## Tuesday, April 30, 2013

It seems the opportune time when thinking about positions people adopt, that one realizes that one is not in a class of their own, but do definitely belong to a group of people in regard to a response from a survey. While not a part of that culture, can one say, this is a representative example of what appears in society, as a reflection?

Relax if you are a theoretical scientist or a physicist, because the issue of acceptance of any philosophical view comes into question for you?

So with a science thinking back ground, layman style, my bias definitely shows through, and I feel good about it. Not that I ever felt bad when learning from others and being respective of their idealizations as leaders in science.
Academics of all stripes enjoy conducting informal polls of their peers to gauge the popularity of different stances on controversial issues. But the philosophers — and in particular, David Bourget & David Chalmers — have decided to be more systematic about it. (Maybe they have more controversial issues to discuss?) See: What Do Philosophers Believe?

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

 Lean toward: nominalism 210 / 931 (22.6%) Accept: Platonism 184 / 931 (19.8%) Lean toward: Platonism 182 / 931 (19.5%) Accept: nominalism 141 / 931 (15.1%) Agnostic/undecided 47 / 931 (5.0%) Accept another alternative 46 / 931 (4.9%) Reject both 34 / 931 (3.7%) Insufficiently familiar with the issue 26 / 931 (2.8%) Accept an intermediate view 21 / 931 (2.3%) The question is too unclear to answer 19 / 931 (2.0%) Skip 9 / 931 (1.0%) There is no fact of the matter 8 / 931 (0.9%) Other 2 / 931 (0.2%) Accept both 2 / 931 (0.2%)

"

James Robert Brown - Plato's Heaven: a User's Guide

## Sunday, April 28, 2013

### Getting Perspective on Time

Time has no independent existence apart from the order of events by which we measure it.Albert Einstein

Currently with the new book written by Lee Smolin about Time, to me, it is a fundamental question about what arises, and,  on how we use time to measure. Also for me,  to ask what relevance time means,  as an emergent product for any beginning.

LEE SMOLIN- Physicist, Perimeter Institute; Author, The Trouble With Physics

Thinking In Time Versus Thinking Outside Of Time

One very old and pervasive habit of thought is to imagine that the true answer to whatever question we are wondering about lies out there in some eternal domain of "timeless truths." The aim of re-search is then to "discover" the answer or solution in that already existing timeless domain. For example, physicists often speak as if the final theory of everything already exists in a vast timeless Platonic space of mathematical objects. This is thinking outside of time. See: WHAT SCIENTIFIC CONCEPT WOULD IMPROVE EVERYBODY'S COGNITIVE TOOLKIT?
A "scientific concept" may come from philosophy, logic, economics, jurisprudence, or other analytic enterprises, as long as it is a rigorous conceptual tool that may be summed up succinctly (or "in a phrase") but has broad application to understanding the world.

What ignited this question for me goes to a comment I wrote as to what I saw as a precursor to this question for Lee Smolin and others. Further to this, the lessons and explanation Sean Carroll gave toward how we look at time.

Darwinian evolutionary biology is the prototype for thinking in time because at its heart is the realization that natural processes developing in time can lead to the creation of genuinely novel structures. Even novel laws can emerge when the structures to which they apply come to exist. Evolutionary dynamics has no need of abstract and vast spaces like all the possible viable animals, DNA sequences, sets of proteins, or biological laws. Exaptations are too unpredictable and too dependent on the whole suite of living creatures to be analyzed and coded into properties of DNA sequences. Better, as Stuart Kauffman proposes, to think of evolutionary dynamics as the exploration, in time, by the biosphere, of the adjacent possible. See: Thinking In Time Versus Thinking Outside Of Time
While we then become cognoscente of the rules around which parameters have meaning in relation to Time, it was also important to understand that the idea of cross pollination of the sciences recognizes what is brought to the table.

"It is very good that Stu Kauffman and Lee are making this serious attempt to save a notion of time, since I think the issue of timelessness is central to the unification of general relativity with quantum mechanics. The notion of time capsules is still certainly only a conjecture. However, as Lee admits, it has proven very hard to show that the idea is definitely wrong. Moreover, the history of physics has shown that it is often worth taking disconcerting ideas seriously, and I think timelessness is such a one. At the moment, I do not find Lee and Stu's arguments for time threaten my position too strongly."- Julian Barbour

In regard to The Adjacent Possible I was well aware of the implication and parameters  around such thinking to realize that even while applying the trade,  Stuart, was traveling new ground. His thinking is encouraging the flexibility that I am talking about with regard the restrictions one places on them self. I encourage this kind of thinking so as to bolster the lull in scientific advancement to stimulate and foster the idealization of creativity that I think has become stagnate while  moving from one point in the measure to the next. Why Murray Gell-Mann's  move and his expertise is understood in context of new approaches. Simplicity and complexity.

 Setting Time Aright

## Friday, April 26, 2013

### Origins of Life Question?

 Is it more astonishing that a God created all that exists in six days, or that the natural processes of the creative universe have yielded galaxies, chemistry, life, agency, meaning, value, consciousness, culture without a Creator. In my mind and heart, the overwhelming answer is that the truth as best we know it, that all arose with no Creator agent, all on its wondrous own, is so awesome and stunning that it is God enough for me and I hope much of humankind. BEYOND REDUCTIONISM: REINVENTING THE SACRED

The COOL EDGE Workshop was the brainchild of American theoretical biologist and expert in the complexity of biological systems and organisms, Stuart Kauffman. “If we do not organize our field we are in danger of drifting into scattered, uncoordinated groups that make little progress,” said Kauffman in an interview with the CERN Bulletin after the first meeting in 2011. “By coordinating our efforts, we believe we can make more rapid strides.”

“We are happy to share our experience with large-scale collaborations with the life scientists participating in the COOL EDGE Workshop 2013,” says Sergio Bertolucci, director for research and computing who opened the meeting on Tuesday. “The CERN model is an example (and a successful one!) of how large international collaborations can actually work. We are happy if we can also be of help to other communities.” See:
CERN, life science and the origins of life

The workshop at the CERN meeting focused attention on the metabolism first approach. Both it and the RNA world need exploration. The meeting ended with a proposal to get the research community organized behind a common effort, hopefully benefiting from the experience of CERN in fostering international collaboration.
• - How did life originate?

## Thursday, April 25, 2013

### The Least Resistance as Possible?

It is always of interest that communications over longer distances is made most capable and following an ole effect we see that where such tunneling allows such a process?

Kapusta points out that the condensation temperature would be well below the cosmic background temperature, so it would be quite a feat to make this superfluid. However, Kapusta also notes that a sufficiently advanced civilization might use pulses of neutrino superfluid for long-distance communications.

On an abstract level how is one able to envision such a process unless such a hole provides for information to move through a center,  and information to move very fast.
Magnetism is a fundamental interaction shaping our physical world, at the basis of technologies such as magnetic recording or energy generation. Unlike electromagnetic waves, which can be routed and transmitted with waveguides to long distances, magnetic fields rapidly decay with distance. Here we present the concept, design, and properties of a magnetic hose which enables to transfer the static magnetic field generated by a source to an arbitrary distance, and along any given trajectory. We experimentally demonstrate the field transmission through the simplest hose realization using a superconducting shell with a magnetic core. We discuss possible application of magnetic hoses to harness quantum systems by addressable magnetic fields, in the context of quantum information processing.Magnetic hose: Routing and Long-distance Transportation of Magnetic Fields

### CERN NEWS : LHCb announces new results in matter-antimatter asymmetry

Matter and antimatter are thought to have existed in equal amounts at the beginning of the universe, but today the universe appears to be composed essentially of matter. By studying subtle differences in the behaviour of particle and antiparticles, experiments at the LHC are seeking to cast light on this dominance of matter over antimatter. Now the LHCb experiment has observed a preference for matter over antimatter known as CP-violation in the decay of neutral B0s particles, read more: http://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates...

## Wednesday, April 24, 2013

### DarkSide-50

 Pictorial image showing, superimposed to an optical image, the spatial distributions of ordinary matter (pink) and the one assigned to dark matter (blue) estimated studying the merging of two clusters of galaxies (Bullet Cluster)

The DarkSide collaboration is an international affiliation of universities and labs seeking to directly detect dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The collaboration is building a series of noble liquid time projection chambers (TPCs) that are designed to be employed at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Assergi, Italy. The technique is based on liquid argon depleted in radioactive isotope 39Ar which is common for the atmospheric argon.

 Dark-matter seekers get help from the DarkSide

 Darkside

As part of the DarkSide program of direct dark matter searches using liquid argon TPCs, a prototype detector with an active volume containing 10 kg of liquid argon, DarkSide-10, was built and operated underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy. A critically important parameter for such devices is the scintillation light yield, as photon statistics limits the rejection of electron-recoil backgrounds by pulse shape discrimination. We have measured the light yield of DarkSide-10 using the readily-identifiable full-absorption peaks from gamma ray sources combined with single-photoelectron calibrations using low-occupancy laser pulses. For gamma lines of energies in the range 122-1275 keV, we get consistent light yields averaging 8.887\pm0.003(stat)\pm0.444(sys) p.e./keV_ee. With additional purification, the light yield measured at 511 keV increased to 9.142\pm0.006(stat) p.e./keV_ee. See:
Light Yield in DarkSide-10: a Prototype Two-phase Liquid Argon TPC for Dark Matter Searches

## Tuesday, April 23, 2013

### Hearing Shape of the Drum

 Mathematically ideal drums with membranes of these two different shapes (but otherwise identical) would sound the same, because the eigenfrequencies are all equal, so the timbral spectra would contain the same overtones. This example was constructed by Gordon, Webb and Wolpert. Notice that both polygons have the same area and perimeter.
To hear the shape of a drum is to infer information about the shape of the drumhead from the sound it makes, i.e., from the list of overtones, via the use of mathematical theory. "Can One Hear the Shape of a Drum?" was the title of an article by Mark Kac in the American Mathematical Monthly in 1966,[1] but the phrasing of the title is due to Lipman Bers,[2] and these questions can be traced back all the way to Hermann Weyl.

The frequencies at which a drumhead can vibrate depend on its shape. The Helmholtz equation tells us the frequencies if we know the shape. These frequencies are the eigenvalues of the Laplacian in the region. A central question is: can they tell us the shape if we know the frequencies? No other shape than a square vibrates at the same frequencies as a square. Is it possible for two different shapes to yield the same set of frequencies? Kac did not know the answer to that question.

 One of the possible modes of vibration of an idealized circular drum head (mode $u_{12}$ with the notation below). Other modes are shown at the bottom of the article.

Spectral geometry is a field in mathematics which concerns relationships between geometric structures of manifolds and spectra of canonically defined differential operators. The case of the Laplace–Beltrami operator on a closed Riemannian manifold has been most intensively studied, although other Laplace operators in differential geometry have also been examined. The field concerns itself with two kinds of questions: direct problems and inverse problems.

Inverse problems seek to identify features of the geometry from information about the eigenvalues of the Laplacian. One of the earliest results of this kind was due to Hermann Weyl who used David Hilbert's theory of integral equation in 1911 to show that the volume of a bounded domain in Euclidean space can be determined from the asymptotic behavior of the eigenvalues for the Dirichlet boundary value problem of the Laplace operator. This question is usually expressed as Can one hear the shape of a drum?", the popular phrase due to Mark Kac. A refinement of Weyl's asymptotic formula obtained by Pleijel and Minakshisundaram produces a series of local spectral invariants involving covariant differentiations of the curvature tensor, which can be used to establish spectral rigidity for a special class of manifolds. However as the example given by John Milnor tells us, the information of eigenvalues is not enough to determine the isometry class of a manifold (see isospectral). A general and systematic method due to Toshikazu Sunada gave rise to a veritable cottage industry of such examples which clarifies the phenomenon of isospectral manifolds.

Direct problems attempt to infer the behavior of the eigenvalues of a Riemannian manifold from knowledge of the geometry. The solutions to direct problems are typified by the Cheeger inequality which gives a relation between the first positive eigenvalue and an isoperimetric constant (the Cheeger constant). Many versions of the inequality have been established since Cheeger's work (by R. Brooks and P. Buser for instance).

## Saturday, April 20, 2013

### Applying Color to the Real World

Spectra are complex because each spectrum holds a wide variety of information. For instance, there are many different mechanisms by which an object, like a star, can produce light - or using the technical term for light, electromagnetic radiation. Each of these mechanisms has a characteristic spectrum. Let's look at a spectrum and examine each part of it. Introduction to Spectroscopy

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/STScI/CXC/SAO

This stunning false-color picture shows off the many sides of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, which is made up of images taken by three of NASA's Great Observatories, using three different wavebands of light. Infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are colored red; visible data from the Hubble Space Telescope are yellow; and X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory are green and blue. See: Image of the Day

Why might one suggest spectroscopy and it's ramifications?

While studying the question of how any of us may exist as emergent beings how might one find them self expressed as matter participants of this reality? What would have began first as to suggest that we used more then the typed neurons(stem cell) to shift the constructive nature of our constitutions as revealed in our DNA structure, as the forms in which we take? So there is already a pattern established in nature that we must look for?

What began as the motivation for expression as to insight that such energy is more then, is described as, is a continue change and expression of the evolutionary distribution of what we have become?

The crystalline state is the simplest known example of a quantum , a stable state of matter whose generic low-energy properties are determined by a higher organizing principle and nothing else. Robert Laughlin

What was that motivation then?

This image depicts the interaction of nine plane waves—expanding sets of ripples, like the waves you would see if you simultaneously dropped nine stones into a still pond. The pattern is called a quasicrystal because it has an ordered structure, but the structure never repeats exactly. The waves produced by dropping four or more stones into a pond always form a quasicrystal.

Because of the wavelike properties of matter at subatomic scales, this pattern could also be seen in the waveform that describes the location of an electron. Harvard physicist Eric Heller created this computer rendering and added color to make the pattern’s structure easier to see. See: What Is This? A Psychedelic Place Mat?
See:

### Geometrical Underpinnings

On the Hypotheses which lie at the Bases of Geometry.
Bernhard Riemann
Translated by William Kingdon Clifford

[Nature, Vol. VIII. Nos. 183, 184, pp. 14--17, 36, 37.]

It is known that geometry assumes, as things given, both the notion of space and the first principles of constructions in space. She gives definitions of them which are merely nominal, while the true determinations appear in the form of axioms. The relation of these assumptions remains consequently in darkness; we neither perceive whether and how far their connection is necessary, nor a priori, whether it is possible.

From Euclid to Legendre (to name the most famous of modern reforming geometers) this darkness was cleared up neither by mathematicians nor by such philosophers as concerned themselves with it. The reason of this is doubtless that the general notion of multiply extended magnitudes (in which space-magnitudes are included) remained entirely unworked. I have in the first place, therefore, set myself the task of constructing the notion of a multiply extended magnitude out of general notions of magnitude. It will follow from this that a multiply extended magnitude is capable of different measure-relations, and consequently that space is only a particular case of a triply extended magnitude. But hence flows as a necessary consequence that the propositions of geometry cannot be derived from general notions of magnitude, but that the properties which distinguish space from other conceivable triply extended magnitudes are only to be deduced from experience. Thus arises the problem, to discover the simplest matters of fact from which the measure-relations of space may be determined; a problem which from the nature of the case is not completely determinate, since there may be several systems of matters of fact which suffice to determine the measure-relations of space - the most important system for our present purpose being that which Euclid has laid down as a foundation. These matters of fact are - like all matters of fact - not necessary, but only of empirical certainty; they are hypotheses. We may therefore investigate their probability, which within the limits of observation is of course very great, and inquire about the justice of their extension beyond the limits of observation, on the side both of the infinitely great and of the infinitely small.

"We all are of the citizens of the Sky" Camille Flammarion

Seminar on the History of Hyperbolic Geometry, by Greg Schreiber
We began with an exposition of Euclidean geometry, first from Euclid's perspective (as given in his Elements) and then from a modern perspective due to Hilbert (in his Foundations of Geometry). Almost all criticisms of Euclid up to the 19th century were centered on his fifth postulate, the so-called Parallel Postulate.The first half of the course dealt with various attempts by ancient, medieval, and (relatively) modern mathematicians to prove this postulate from Euclid's others. Some of the most noteworthy efforts were by the Roman mathematician Proclus, the Islamic mathematicians Omar Khayyam and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, the Jesuit priest Girolamo Sacchieri, the Englishman John Wallis, and the Frenchmen Lambert and Legendre. Each one gave a flawed proof of the parallel postulate, containing some hidden assumption equivalent to that postulate. In this way properties of hyperbolic geometry were discovered, even though no one believed such a geometry to be possible.

There is some question here as to what signifies a liberation of a kind and how this may have affected your perceptions. How is it so easy for what you may have read of one page to come back to it later and see and read something different? So how had you changed?

Wigner's friend is a thought experiment proposed by the physicist Eugene Wigner; it is an extension of the Schrödinger's cat experiment designed as a point of departure for discussing the Quantum mind/body problem. See: WIGNER'S FRIEND
Conclusion: *The state of mind of the observer plays a crucial role in the perception of time.* On the Effects of External Sensory Input on Time Dilation." A. Einstein, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J.
Einstein:Since there exist in this four dimensional structure [space-time] no longer any sections which represent "now" objectively, the concepts of happening and becoming are indeed not completely suspended, but yet complicated. It appears therefore more natural to think of physical reality as a four dimensional existence, instead of, as hitherto, the evolution of a three dimensional existence.

The value of non-Euclidean geometry lies in its ability to liberate us from preconceived ideas in preparation for the time when exploration of physical laws might demand some geometry other than the Euclidean. Bernhard Riemann

Riemannian Geometry, also known as elliptical geometry, is the geometry of the surface of a sphere. It replaces Euclid's Parallel Postulate with, "Through any point in the plane, there exists no line parallel to a given line." A line in this geometry is a great circle. The sum of the angles of a triangle in Riemannian Geometry is > 180°.

While this may seem abstract in term of it's mathematical underpinnings, it allows us to see in ways that we might ever have been privileged to see before. So you turn your head to everything you have observed before and a whole new light has been thrown on the world. By consensus, this new view allows you to see deeper into the universe in ways that we had only taken from a standpoint of a man looking into outer space.

The Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16:

So while being lead through the circumstance of historical individual pursuers to solving the Parallel postulate, liberation was found in order to move a geometrical proposition forward in time. Some may say that time is a illusion then?

So as a new paradigmatic change that has been initiated it's application and is pushed into the world so as to ascertain it's functionality. Does it then become real?

"...underwriting the form languages of ever more domains of mathematics is a set of deep patterns which not only offer access to a kind of ideality that Plato claimed to see the universe as created with in the Timaeus; more than this, the realm of Platonic forms is itself subsumed in this new set of design elements-- and their most general instances are not the regular solids, but crystallographic reflection groups. You know, those things the non-professionals call . . . kaleidoscopes! * (In the next exciting episode, we'll see how Derrida claims mathematics is the key to freeing us from 'logocentrism'-- then ask him why, then, he jettisoned the deepest structures of mathematical patterning just to make his name...)* H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes (New York: Dover, 1973) is the great classic text by a great creative force in this beautiful area of geometry (A polytope is an n-dimensional analog of a polygon or polyhedron. Chapter V of this book is entitled 'The Kaleidoscope'....)"

## Monday, April 15, 2013

### Colour and Sound

Sounds and colors are "metered measures?" It is something we have designed in order to account for communication of certain facts? While I present some quotations here for consideration, it is also in the quest to understand what illusion and reality can mean when not all parts of the consensus can agree on what constitute what.
To “hear” the data we can map physical properties (The Data) to audible properties (The Sound) in pretty much any way we choose. For a physicist, an obvious way to do this might be to map speed to pitch. I think this is obvious for a physicist because both of these things are measured “per second” (pitch or frequency is measured in Hertz, which means vibrations per second). But we don’t have to do the obvious, we can map any physical property to any audible property. In this example I’m going to map speed to the pitch of the note, length/position to the duration of the note and number of turns/legs/puffs to the loudness of the note. Now I have to choose starting positions and ranges. When I do this I have to consider that:How to make sound out of anything.
We know that colour is a psychophysical experience of an observer which changes from observer to observer and is therefore impossible to replicate absolutely. In order to quantify colour in meaningful terms we must be able to measure or represent the three attributes that together give a model of colour perception. i.e. light, object and the eye. All these attributes have been standardised by the CIE or Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage. The colours of the clothes we wear and the textiles we use in our homes must be monitored to ensure that they are correct and consistent. Colour measurement is therefore essential to put numbers to colour in order to remove physical samples and the interpretation of results.See:Colour measuring equipment
In the arts and of painting, graphic design, and photography, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual impact of specific color combinations. Although color theory principles first appear in the writings of Alberti (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490), a tradition of "colory theory" begins in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy around Isaac Newton's theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the nature of so-called primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only sporadic or superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science.See: Color Theory
CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is the most complete color model used conventionally to describe all the colors visible to the human eye. It was developed for this specific purpose by the International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, hence its CIE initialism). The * after L, a and b are part of the full name, since they represent L*, a* and b*, derived from L, a and b. CIELAB is an Adams Chromatic Value Space. The three parameters in the model represent the lightness of the color (L*, L*=0 yields black and L*=100 indicates white), its position between magenta and green (a*, negative values indicate green while positive values indicate magenta) and its position between yellow and blue (b*, negative values indicate blue and positive values indicate yellow). The Lab color model has been created to serve as a device independent model to be used as a reference. Therefore it is crucial to realize that the visual representations of the full gamut of colors in this model are never accurate. They are there just to help in understanding the concept, but they are inherently inaccurate. Since the Lab model is a three dimensional model, it can only be represented properly in a three dimensional space.See: CIE 1976 L*, a*, b* Color Space (CIELAB)
So in a sense we have developed "a method" by which application of color in this case would be used. Is it highly subjective in one's own case without some kind of metered measure and one would have to consider, by which consensus such a model would be applied(production of specific colours chemically induced for instance) to have a desired effect.

Evan Grant Making sound visible through cymatics

I give this link above in order to establish that sound can have an architectural correlation in terms of a vibrational signature. Has a qualitative signature of sorts.So for me as I moved ahead in this blog format it was important for me to see how sound can be used.
Space, we all know what it looks like. We've been surrounded by images of space our whole lives, from the speculative images of science fiction to the inspirational visions of artists to the increasingly beautiful pictures made possible by complex technologies. But whilst we have an overwhelmingly vivid visual understanding of space, we have no sense of what space sounds like.Honor Harger: A history of the universe in sound
So while one might consider colorimetric space here one might convert such a space to what every point in that space represents in terms of a color? So you devise parameters.
Gravity is usually measured in units of acceleration. In the SI system of units, the standard unit of acceleration is 1 metre per second squared (abbreviated as m/s2). Other units include the gal (sometimes known as a galileo, in either case with symbol Gal), which equals 1 centimetre per second squared, and the g (gn), equal to 9.80665 m/s2. The value of the gn approximately equals the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface (although the actual acceleration g varies fractionally from place to place). See: Gravimetry
It’s just a matter of lasers and mirrors, but using Michelson’s 19th-century techniques and LIGO’s 21st-century technology, scientists will soon “hear” a phenomenon first predicted by Einstein’s famous 20th-century theory.See: LIGO 02

## Saturday, April 06, 2013

### AEREO's Antenna

The Antenna- We're sorry but you are not currently located within Aereo's market area. Aereo is available exclusively in the New York City metropolitan area. Please come back and try again when you're in the area

Some of you who have been following my blog entries might have seen some correspondence with regard to Fractals and Antennas and The Economy

Consumers have the right to access broadcast television for free via an antenna because the public owns the airwaves.  Use of that valuable spectrum is licensed by the public to the broadcasters with the obligation that broadcasters must operate in the “public interest, convenience, and necessity.” See: Innovation, Progress and Consumer Choice

By studying some of the back ground information here you might have seen and understood what AEREO has done.

See: SECOND CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS UPHOLDS DISTRICT COURT DECISION IN FAVOR OF AEREO

Aereo is a technology company based in New York City that allows subscribers to view live as well as time-shifted streams of over-the-air television on Internet-connected devices.[1] The service launched in February 2012[2] and is backed by Barry Diller's IAC.[3] Immediately following Aereo's launch in New York City the company was sued by a consortium of major broadcasters, including CBS, NBCUniversal, Disney's ABC and Newscorp's Fox for copyright infringement.

## Service

An array of Aereo antennas. Each antenna is about the size of a coin.

Aereo's technology allows subscribers to view live broadcast content and to record it for later viewing.[4] As of October 2012, Aereo can be installed on Mac & PC [5] using a compatible browser, and iOS devices including the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch or Apple TV (2nd & 3rd Gen) via AirPlay.[1] A Roku video player can be used when one of the Apple mobile devices is also present.[5]

As of June 2012, the service offers 28 channels, including all major broadcast channels. In August 2012, the company announced new monthly and yearly pricing options, $1 a day and 'Aereo Try for Free.' Monthly plans start at$8 for 20 hours of DVR storage and $12 for 40 hours of storage. A yearly subscription is$80.[6]
The service is only available to customers in New York City. During times when customers venture out of the normal broadcasting range for network television in New York City, they will not be able to access the service.[4]

Aereo is able to provide this service by leasing to each user an individual remote antenna. Thousands of them are stored in a data center in Brooklyn where it also houses its data servers.[4][7][8] This distinguishes Aereo from purely internet-based streaming services.[9]

## Coverage

On January 8, 2013, Aereo CEO Chet Kanojia announced Spring 2013 plans to expand to the following US cities:[10]

## Legal controversy

On March 1, 2012, Aereo was sued by a consortium of network broadcasters who argued that Aereo infringed their copyrighted material because Aereo's streams constituted public performances. They sought a preliminary injunction against the company.[11][12] On July 11, Federal Judge Alison Nathan denied this injunction, citing as precedent the 2008 Cablevision case, which established the legality of cloud-based streaming and DVR services.[13] In response to the decision, Aereo Founder and CEO Chet Kanojia said “Today’s decision shows that when you are on the right side of the law, you can stand up, fight the Goliath and win.”[14] In a subsequent interview with CNET, Kanojia asserted, “With one step, we changed the entire TV industry. The television industry and its evolution are now starting towards the Internet and that was stopped until Aereo came along...And I think as consumers start migrating to the Internet, new programming and new content are going to come in.” [15] The plaintiffs appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Several other players in the industry, such as cable provider Cablevision, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the Consumer Electronics Association filed amicus briefs.[16]

Broadcasters argue that Aereo is a threat both to their business model, specifically the re-transmission fees that cable companies pay broadcasters for their content, and to their audience.[17] Because the fees cable companies pay for broadcast content can comprise up to 10% of a broadcaster's revenue,[18] broadcasters object to Aereo's re-distribution of this content without paying any fees. Broadcasters have also identified Aereo as part of the cord-cutting trend among TV audiences, and diminishing or aging audiences pose a threat to broadcasters' advertising revenue.[19]

On April 1, 2013, the federal appeals court upheld the lower court's ruling, finding that Aereo’s streams to subscribers were not "public performances", and thus did not constitute copyright infringement. The appeals court also affirmed the earlier district court decision that denied the broadcasters a preliminary injunction against Aereo.[20]

## Reception

Reviews of Aereo have been positive,[21][22][23][24] including one by The Wall Street Journal’s Katherine Boehret, who commented on Aereo’s “clean user interface that works well on iPad...and its video quality [that] is startlingly good,” [1]

PC Magazine gave the service a middling review. It complained of the limited channel options, limited availability, and high cost.[25] It did, however, praise the interoperability the service offered.

## References

1. ^ a b c Boehret, Katherine. "Aereo Shines With Live TV on the Go". Wall Street Journal.
2. ^
3. ^ Stelter, Brian. "New Service Will Stream Local TV Stations in New York". New York Times.
4. ^ a b c http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/05/21/aereo/
5. ^ a b Aereo Browser Viewing
6. ^ Warren, Christina. "Aereo Makes Cutting the Cord Even Easier, And Cheaper". Mashable. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
7. ^ Moskovciak, Matthew. "Aereo brings over-the-air TV to the cloud". CNET. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
8. ^ Stewart, Christopher. "High Noon for Diller's Aereo". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
9. ^ Fung, Amanda. "Tech startup wheels into ex-tire plant". Crains New York. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
10. ^ http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/08/aereo-raises-38-million-series-b-plans-to-bring-its-streaming-tv-service-to-22-new-markets/
11. ^ King, Cecilia. "Broadcasters sue to stop Diller’s Aereo streaming TV service". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
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