific curiosity until 134 years later, with the publishing of Gerald Oster's article "Auditory Beats in the Brain" (Scientific American, 1973). Oster's article identified and assembled the scattered islands of relevant research since Dove, offering fresh insight (and new laboratory findings) to research on binaural beats.

In particular,Oster saw binaural beats as a powerful tool for cognitive and neurological research, addressing questions such as how animals locate sounds in their three-dimensional environment, and also the remarkable ability of animals to pick out and focus on specific sounds in a sea of noise (which is known as the "cocktail party effect").
Oster also considered binaural beats to be a potentially useful medical diagnostic tool, not merely for finding and assessing auditory impairments, but also for more general neurological conditions. (Binaural beats involve different neurological pathways than ordinary auditory processing.) For example, Oster found that a number of his subjects that could not perceive binaural beats, suffered from Parkinson's disease. In one particular case, Oster was able to follow the subject through a week-long treatment of Parkinson's disease; at the outset the patient could not perceive binaural beats; but by the end of the week of treatment, the patient was able to hear them.

In corroborating an earlier study, Oster also reported gender differences in the perception of beats. Specifically, women seemed to experience two separate peaks in their ability to perceive binaural beats—peaks possibly correlating with specific points in the menstrual cycle, onset of menstruation and during the luteal phase. This data led Oster to wonder if binaural beats could be used as a tool for measuring relative levels of estrogen.[3]

The effects of binaural beats on consciousness were first examined by physicist Thomas Warren Campbell and electrical engineer Dennis Mennerich, who under the direction of Robert Monroe sought to reproduce a subjective impression of 4 Hz oscillation that they associated with out-of-body experience.[14] On the strength of their findings, Monroe created the binaural-beat technology self-development industry by forming The Monroe Institute, now a charitable binaural research and education organization.

Unverified claims


There have been a number of claims regarding binaural beats, among them that they may simulate the effect of recreational drugs, help people memorize and learn, stop smoking, help dieting, tackle erectile dysfunction and improve athletic performance.
Scientific research into binaural beats is very limited. No conclusive studies have been released to support the wilder claims listed above. However, one uncontrolled pilot study[15] of 8 individuals indicates that binaural beats may have a relaxing effect. In absence of positive evidence for a specific effect, however, claimed effects may be attributed to the power of suggestion (the placebo effect).
In a blind study (8 participants) of binaural beats' effects on meditation, 7 Hz frequencies were found to enhance meditative focus while 15 Hz frequencies harmed it.[16]

Physiology


The sensation of binaural beats is believed to originate in the superior olivary nucleus, a part of the brain stem. They appear to be related to the brain's ability to locate the sources of sounds in three dimensions and to track moving sounds, which also involves inferior colliculus (IC) neurons.[17] Regarding entrainment, the study of rhythmicity provides insights into the understanding of temporal information processing in the human brain. Auditory rhythms rapidly entrain motor responses into stable steady synchronization states below and above conscious perception thresholds. Activated regions include primary sensorimotor and cingulate areas, bilateral opercular premotor areas, bilateral SII, ventral prefrontal cortex, and, subcortically, anterior insula, putamen, and thalamus. Within the cerebellum, vermal regions and anterior hemispheres ipsilateral to the movement became significantly activated. Tracking temporal modulations additionally activated predominantly right prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and intraparietal regions as well as posterior cerebellar hemispheres.[18] A study of aphasic subjects who had a severe stroke versus normal subjects showed that the aphasic subject could not hear the binaural beats whereas the normal subjects could.[19]

Hypothetical effects on brain function

 

Overview


Binaural beats may influence functions of the brain in ways besides those related to hearing. This phenomenon is called frequency following response. The concept is that if one receives a stimulus with a frequency in the range of brain waves, the predominant brain wave frequency is said to be likely to move towards the frequency of the stimulus (a process called entrainment).[20] In addition, binaural beats have been credibly documented to relate to both spatial perception & stereo auditory recognition, and, according to the frequency following response, activation of various sites in the brain.[21][22][23][24][25]
The stimulus does not have to be aural; it can also be visual[26] or a combination of aural and visual[27] (one such example would be Dreamachine).

Perceived human hearing is limited to the range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, but the frequencies of human brain waves are below about 40 Hz. To account for this lack of perception, binaural beat frequencies are used. Beat frequencies of 40 Hz have been produced in the brain with binaural sound and measured experimentally.[28]
When the perceived beat frequency corresponds to the delta, theta, alpha, beta, or gamma range of brainwave frequencies, the brainwaves entrain to or move towards the beat frequency.[29] For example, if a 315 Hz sine wave is played into the right ear and a 325 Hz one into the left ear, the brain is entrained towards the beat frequency 10 Hz, in the alpha range. Since alpha range is associated with relaxation, this has a relaxing effect or if in the beta range, more alertness. An experiment with binaural sound stimulation using beat frequencies in the Beta range on some participants and Delta/Theta range in other participants, found better vigilance performance and mood in those on the awake alert state of Beta range stimulation.[30][31]

Binaural beat stimulation has been used fairly extensively to induce a variety of states of consciousness, and there has been some work done in regards to the effects of these stimuli on relaxation, focus, attention, and states of consciousness.[8] Studies have shown that with repeated training to distinguish close frequency sounds that a plastic reorganization of the brain occurs for the trained frequencies[32] and is capable of asymmetric hemispheric balancing.[33]

 

Brain waves

Frequency range Name Usually associated with:
> 40 Hz Gamma waves Higher mental activity, including perception, problem solving, fear, and consciousness
13–39 Hz Beta waves Active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration, arousal, cognition, and or paranoia
7–13 Hz Alpha waves Relaxation (while awake), pre-sleep and pre-wake drowsiness, REM sleep, Dreams
8–12 Hz Mu waves Sensorimotor rhythm Mu_rhythm, Sensorimotor_rhythm
4–7 Hz Theta waves deep meditation/relaxation, NREM sleep
< 4 Hz Delta waves Deep dreamless sleep, loss of body awareness
(The precise boundaries between ranges vary among definitions, and there is no universally accepted standard.)
The dominant frequency determines your current state. For example, if in someone's brain alpha waves are dominating, they are in the alpha state (this happens when one is relaxed but awake). However, other frequencies will also be present, albeit with smaller amplitudes.
The brain entraining is more effective if the entraining frequency is close to the user's starting dominant frequency. Therefore, it is suggested to start with a frequency near to one's current dominant frequency (likely to be about 20 Hz or less for a waking person), and then slowly decreasing/increasing it towards the desired frequency.
Some people find pure sine waves unpleasant, so a pink noise or another background (e.g. natural sounds such as river noises) can also be mixed with them. In addition to that, as long as the beat is audible, increasing the volume should not necessarily improve the effectiveness, therefore using a low volume is usually suggested. One theory is to reduce the volume so low that the beating should not even be clearly audible, but this does not seem to be the case (see the next paragraph).

Other uses

In addition to lowering the brain frequency to relax the listener, there are other controversial, alleged uses for binaural beats. For example, that by using specific frequencies an individual can stimulate certain glands to produce desired hormones. Beta-endorphin has been modulated in studies using alpha-theta brain wave training,[34] and dopamine with binaural beats.[1] Among other alleged uses, there are reducing learning time and sleeping needs (theta waves are thought to improve learning, since children, who have stronger theta waves, and remain in this state for a longer period of time than adults, usually learn faster than adults;[citation needed] and some people find that half an hour in the theta state can reduce sleeping needs up to four hours;[citation needed] similar to another method of achieving a theta state, e.g. meditation;[citation needed]) some use them for lucid dreaming and even for attempting out-of-body experiences, astral projection, telepathy and psychokinesis. However, the role of alpha-wave activity in lucid dreaming is subject to ongoing research).[35][36][37]

Alpha-theta brainwave training has also been used successfully for the treatment of addictions.[34][38][39]

It has been used for the recovery of repressed memories, but as with other techniques this can lead to false memories.[40]

An uncontrolled pilot study of Delta binaural beat technology over 60 days has shown positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. There was significant decrease in trait anxiety, an increase in quality of life, and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine[1] and has been successfully shown to decrease mild anxiety.[41] A randomised, controlled study concluded that binaural beat audio could lessen hospital acute pre-operative anxiety.[42]

Another claimed effect for sound induced brain synchronization is enhanced learning ability. It was proposed in the 1970s that induced alpha brain waves enabled students to assimilate more information with greater long term retention.[43] In more recent times has come more understanding of the role of theta brain waves in behavioural learning.[44] The presence of theta patterns in the brain has been associated with increased receptivity for learning and decreased filtering by the left hemisphere.[43][45][46] Based on the association between theta activity (4–7 Hz) and working memory performance, biofeedback training suggests that normal healthy individuals can learn to increase a specific component of their EEG activity, and that such enhanced activity may facilitate a working memory task and to a lesser extent focused attention.[47]

A small media controversy was spawned in 2010 by an Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics official comparing binaural beats to illegal narcotics, and warning that interest in websites offering binaural beats could lead to drug use.[48]

See also

 

 

References

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External links

Wednesday, August 08, 2012

Sphere and Sound Waves


Don demonstrates water oscillations on a speaker in microgravity, and ZZ Top rocks the boat 250 miles above Earth.Science off the Sphere: Space Soundwaves
So of course I might wonder about cymatics in space. It 's more the idea that you could further experiment with the environment with which life on the space station may provide in opportunity. That's all.:)



There is a reason why I am presenting this blog entry.




It has to do with a comparison that came to mind about our earth and the relationship we might see to a sphere of water. Most will know from my blog the relevant topic used in terms of Isostatic adjustment in terms of planet design and formation. It is also about gravity and elemental consideration in terms of the shape of the planet.

Now sure we can expect certain things from the space environment in terms of molecular arrangement but of course my views are going much deeper in terms of the makeup of that space given the constituents of early universe formations.  So here given to states for examination I had an insight in terms of how one may arrange modularization in terms of using the space environment to capitalize.

So there is something forming in mind here about the inherent nature of the matter constituents that I may say deeper then the design itself such arrangements are predestined to become perfectly arranged according to the type of element associated with it?

 I want to be in control of that given a cloud of all constituents so that I may choose how to arrange the mattered state of existence. A planet maker perhaps?:) Design the gravity field. There are reasons for this.




Image: NASA/JPL-
Planets are round because their gravitational field acts as though it originates from the center of the body and pulls everything toward it. With its large body and internal heating from radioactive elements, a planet behaves like a fluid, and over long periods of time succumbs to the gravitational pull from its center of gravity. The only way to get all the mass as close to planet's center of gravity as possible is to form a sphere. The technical name for this process is "isostatic adjustment."

With much smaller bodies, such as the 20-kilometer asteroids we have seen in recent spacecraft images, the gravitational pull is too weak to overcome the asteroid's mechanical strength. As a result, these bodies do not form spheres. Rather they maintain irregular, fragmentary shapes.




See Also:

Sunday, June 26, 2011

A General Guide to Harmonic Analysis and Beyond


Thanks to Clifford of Asymptotia for the Link too, and from Good Vibration

Some of us do look toward these analogies as signs of Complexity science, so as to apply this thinking to the life they lead. How such implementations allow them to look at this life very differently.

***

Each time the operator tuned to a new frequency, the wave was very simple and repetitive, just as above. This wave can be expressed by only two qualities: frequency and amplitude, and yet each new frequency created a new and many times surprisingly different result than it’s neighbor.

This phenomenon is analogous to all aspects of Complexity Science. And just like the simple rules set by the speaker in the video, an economy can achieve surprisingly complex results with simple rule sets.
Harmonic Science
 ***

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x:
 F = -k x \,
where k is a positive constant.
If F is the only force acting on the system, the system is called a simple harmonic oscillator, and it undergoes simple harmonic motion: sinusoidal oscillations about the equilibrium point, with a constant amplitude and a constant frequency (which does not depend on the amplitude).
If a frictional force (damping) proportional to the velocity is also present, the harmonic oscillator is described as a damped oscillator. Depending on the friction coefficient, the system can:
  • Oscillate with a frequency smaller than in the non-damped case, and an amplitude decreasing with time (underdamped oscillator).
  • Decay exponentially to the equilibrium position, without oscillations (overdamped oscillator).
If an external time dependent force is present, the harmonic oscillator is described as a driven oscillator.

Mechanical examples include pendula (with small angles of displacement), masses connected to springs, and acoustical systems. Other analogous systems include electrical harmonic oscillators such as RLC circuits. The harmonic oscillator model is very important in physics, because any mass subject to a force in stable equilibrium acts as a harmonic oscillator for small vibrations. Harmonic oscillators occur widely in nature and are exploited in many manmade devices, such as clocks and radio circuits. They are the source of virtually all sinusoidal vibrations and waves.
Simple Harmonic Motion Frequency
The frequency of simple harmonic motion like a mass on a spring is determined by the mass m and the stiffness of the spring expressed in terms of a spring constant k

The Landscape “avant la lettre” by A.N. Schellekens

The lowest harmonics correspond to the particles of the Standard Model, plus perhaps a few new particles. The higher harmonics correspond to an infinite series of particles that we can never observe, unless we can build a Planck Energy accelerator


***
See Also:

The Sound The Universe Makes

Cymatics and the Heart Song

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Cymatics and the Heart Song

I think one has to wonder with such diversities of souls who have entered this world, such distinctions of being identified as a "emergent product of all souls" might have a distinctive element with which lives could have been choreographed. Each soul, manifests according to their Heart Song? :)Each Heart Song is carried through a series of many lives? Each Heart Song,manifests according the conceptual acceptances and digestibility of our grokking, according to each circumstance that surrounds that life?



I just finish spending the last 8 days with two of my seven grandchildren. One had passed just a couple of days after being born.

Yes "Happy feet" has become a intricate part of my days visiting as these children are mesmerized by the hearts songs and uniqueness of being borne learning to tap instead of singing. It's trials and tribulations of being different.
See:It's a Penquin?
Biology sees no possible reduction to the physics of thinking,  that I have to wonder if they might of thought of the correlation here, as distinctive elements have distinctive sounds?

It's an anologistical way of looking at the space of thinking(mind /body) to have it coincide with somethng inherent in our make up.  Some thing that is correlative to what strides the thinking mind makes and what resonances in the world are set up for each soul distinctive?  Each soul's cause and effect,  bringing home to roost the conceptually formed resonances that have been formed " by grokking and digestibility.

For example, in 1704 Sir Isaac Newton struggled to devise mathematical formulas to equate the vibrational frequency of sound waves with a corresponding wavelength of light. He failed to find his hoped-for translation algorithm, but the idea of correspondence took root, and the first practical application of it appears to be the clavecin oculaire, an instrument that played sound and light simultaneously. It was invented in 1725. Charles Darwin’s grandfather, Erasmus, achieved the same effect with a harpsichord and lanterns in 1790, although many others were built in the intervening years, on the same principle, where by a keyboard controlled mechanical shutters from behind which colored lights shne. By 1810 even Goethe was expounding correspondences between color and other senses in his book, Theory of Color. Pg 53, The Man Who Tasted Shapes, by Richard E. Cytowic, M.D.

So to then in my thinking that before each soul crystallizes it's hold on the reality of being in this world,  that each soul was in a much different state. A state that the senses held no distinctions other then too, sense "all things" as connected to each other.  The differentiations were our attempts to acceptance of living within this world that it should have it;s compartments for sensory outputs distinctive themselves. See:Soul Food

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Cymatics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Resonance made visible with black seeds on a harpsichord sounboard
Cornstarch and water solution under the influence of sine wave vibration
Amplified sine wave's effects on cornstarch & water solution
Cymatics (from Greek: κῦμα "wave") is the study of visible sound and vibration, a subset of modal phenomena. Typically the surface of a plate, diaphragm, or membrane is vibrated, and regions of maximum and minimum displacement are made visible in a thin coating of particles, paste, or liquid.[1] Different patterns emerge in the exitatory medium depending on the geometry of the plate and the driving frequency.
The apparatus employed can be simple, such as a Chladni Plate[2] or advanced such as the CymaScope, a laboratory instrument that makes visible the inherent geometries within sound and music.[clarification needed]

Contents


Etymology

The generic term for this field of science is the study of modal phenomena, retitled Cymatics by Hans Jenny, a Swiss medical doctor and a pioneer in this field. The word Cymatics derives from the Greek 'kuma' meaning 'billow' or 'wave,' to describe the periodic effects that sound and vibration has on matter.

History

The study of the patterns produced by vibrating bodies has a venerable history. One of the earliest to notice that an oscillating body displayed regular patterns was Galileo Galilei. In Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), he wrote:
As I was scraping a brass plate with a sharp iron chisel in order to remove some spots from it and was running the chisel rather rapidly over it, I once or twice, during many strokes, heard the plate emit a rather strong and clear whistling sound: on looking at the plate more carefully, I noticed a long row of fine streaks parallel and equidistant from one another. Scraping with the chisel over and over again, I noticed that it was only when the plate emitted this hissing noise that any marks were left upon it; when the scraping was not accompanied by this sibilant note there was not the least trace of such marks.[3]
On July 8, 1680, Robert Hooke was able to see the nodal patterns associated with the modes of vibration of glass plates. Hooke ran a bow along the edge of a glass plate covered with flour, and saw the nodal patterns emerge.[4][5]

In 1787, Ernst Chladni repeated the work of Robert Hooke and published "Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klanges" ("Discoveries in the Theory of Sound"). In this book, Chladni describes the patterns seen by placing sand on metal plates which are made to vibrate by stroking the edge of the plate with a bow.
Cymatics was explored by Hans Jenny in his 1967 book, Kymatik (translated Cymatics).[6] Inspired by systems theory and the work of Ernst Chladni, Jenny began an investigation of periodic phenomena but especially the visual display of sound. He used standing waves, piezoelectric amplifiers, and other methods and materials.

Influences in art

Hans Jenny's book influenced Alvin Lucier and, along with Chladni, helped lead to Lucier's composition Queen of the South. Jenny's work was also followed up by Center for Advanced Visual Studies (CAVS) founder Gyorgy Kepes at MIT. [7] His work in this area included an acoustically vibrated piece of sheet metal in which small holes had been drilled in a grid. Small flames of gas burned through these holes and thermodynamic patterns were made visible by this setup.

Based on work done in this field, photographer Alexander Lauterwasser captures imagery of water surfaces set into motion by sound sources ranging from pure sine waves, to music by Ludwig van Beethoven, Karlheinz Stockhausen, electroacoustic group Kymatik(who often record in surround sound ambisonics), and overtone singing.



Rosslyn Chapel's carvings are thought to contain references to Cymatics patterns and in 2005 composer Stuart Mitchell and his father T.J.Mitchell created a work realised by the use of matching Cymatics/Chladni patterns to the 13 geometric symbols carved onto the faces of 213 cubes emanating from 14 arches. They have named the completed work The Rosslyn Motet and has received a great deal of media publicity and acclaim from scientific and musicological sources.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jenny, Hans (July 2001). Cymatics: A Study of Wave Phenomena & Vibration (3rd ed.). Macromedia Press. ISBN 1-8881-3807-6. 
  2. ^ "Instructional Research Lab: Chladni Plate". University of California, Los Angeles. http://www.physics.ucla.edu/demoweb/demomanual/acoustics/effects_of_sound/chladni_plate.html. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  3. ^ Good Vibrations, Joyce McLaughlin, American Scientist, July-August 1998, Volume: 86 Number: 4 Page: 342, DOI: 10.1511/1998.4.342
  4. ^ Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni, Institute for Learning Technologies, Columbia University
  5. ^ Pg 101 Oxford Dictionary of Scientists- Oxford University Press- 1999
  6. ^ Jenny, Hans (1967). Kymatik. ISBN 1-888138-07-6
  7. ^ Gyorgy Kepes profile at MIT

 External links