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Showing posts with label Alice. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Alice. Show all posts

Wednesday, December 25, 2013

LHC and Open Access

The CMS experiment at the LHC has released a portion of its data to the public for use in education and outreach. Explore this page to find out more about the data and how to analyse it yourself.


LHC data are exotic, they are complicated and they are big. At peak performance, about one billion proton collisions take place every second inside the CMS detector at the LHC. CMS has collected around 64 petabytes (or over 64,000 terabytes) of analysable data from these collisions so far.

Along with the many published papers, these data constitute the scientific legacy of the CMS Collaboration, and preserving the data for future generations is of paramount importance. “We want to be able to re-analyse our data, even decades from now,” says Kati Lassila-Perini, head of the CMS Data Preservation and Open Access project at the Helsinki Institute of Physics. “We must make sure that we preserve not only the data but also the information on how to use them. To achieve this, we intend to make available through open access our data that are no longer under active analysis. This helps record the basic ingredients needed to guarantee that these data remain usable even when we are no longer working on them.” See: LHC data to be made public via open access initiative

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

ALICE EMCal installation with Peter Jacobs

Researcher Peter Jacobs explains what's happening as the final pieces of the ALICE experiment's electromagnetic calorimeter, or EMCal, are installed on Jan. 18 2012. Check out the symmetry breaking story for more.

  Jan 4, 2011 EMCAL Super Module installation at 40deg into ALICE slot 2 at CERN

 Nov 10, 2010 Loading an EMCAL SuperModule into the insertion tool, to prepare for the detector upgrade during the winter LHC shutdown.

Monday, July 11, 2011

ALICE Enters New Territory

A computer screen in the ALICE control room shows an event display on the night of the first heavy-ion collisions in the LHC in November 2010.
A basic process in QCD is the energy loss of a fast parton in a medium composed of colour charges. This phenomenon, "jet quenching", is especially useful in the study of the QGP, using the naturally occurring products (jets) of the hard scattering of quarks and gluons from the incoming nuclei. A highly energetic parton (a colour charge) probes the coloured medium rather like an X-ray probes ordinary matter. The production of these partonic probes in hadronic collisions is well understood within perturbative QCD. The theory also shows that a parton traversing the medium will lose a fraction of its energy in emitting many soft (low energy) gluons. The amount of the radiated energy is proportional to the density of the medium and to the square of the path length travelled by the parton in the medium. Theory also predicts that the energy loss depends on the flavour of the parton.

Jet quenching was first observed at RHIC by measuring the yields of hadrons with high transverse momentum (pT). These particles are produced via fragmentation of energetic partons. The yields of these high-pT particles in central nucleus–nucleus collisions were found to be a factor of five lower than expected from the measurements in proton–proton reactions. ALICE has recently published the measurement of charged particles in central heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. As at RHIC, the production of high-pT hadrons at the LHC is strongly suppressed. However, the observations at the LHC show qualitatively new features (see box). The observation from ALICE is consistent with reports from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on direct evidence for parton energy loss within heavy-ion collisions using fully reconstructed back-to-back jets of particles associated with hard parton scatterings (CERN Courier January/February 2011 p6 and March 2011 p6). The latter two experiments have shown a strong energy imbalance between the jet and its recoiling partner (G Aad et al. 2010 and CMS collaboration 2011). This imbalance is thought to arise because one of the jets traversed the hot and dense matter, transferring a substantial fraction of its energy to the medium in a way that is not recovered by the reconstruction of the jets.See: ALICE enters new territory in heavy-ion collisions

Click no Image for larger viewing

Friday, July 08, 2011

QGP Advances

Even the famous helium-3, which can flow out of a container via capillary forces, does not count as a perfect fluid.What black holes teach about strongly coupled particles by Clifford V. Johnson and Peter Steinberg....May of Last Year.

If helium-3 is used in cooling energy containment and was to be considered within LHC, wouldn't such example be applicable as to thinking about capillary routes as holes? Energy loss attributed too?

Layman wondering.


The notion of a perfect fluid arises in many fields of physics. The term can be applied to any system that is in local equilibrium and has negligible shear viscosity η. In everyday life, viscosity is a familiar property associated with the tendency of a substance to resist flow. From a microscopic perspective, it is a diagnostic of the strength of the interactions between a fluid’s constituents. The shear viscosity measures how disturbances in the system are transmitted to the rest of the system through interactions. If those interactions are strong, neighboring parts of the fluid more readily transmit the disturbances through the system (see figure 1). Thus low shear viscosities indicate significant interaction strength. The ideal gas represents the opposite extreme—it is a system with no interactions and infinite shear viscosity.


Perfect fluids are easy to describe, but few substances on Earth actually behave like them. Although often cited as a low-viscosity liquid, water in fact has a substantial viscosity, as evidenced by its tendency to form eddies and whorls when faced with an obstacle, rather than to flow smoothly as in ideal hydrodynamics. Even the famous helium-3, which can flow out of a container via capillary forces, does not count as a perfect fluid. What black holes teach about strongly coupled particles

The interesting thing for me as a layman  was about the theoretic in String Theory research is the idea of pushing perspective back in terms of the Microseconds. So for me it was about looking at collision processes and see how these may be applied to cosmological data as we look out amongst the stars.


At the recent seminar, the LHC’s dedicated heavy-ion experiment, ALICE, confirmed that QGP behaves like an ideal liquid, a phenomenon earlier observed at the US Brookhaven Laboratory’s RHIC facility. This question was indeed one of the main points of this first phase of data analysis, which also included the analysis of secondary particles produced in the lead-lead collisions. ALICE's results already rule out many of the existing theoretical models describing the physics of heavy-ions.
See: 2010 ion run: completed!


This is an important development in my view and I have been following for some time. The last contention in recognition for me was determinations of "the initial state" as to whether a Gas or a Fluid. How one get's there. This is phenomenologically correct as to understanding expressions of theoretic approach and application. Don't let anyone tell you different.

While we understand Microscopic blackholes quickly dissipate, it is of great interest that if such high energy collision processes are evident in our recognition of those natural processes, then we are faced with our own planet and signals of faster then light expressions through the mediums of earth?We have created many backdrops (Calorimeters) experimentally for comparisons of energy expressions. ICECUBE.

It is a really interesting story about the creation of our own universe in conjunction with experimental research a LHC


Our work is about comparing the data we collect in the STAR detector with modern calculations, so that we can write down equations on paper that exactly describe how the quark-gluon plasma behaves," says Jerome Lauret from Brookhaven National Laboratory. "One of the most important assumptions we've made is that, for very intense collisions, the quark-gluon plasma behaves according to hydrodynamic calculations in which the matter is like a liquid that flows with no viscosity whatsoever."

Proving that under certain conditions the quark-gluon plasma behaves according to such calculations is an exciting discovery for physicists, as it brings them a little closer to understanding how matter behaves at very small scales. But the challenge remains to determine the properties of the plasma under other conditions.

"We want to measure when the quark-gluon plasma behaves like a perfect fluid with zero viscosity, and when it doesn't," says Lauret. "When it doesn't match our calculations, what parameters do we have to change? If we can put everything together, we might have a model that reproduces everything we see in our detector." See:Probing the Perfect Liquid with the STAR Grid





Update:



Monday, December 13, 2010

2010 ion run: completed!

First direct observation of jet quenching.

At the recent seminar, the LHC’s dedicated heavy-ion experiment, ALICE, confirmed that QGP behaves like an ideal liquid, a phenomenon earlier observed at the US Brookhaven Laboratory’s RHIC facility. This question was indeed one of the main points of this first phase of data analysis, which also included the analysis of secondary particles produced in the lead-lead collisions. ALICE's results already rule out many of the existing theoretical models describing the physics of heavy-ions.
See: 2010 ion run: completed!

***

After a very fast switchover from protons to lead ions, the LHC has achieved performances that allowed the machine to exceed both peak and integrated luminosity by a factor of three. Thanks to this, experiments have been able to produce high-profile results on ion physics almost immediately, confirming that the LHC was able to keep its promises for ions as well as for protons.

A seminar on 2 December was the opportunity for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS collaborations to present their first results on ion physics in front of a packed auditorium. These results are important and are already having a major impact on the understanding of the physics processes that involve the basic constituents of matter at high energies.

In the ion-ion collisions, the temperature is so high that partons (quarks and gluons), which are usually constrained inside the nucleons, are deconfined to form a highly dense and hot soup known as quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This type of matter existed about 1 millionth of a second after the Big Bang. By studying it, scientists hope to understand the processes that led to the formation of nucleons, which in turn became the nuclei of atoms. See:LHC completes first heavy-ion run

See Also: Jets: Article Updated

Thursday, November 18, 2010

QGP Research Advances

“We can say that the system definitely flows like a liquid,” says Harris.


One of the first lead-ion collisions in the LHC as recorded by the ATLAS experiment on November 8, 2010. Image courtesy CERN.

***
Scientists from the ALICE experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider have publicly revealed the first measurements from the world’s highest energy heavy-ion collisions. In two papers posted today to the arXiv.org website, the collaboration describes two characteristics of the collisions: the number of particles produced from the most head-on collisions; and, for more glancing blows, the flow of the system of two colliding nuclei.
Both measurements serve to rule out some theories about how the universe behaves at its most fundamental, despite being based on a relatively small number of collisions collected in the first few days of LHC running with lead-ion beams.
In the first measurement, scientists counted the charged particles that were produced from a few thousand of the most central lead-ion collisions—those where the lead nuclei hit each other head-on. The result showed that about 18,000 particles are produced from collisions of lead ions, which is about 2.2 times more particles than produced in similar collisions of gold ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
See: ALICE experiment announces first results from LHC’s lead-ion collisions

Tuesday, February 16, 2010

Article From New York Times and More




Brookhaven National Laboratory

HOT A computer rendition of 4-trillion-degree Celsius quark-gluon plasma created in a demonstration of what scientists suspect shaped cosmic history.

In Brookhaven Collider, Scientists Briefly Break a Law of Nature

The Brookhaven scientists and their colleagues discussed their latest results from RHIC in talks and a news conference at a meeting of the American Physical Society Monday in Washington, and in a pair of papers submitted to Physical Review Letters. “This is a view of what the world was like at 2 microseconds,” said Jack Sandweiss of Yale, a member of the Brookhaven team, calling it, “a seething cauldron.”

Among other things, the group announced it had succeeded in measuring the temperature of the quark-gluon plasma as 4 trillion degrees Celsius, “by far the hottest matter ever made,” Dr. Vigdor said. That is 250,000 times hotter than the center of the Sun and well above the temperature at which theorists calculate that protons and neutrons should melt, but the quark-gluon plasma does not act the way theorists had predicted.

Instead of behaving like a perfect gas, in which every quark goes its own way independent of the others, the plasma seemed to act like a liquid. “It was a very big surprise,” Dr. Vigdor said, when it was discovered in 2005. Since then, however, theorists have revisited their calculations and found that the quark soup can be either a liquid or a gas, depending on the temperature, he explained. “This is not your father’s quark-gluon plasma,” said Barbara V. Jacak, of the State University at Stony Brook, speaking for the team that made the new measurements.

It is now thought that the plasma would have to be a million times more energetic to become a perfect gas. That is beyond the reach of any conceivable laboratory experiment, but the experiments colliding lead nuclei in the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva next winter should reach energies high enough to see some evolution from a liquid to a gas.
See more at above link.

***

Violating Parity with Quarks and Gluons
by Sean Carroll of Cosmic Variance
This new result from RHIC doesn’t change that state of affairs, but shows how quarks and gluons can violate parity spontaneously if they are in the right environment — namely, a hot plasma with a magnetic field.

So, okay, no new laws of physics. Just a much better understanding of how the existing ones work! Which is most of what science does, after all
.

***

Quark–gluon plasma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A QGP is formed at the collision point of two relativistically accelerated gold ions in the center of the STAR detector at the relativistic heavy ion collider at the Brookhaven national laboratory.


A quark-gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup[1] is a phase of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density. This phase consists of (almost) free quarks and gluons, which are the basic building blocks of matter. Experiments at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) first tried to create the QGP in the 1980s and 1990s: the results led CERN to announce indirect evidence for a "new state of matter"[2] in 2000. Current experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are continuing this effort.[3] Three new experiments running on CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), ALICE,[4] ATLAS and CMS, will continue studying properties of QGP.

Contents

  • 1 General introduction


    • 1.1 Why this is referred to as "plasma"
    • 1.2 How the QGP is studied theoretically
    • 1.3 How it is created in the lab
    • 1.4 How the QGP fits into the general scheme of physics
  • 2 Expected properties


    • 2.1 Thermodynamics
    • 2.2 Flow
    • 2.3 Excitation spectrum
  • 3 Experimental situation
  • 4 Formation of quark matter
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

General introduction

The quark-gluon plasma contains quarks and gluons, just as normal (baryonic) matter does. The difference between these two phases of QCD is that in normal matter each quark either pairs up with an anti-quark to form a meson or joins with two other quarks to form a baryon (such as the proton and the neutron). In the QGP, by contrast, these mesons and baryons lose their identities and dissolve into a fluid of quarks and gluons.[5] In normal matter quarks are confined; in the QGP quarks are deconfined.
Although the experimental high temperatures and densities predicted as producing a quark-gluon plasma have been realized in the laboratory, the resulting matter does not behave as a quasi-ideal state of free quarks and gluons, but, rather, as an almost perfect dense fluid.[6] Actually the fact that the quark-gluon plasma will not yet be "free" at temperatures realized at present accelerators had been predicted already in 1984 [7] as a consequence of the remnant effects of confinement. 

Why this is referred to as "plasma"

A plasma is matter in which charges are screened due to the presence of other mobile charges; for example: Coulomb's Law is modified to yield a distance-dependent charge. In a QGP, the color charge of the quarks and gluons is screened. The QGP has other analogies with a normal plasma. There are also dissimilarities because the color charge is non-abelian, whereas the electric charge is abelian. Outside a finite volume of QGP the color electric field is not screened, so that volume of QGP must still be color-neutral. It will therefore, like a nucleus, have integer electric charge.

How the QGP is studied theoretically

One consequence of this difference is that the color charge is too large for perturbative computations which are the mainstay of QED. As a result, the main theoretical tools to explore the theory of the QGP is lattice gauge theory. The transition temperature (approximately 175 MeV) was first predicted by lattice gauge theory. Since then lattice gauge theory has been used to predict many other properties of this kind of matter. The AdS/CFT correspondence is a new interesting conjecture allowing insights in QGP.

How it is created in the lab

The QGP can be created by heating matter up to a temperature of 2×1012 kelvin, which amounts to 175 MeV per particle. This can be accomplished by colliding two large nuclei at high energy (note that 175 MeV is not the energy of the colliding beam). Lead and gold nuclei have been used for such collisions at CERN SPS and BNL RHIC, respectively. The nuclei are accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds and slammed into each other while Lorentz contracted. They largely pass through each other, but a resulting hot volume called a fireball is created after the collision. Once created, this fireball is expected to expand under its own pressure, and cool while expanding. By carefully studying this flow, experimentalists hope to put the theory to test.

How the QGP fits into the general scheme of physics

QCD is one part of the modern theory of particle physics called the Standard Model. Other parts of this theory deal with electroweak interactions and neutrinos. The theory of electrodynamics has been tested and found correct to a few parts in a trillion. The theory of weak interactions has been tested and found correct to a few parts in a thousand. Perturbative aspects of QCD have been tested to a few percent. In contrast, non-perturbative aspects of QCD have barely been tested. The study of the QGP is part of this effort to consolidate the grand theory of particle physics.
The study of the QGP is also a testing ground for finite temperature field theory, a branch of theoretical physics which seeks to understand particle physics under conditions of high temperature. Such studies are important to understand the early evolution of our universe: the first hundred microseconds or so. While this may seem esoteric, this is crucial to the physics goals of a new generation of observations of the universe (WMAP and its successors). It is also of relevance to Grand Unification Theories or 'GUTS' which seek to unify the four fundamental forces of nature.

Expected properties

Thermodynamics

The cross-over temperature from the normal hadronic to the QGP phase is about 175 MeV, corresponding to an energy density of a little less than 1 GeV/fm3. For relativistic matter, pressure and temperature are not independent variables, so the equation of state is a relation between the energy density and the pressure. This has been found through lattice computations, and compared to both perturbation theory and string theory. This is still a matter of active research. Response functions such as the specific heat and various quark number susceptibilities are currently being computed.

Flow

The equation of state is an important input into the flow equations. The speed of sound is currently under investigation in lattice computations. The mean free path of quarks and gluons has been computed using perturbation theory as well as string theory. Lattice computations have been slower here, although the first computations of transport coefficients have recently been concluded. These indicate that the mean free time of quarks and gluons in the QGP may be comparable to the average interparticle spacing: hence the QGP is a liquid as far as its flow properties go. This is very much an active field of research, and these conclusions may evolve rapidly. The incorporation of dissipative phenomena into hydrodynamics is another recent development that is still in an active stage.

Excitation spectrum

Does the QGP really contain (almost) free quarks and gluons? The study of thermodynamic and flow properties would indicate that this is an over-simplification. Many ideas are currently being evolved and will be put to test in the near future. It has been hypothesized recently that some mesons built from heavy quarks (such as the charm quark) do not dissolve until the temperature reaches about 350 MeV. This has led to speculation that many other kinds of bound states may exist in the plasma. Some static properties of the plasma (similar to the Debye screening length) constrain the excitation spectrum.

Experimental situation

Those aspects of the QGP which are easiest to compute are not the ones which are the easiest to probe in experiments. While the balance of evidence points towards the QGP being the origin of the detailed properties of the fireball produced in the RHIC, this is the main barrier which prevents experimentalists from declaring a sighting of the QGP. For a summary see 2005 RHIC Assessment.
The important classes of experimental observations are

Formation of quark matter

In April 2005, formation of quark matter was tentatively confirmed by results obtained at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The consensus of the four RHIC research groups was that they had created a quark-gluon liquid of very low viscosity. However, contrary to what was at that time still the widespread assumption, it is yet unknown from theoretical predictions whether the QCD "plasma", especially close to the transition temperature, should behave like a gas or liquid[8]. Authors favoring the weakly interacting interpretation derive their assumptions from the lattice QCD calculation, where the entropy density of quark-gluon plasma approaches the weakly interacting limit. However, since both energy density and correlation shows significant deviation from the weakly interacting limit, it has been pointed out by many authors that there is in fact no reason to assume a QCD "plasma" close to the transition point should be weakly interacting, like electromagnetic plasma (see, e.g., [9]).

See also

References


External links

Thursday, July 27, 2006

Alice and the Cosmic Ballet, Now Meet Higgins

As Alice learned, it's not always clear what's a looking glass, and what's a window to another world. Mirrors and windows are often interchangeable: we look out into the world, and see ourselves reflected back. We look at a reflection, and believe it's showing us a world beyond. We internalize the mirror image and project the one inside. Objects, actions and ideas can become so confused with their reflections that it's impossible to untangle them. What's phantom and what's real? Is there even a relevant difference?





I am always taken back to Thomas Young's experiments and where the photon has travelled, while we see the resulting evidence of it's travel on the screen.

Welcome to the mirror world, in which every particle in the known universe could have a counterpart. This cosmos would hold mirror planets, mirror stars, and even mirror life.


Have they found more dramatic ways in which to see these travels? Most certainly? Were these methods steep in metaphysical ways in which the mind saw fit to think that indeed there were other worlds?

Developed by Feynman to decribe the interactions in quantum electrodynamics (QED), the diagrams have found use in describing a variety of particle interactions. They are spacetime diagrams, ct vs x. The time axis points upward and the space axis to the right. (Particle physicists often reverse that orientation.) Particles are represented by lines with arrows to denote the direction of their travel, with antiparticles having their arrows reversed. Virtual particles are represented by wavy or broken lines and have no arrows. All electromagnetic interactions can be described with combinations of primitive diagrams like this one


Before, we were tantalized with fictional stores about "other worlds" and the fiction of Lewis Carroll. INsanely driven, by such fictions, there were concerted efforts to experimentally challenge what the little photon was doing. Thus forward, the little photon became known as Alice in experiment?

Fast forward now, and with all this new experimental knowledge of science that we are now governed by the principles of what happens at the time of such creations, that the "spectrum" becomes the basis for what happens at any beginning? The journey "through" identifying "particulars of materials," as we now know their signatures.

In its quest for the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that is believed to have existed just after the Big Bang, ALICE will use a very accurate tracker system. The major part of this system is the time projection chamber (TPC), wherein the trajectories of electrically charged particles are reconstructed and their identity is determined. The ALICE TPC, a cylinder of 5 metres in diameter and 5 metres in length, is the largest of its kind worldwide. Nearly completed, it now has all read-out chambers installed with the custom electronics complete for the approximately 560000 read-out channels.

Did you know?

In a time projection chamber (TPC), an electric field is applied across a large volume of gas. When a charged particle traverses the TPC, it ionizes the gas and the liberated electrons drift in the electrical field to the endplates. The position on the endplate gives two coordinates. The third is given by the time of arrival of the electrons- hence the name of time projection chamber.


Thus what sense if one can not be taken to the level of supersymmetry where the superfluid provides for a channel/tunnel through which "unaccountable energy is lost" as well as engage the wonder "similarily" as we looked early on at what the photon was doing?

So there is this relationship to the energy, as we look at "point sources" and what GR encompasses not only from a cosmological standpoint, but from how we see the events wrapped in the wonders of the message Higgins will give us about the nature of such gatherings? So "Higgins" resides on the outside/inside of the balloon?

We know that the graviton is not held to "such events" as Alice is? We know Higgins travels beyond the standard model, beyond 3+1 in ideas about a Professor crossing the room?

I would like you to meet "Higgins" the graviton. :)

The search for supersymmetry, or other physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) is becoming ever more tantalizing. The idea that the SM is theoretically incomplete is an old one. There is now a whole range of innovative and experimentally striking suggestions for this new physics that underlies the SM. A recent conference at CERN, Supersymmetry 2000, surveyed the scene.

Thursday, November 03, 2005

Onion Signatures

Yes indeed, we seen where acoustic physics can be related at a fundamental level and be incorporated with the mathematics that some are very proficient at. That while poor ole me struggles, I look for the most direct route to help me comprehend these complex issues which physicists and theoretcians alike, engage themselves, then why not? Why not say, the "aroma"? Is the smell of the onion hold a certain quality like sound, that as "acoustic hawking radiation," if I direct this analogy and comparsion a bit further, somewhere in there is the Higgs boson, that will give mass all the things our layered onion as a detector seeks to manifest particle wise, as presence.

Acoustic Hawking Radiation

With an acoustic horizon (a.k.a. "sonic horizon"), this ordered set of definitions breaks down: events behind an acoustic horizon can modify the effective horizon position and allow information to escape from a horizon-bounded region. This results in acoustic horizons following a different set of rules to gravitational horizons under general relativity:


So here in lies another idea for Clifford and the drama created by the involuntary presence that can make good sane people cry. These onion people are working in another dimension? Some might call it wizardary, only if they did not understand the science and the geometry behind the curvature parameters. It is a hyperphysics mode to which those who has studied would know that Kaku was very kind in bringing common sense to what our ole Geometers had to say in a long line of historical perpective.

I will bring perspective to quantum geometry shortly in another blog entry.

Atlas Experiment

ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the five particle detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCb) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider, a new particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland. It will be 45 meters long, 25 meters in diameter, and will weigh about 7,000 tons. The project involves roughly 2,000 scientists and engineers at 151 institutions in 34 countries. The construction is scheduled to be completed in 2007. The experiment is expected to measure phenomena that involve highly massive particles which were not measurable using earlier lower-energy accelerators and might shed light on new theories of particle physics beyond the Standard Model.



Well most will not comprehend what I am saying, and nor did I, until I came across and looked for a better understanding of what signatures mean to a physicist. Who is working on the Cern project, and the detectors methods for consideration. What the term onion word might spark, as I look back and seen that a previous comment had been planted for another day like today.

How vast indeed this project, that out of it such collision processes can be accounted for in the way a onion can be peeled, layer upon layer, just like our Atlas Detector is. In the way it had been design for those particle detection methods. There are enough links here to satisfy the inquring mind, as to what these layers are, and what they are designated for in that detection process.

Frontiers and Mega Magnets

Like all the detectors used in today’s collider experiments, the ATLAS apparatus is huge – in order to catch the myriad of particles produced when protons smash into each other. It consists of a series of detecting devices in an onion-ring arrangement around the central tube in which the proton beams collide. Each detector does a different job, measuring the positions and energies of the different particles produced – electrons, photons, muons etc. The momenta of the charged particles are measured from the curvature of their trajectories in a magnetic field provided by superconducting magnets. The volume and strength of magnetic field needed are not achievable with conventional magnets.


Now I highlighted the statement in bold because it means something to me more then just the way we would look at, but what these curvatures can mean in comparative modes of geometrical expressions.

Now as a lay person, the curvature parameters that were developed from the understanding of the Friedman equations, help me to see the issue of hyperbolic/ spherical as real cosmological issues, but way down at the quantum level, what is this showing us?

The Friedmann equation which models the expanding universe has a parameter k called the curvature parameter which is indicative of the rate of expansion and whether or not that expansion rate is increasing or decreasing. If k=0 then the density is equal to a critical value at which the universe will expand forever at a decreasing rate. This is often referred to as the Einstein-de Sitter universe in recognition of their work in modeling it. This k=0 condition can be used to express the critical density in terms of the present value of the Hubble parameter.

For k>0 the density is high enough that the gravitational attraction will eventually stop the expansion and it will collapse backward to a "big crunch". This kind of universe is described as being a closed universe, or a gravitationally bound universe. For k<0 the universe expands forever, there not being sufficient density for gravitational attraction to stop the expansion.


So the very idea of the expansion and contraction, holds on to my mind, and this dynamical process is very revealling in our point of view. I can't but help feel this GR sense in momentum, as objects and articles are held to the mass impression of the spacetime fabric.

The Magnet System

The ATLAS detector uses two large magnet systems to bend charged particles so that their momenta can be measured. This bending is due to the Lorentz force, which is proportional to velocity. Since all particles produced in the LHC's proton collisions will be traveling at very close to the speed of light, the force on particles of different momenta is equal. (In the theory of relativity, momentum is not proportional to velocity at such speeds.) Thus high-momentum particles will curve very little, while low-momentum particles will curve significantly; the amount of curvature can be quantified and the particle momentum can be determined from this value.


So by quoting here and representing curvature parameters on a cosmological scale, it was not to hard to figure how signatures would be revealled.

Friday, June 17, 2005

Alice in Wonderland: A Real World Fantasy?

Before this post begins, it is important to understand that the expose of thoughts in regards to what myth created could have amounted to some journey of the photon understand that the chaotic feature of loose lips could sink ships, amounts to the amount specualtive feature we assign the models of our understanding. That yes, in the world of math and it's design, we would not want to confuse the issues. So let me say that such adventures could have been as easy as accepting A and B as letters of the aphlabet, and in this, Alice becomes, and so does Bob.

But in betweenst them, it seems that a outcome would have made many wonder about what transferance would have become relevant in the direction and explanation of a casual relationship, leading from one to to another? That was to some, "spooky in it's wonder," and hence some part of wonderland.

Heaven forbid, that such a thought could exist that here is Neverland and the roles of Fantasy gone wild in the mind of DR. Hook and Michael Jackson. Let us not be tainted anymore by such a ruse as to think the mind could embellsh itself and loose sight of the issues, but that we even immortalize without undertanding why. So in this respect the math as a basis should have remain untainted.

So now this post will be the end of such a fantsy and about the travels the photon takes in this wonderland, to have now moved to the interference patterns that bring wonder out on the other side.

So such revision given here will have now proceeded to the end, and the work that catches my mind in the early comsological events or it's interactive nature revealled in the relations between the earth and the sun.


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Alice ventures into the mirror world.
Illustrations: John Tenniel, Alice in Wonderland

Welcome to the mirror world, in which every particle in the known universe could have a counterpart. This cosmos would hold mirror planets, mirror stars, and even mirror life.




It is always nice to have some music to back up the idea, that the standard model might have exemplified a greater course on "multipilicity of meanings", "yet we know well that Alice has to come out to a world on the otherside." These highlighted words in quote, can be used in lyric to the music above, if you like:)



Thomas Young would have been happy, that such a spectrum would have found, that the journies to this side, would have found some potential realization by introducing BOB?


Beyond the Yellow Brick Road

So here we have this complex view over top of a "mathematical idea" who sought to give perspective to the chaos of a world by casual statements of life? Ones we exchange on a normal storytelling day, to have found, something hidden deeper? Sneaky mathematicians they are and mythmakers they could be. Who would hav known such a gentle story, could have been adults pleasure in science?

Alice in Quantum Land--A Quantum's Eye View

Following is chapter to be published later this year in "Lewis Carroll's Lost Quantum Diaries," ed. William B Shanley.




“I'm a quantum,” the voice continued. “You've been hearing a lot about quantum physics and all the strange conclusions that it leads to in your world, so I thought it was time you heard from me, and got a picture of how the world looks from a quantum's point of view.

“As to where I am, I am everywhere and nowhere. Always and nowhen.”

Alice knew better than to let her mind be worried by paradox. Just about everything she had heard so far was paradoxical in some way or other, and trying to understand paradoxes was bound to lead to even greater confusion.


But let us not forget the real story and the words written for children's minds? How many versions can we induce into the way in which myths are created about the beginning of the world to wonder, had this been sought by explaining the strange world of the looking glass?


Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll Alice's adventures continue is this tale of fantasy and adventure. Carrolls stories entertain children but can also give pause to think to adults as well. So welcome back to Wonderland! Beware the Jabberwok!