Sunday, December 30, 2012

General Thoughts About Schuman Response

The Tesla coil wireless transmitter
U.S. Patent 1,119,732

There might have been some confusion around what was implied here with regard to BB's(Binaural Beats) and the affective causation suggested by what I see as  inherent on a global level with regard to consciousness. I wrote," While it is of biological significance the BB's are in question here as one might wonder about schumann response on a global level. "

The first documented observations of global electromagnetic resonance were made by Nikola Tesla at his Colorado Springs laboratory in 1899. This observation led to certain conclusions about the electrical properties of the Earth, and which made the basis for his idea for wireless energy transmission.[6]

I mentioned  "the principal" as to imply historical content as to the idea of resource management attributions when it came to the realization that capital could be induced by fragmentation and allotting packets. These as salable items to the general public. This application,  is the basis of some of my complaints about what was already inherent and free in society. It only became a product once it was thought to being compartmentalize.

 With wireless power, efficiency is the more significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical

In this sense, electrical generation, other then use of wire transmission, was at the time, the only means as to the metering capable of being sold as a packet.

1904 image of Wardenclyffe Tower located in Shoreham, Long Island, New York. The 94 by 94 ft (29 m) brick building was designed by architect Stanford White.[1]

PURPOSE: To show the two-dimensional standing waves on the surface of a square or circular plate.

If we had seen and understood the early formation that begins with the understanding that all human beings are cross-wired before they modulate their existence within the framework of the reality. As given then,  one must assume such modulation is a frequency for the idea for such matters?

 See: Cymatics and the Heart Song 

Now before I begin here I want t share some understanding of the chaldni plates had one ever come across them,  as to imply that such resonances are activators for the current patterns inherent in the structure that one might see as demonstrated by bow, string and metal plate.

Herein too, I also supply the idea that there is "the agent,"  an affective idea that materialized from one of my journeys,  as to a time where effective polymerization "could have have been used" to set associative responses in the architecture of buildings. These were to correlate in the idea of this "harmonization structure" as seen as in BB's  choice entrainment,  as brain wave matter states.

Cell-Phone Technology

While considering transmission towers, the idea of energy being used to power has it's basis in the use of antenna to help boost the signal.

While this application is separate from the idea and use of electrical transmission,  it is of consequence that such companies in the use of their "fractal antennas" have specific frequencies with which they operate? Customers that are satisfied according to the plans you use.

If there was a consideration of the White Space that was free for our use in the television broadcasting system,  why was it not mandated that the public remain as a top priority in the access to information as a free and viable enhancement to our knowledge base?

 Access to books in the electric medium, as one would walk to the local library? Google,  it was a good plan.

Now in order to get to our local library,  transportation has been divvied up,  even to the ether as a viable means of charging for such transport.  It should have been a given that such pathways are and must remain a viable source of knowledge enhancement for the public and it's rise above the current constrictions that society has been contained too, by rulings of the international body on the internet?

Lubos, this is also for you just so you know where I am coming from. It is really not that scary once you've figured it out. You don't have to be a communist as to figure that what you can do as a scientist for the public is as if taken the oath as a medical doctor to do all you can do for your patient/individual in society. This is but to help bring society into the state of awareness that knowledge could lift any of us out of our ignorance.

See Also:

Friday, December 28, 2012

Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves

Tan Le's astonishing new computer interface reads its user's brainwaves, making it possible to control virtual objects, and even physical electronics, with mere thoughts (and a little concentration). She demos the headset, and talks about its far-reaching applications. Tan Le is the founder & CEO of Emotiv Lifescience, a bioinformatics company that's working on identifying biomarkers for mental and other neurological conditions using electroencephalography (EEG)Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves
See Tan Le Profile

A user wearing a wireless Emotiv EPOC headset.

Emotiv Systems is an Australian[1] electronics company developing brain–computer interfaces based on electroencephalography (EEG) technology. The company was founded in 2003 by four scientists and executives: neuroscientist Professor Allan Snyder, chip-designer Neil Weste,[2] and technology entrepreneurs Tan Le[3] and Nam Do.[4]

See :


Putting the Pieces Together

Okay, so here's the thing.

 I am not one to see benefit by using drugs in the personal exploration of attributes of consciousness. But, I do not deter myself from examining technically,  what is used,  as already being in existence,  to help with that exploration.

When thinking of Timothy Leary,  while I may not like his chemical journeys,  Leary using the, " Tibetan Book of the Dead as a guide book for LSD sessions."  I do like the idea of the deeper exploration of what has been handed down to us so as to examine consciousness as an experience in the telling of the Tibetan Book of the Dead reveals about life. The connotation when using the term death is to realize that consciousness is capable even in life to be foretelling about the journey we will all face one day.

While it may sound suspect that I have some bias towards life after death let's put that aside for the more critical examination of the experiences you have already had. I am not trying to substitute anything other then to consider the potential that already exists within our own selves.  About our present examinations and tallies of the day to day, and where we are going with the future in the examination of our own lives.

Also, while I may see to use technical means in order to deduce subjective states of existence,  it does not mean that what I have already experienced on my own is invalidated.  These technical means are simply used in order to reach "similar states" that are and have been experienced by me. Hopefully.

By identifying brain wave information and examining correlative information deduced from such states, it is of course of relevance to the times that such information is forth coming. By drawing correlative experiences by talking about "the Park" or, "Focus level states,"  this is to show that such states have relevance to the examination I am placing on brain waves states.

Also a link to examine "the Intent in the Actualized," to examine more deeply the correlative state that consciousness can experience by delving deeper into the meaning of one's dreams. What you are able to draw from it information wise. In that sense I explored the idea of time travel, as a means of identifying aspects of consciousness that I believe is capable of moving back in time to examine historical correlates. I am not saying it is true just that from a creative standpoint such explorations can be useful fodder for the examination of written material for a story perhaps. A story that you are inherently strongly attached too, as it arises from your exploration.

So in this sense,  I am using Binaural Beats to emphasize one such technical means to use in the exploration of consciousness.

In view of this apparent misappropriation of credit, it is worthwhile to take a careful chronological look at the superheterodyne, to see precisely how it was invented and how it was introduced into practice.Who Invented the Superheterodyne?


  •  Heterodyning is a radio signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden, in which new frequencies are created by combining or mixing two frequencies.[1][2][3] Heterodyning is useful for frequency shifting signals into a new frequency range, and is also involved in the processes of modulation and demodulation.[2][4] The two frequencies are combined in a nonlinear signal-processing device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode, usually called a mixer.[2] In the most common application, two signals at frequencies f1 and f2 are mixed, creating two new signals, one at the sum f1 + f2 of the two frequencies, and the other at the difference f1 − f2.[3] These new frequencies are called heterodynes. Typically only one of the new frequencies is desired, and the other signal is filtered out of the output of the mixer. Heterodynes are closely related to the phenomenon of "beats" in music.
Binaural beat  are heard when the right ear listens to a slightly different tone than the left ear. Here, the tones do not interfere physically, but are summed by the brain in the olivary nucleus. This effect is related to the brain's ability to locate sounds in three dimensions.
 In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. They contain the olivary nuclei.

See Also:
 Comment At-

RBM- BB's are not a causative agent but a aid to an inherent ability.
I do not disagree with fact I am gathering other ways in which to help in that effort as they are being discovered.

Focus 15: A state of "no time" in which you explore beyond the constraints of time and place. Opportunities are abundant for establishing communication with larger aspects of self.

Focus 15 and the Park are specific as to the realization implied, by recognizing these attributes in self as possible.

There are others methods that are being gathered that may help in this understanding, as a means to an end as well.

In its original form, a dreamachine is made from a cylinder with slits cut in the sides. The cylinder is placed on a record turntable and rotated at 78 or 45 revolutions per minute. A light bulb is suspended in the center of the cylinder and the rotation speed allows the light to come out from the holes at a constant frequency of between 8 and 13 pulses per second. This frequency range corresponds to alpha waves, electrical oscillations normally present in the human brain while relaxing.[2]

This understanding has it's basis in what Tesla had to offer about wireless transmission in terms of "the principal."  A resonator, and what is attach to devices that come within the field. While it is of biological significance the BB's are in question here as one might wonder about schumann response on a global level.

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Merry Christmas

Also See Last Years Favorites: Google Gravity, Google Sphere, Askew

Note: When on Google gravity page and your search box is on the bottom.....type in

Compass and Scale Image of NGC 5189
Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
December 18, 2012: 'Tis the season for holiday decorating and tree-trimming. Not to be left out, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have photographed a festive-looking nearby planetary nebula called NGC 5189. The intricate structure of this bright gaseous nebula resembles a glass-blown holiday ornament with a glowing ribbon entwined. See: A Cosmic Holiday Ornament, Hubble-Style

Binaural beats by Wiki(updated April 2016)

A binaural beat is an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves, both with frequencies lower than 1500 Hz, with less than a 40 Hz difference between them, are presented to a listener dichotically, that is one through each ear.[1] For example, if a 530 Hz pure tone is presented to a subject's right ear, while a 520 Hz pure tone is presented to the subject's left ear, the listener will perceive the auditory illusion of a third tone, in addition to the two pure-tones presented to each ear. The third sound is called a binaural beat, and in this example would have a perceived pitch correlating to a frequency of 10 Hz, that being the difference between the 530 Hz and 520 Hz pure tones presented to each ear.[2]





The term 'binaural' literally signifies 'to hear with two ears', and was introduced in 1859 to signify the practice of listening to the same sound through both ears, or to two discrete sounds, one through each ear. It was not until 1916 that Carl Stumpf (1848-1936), a German philosopher and psychologist, distinguished between dichotic listening, which refers to the stimulation of each ear with a different stimulus, and diotic listening, the simultaneous stimulation of both ears with the same stimulus.[3][4]

Later, it would be become apparent that binaural hearing, whether dichotic or diotic, is the means by which the geolocation and direction of a sound is determined.[5][6]

Scientific consideration of binaural hearing began before the phenomenon was so named, with the ideas articulated in 1792 by William Charles Wells (1757–1817), a Scottish-American printer, and physician at Saint Thomas' Hospital, London. Wells sought to theoretically examine and explain aspects of human hearing, including the way in which listening with two ears rather than one might affect the perception of sound, which proceeded from his research into binocular vision.[7][8]

Subsequently, between 1796 and 1802, Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746 - 1822), an Italian physicist, savant, man of letters, diplomat, and historian of science, conducted and described a series of experiments intended to elucidate the nature of binaural hearing.[9][10][11][12] It was in an appendix to a monograph on color that Venturi described experiments on auditory localization using one or two ears, concluding that "the inequality of the two impressions, which are perceived at the same time by both ears, determines the correct direction of the sound."[13][14]

However, none of Venturi's contemporaries at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries considered his original work worthy of citation or attention, with the exception of Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756–1827), a German physicist and musician, who is widely cited as the father of acoustics. After investigating the behavior of vibrating strings and plates, and examining the way in which sound appeared to be perceived, Chladni acknowledged Venturi's work, agreeing with him that the ability to determine the location, and direction of sound depended upon detected differences in a sound between both ears, including amplitude and frequency, subsequently denoted by the term 'interaural differences'.[15][16][17]

Other significant historic investigations into binaural hearing include those of Charles Wheatstone (1802–1875), an English scientist, whose many inventions included the concertina and the stereoscope, Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795–1878), a German physician cited as one of the founders of experimental psychology; and August Seebeck (1805–1849), a scientist at the Technische Universität, Dresden, remembered for his work on sound and hearing. Like Wells, these researchers attempted to compare and contrast what would become known as binaural hearing with the principles of binocular integration generally, and binocular color mixing specifically. They found that binocular vision did not follow the laws of combination of colors from different bands of the spectrum. Rather, it was found that when presenting a different color to each eye, they did not combine, but often competed for perceptual attention.[18][19][20][21]

Meanwhile, of Wheatstone conducted experiments in which he presented a different tuning fork to each ear, stating:

It is well known, that when two consonant sounds are heard together, a third sound results from the coincidences of their vibrations; and that this third sound, which is called the grave harmonic, is always equal to unity, when the two primitive sounds are represented by the lowest integral numbers. This being premised, select two tuning-forks the sounds of which differ by any consonant interval excepting the octave; place the broad sides of their branches, while in vibration, close to one ear, in such a manner that they shall nearly touch at the acoustic axis; the resulting grave harmonic will then be strongly audible, combined with the two other sounds; place afterwards one fork to each ear, and the consonance will be heard much richer in volume, but no audible indications whatever of the third sound will be perceived.[22]

Wheatstone's reference to the perceptual fusion of harmonically related tones were directly related to the principles examined by Wells. However, both their observations were ignored and remained uncited by contemporaraneous and subsequent German researchers of the following decades.
Venturi's experiments were repeated and confirmed by Lord Rayleigh (1842–1919), almost seventy-five years later.[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Other investigators of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, who were contemporaries of Lord Rayleigh, also investigated the significance of binaural hearing. These included Louis Trenchard More (1870-1944), a professor of physics, and Harry Shipley Fry (1878-1949), a lecturer in chemistry, both at the University of Cincinnati; H. A. Wilson and Charles Samuel Myers, both professors of science at King's College London; and Alfred M. Mayer (1836 - 1897), an American physicist, each of whom conducted experimental investigations with intent to discover the means by which human subjects ascertain the location, origin, and direction of sound, believing this to be in some way dependent on dichotic hearing, that is listening to sound through both ears.[31][32][33][34]

Understanding of how the difference in sound signal between two ears contributes to auditory processing in such a way as to enable the location and direction of sound to be determined was considerably advanced after the invention of the differential stethophone by Somerville Scott Alison in 1859, who coined the term 'binaural'. Alison based his stethophone on the stethoscope, a previous invention of René Théophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781–1826).[35]

Unlike the stethoscope, which had only a single sound-source piece placed upon the chest, Alison's stethophone had two separate ones, allowing the user to hear and compare sounds derived from two discreet locations. This allowed a physician to identify the source of a sound through the process of binaural hearing. Subsequently, Alison referred to his invention as a 'binaural stethoscope', describing it as:

…an instrument consisting of two hearing-tubes, or trumpets, or stethoscopes, provided with collecting-cups and ear-knobs, one for each ear respectively. The two tubes are, for convenience, mechanically combined, but may be said to be acoustically separate, as care is taken that the sound, once admitted into one tube, is not communicated to the other.[36][37]




Cortical Oscillation and Electroencephalography (EEG)

The activity of neurons generate electric currents; and the synchronous action of neural ensembles in the cerebral cortex, comprising large numbers of neurons, produce macroscopic oscillations, which can be monitored and graphically documented by an electroencephalogram (EEG). The electroencephalographic representations of those oscillations are typically denoted by the term 'brainwaves' in common parlance.[38][39]

Neural oscillations are rhythmic or repetitive electrochemical activity in the brain and central nervous system. Such oscillations can be characterized by their frequency, amplitude and phase. Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity driven by mechanisms within individual neurons, as well as by interactions between them. They may also adjust frequency to synchronize with the periodicity of an external acoustic or visual stimuli.[40]

The technique of recording neural electrical activity within the brain from electrochemical readings taken from the scalp originated with the experiments of Richard Caton in 1875, whose findings were developed into electroencephalography (EEG) by Hans Berger in the late 1920s.


Frequency bands of cortical neural ensembles

The fluctuating frequency of oscillations generated by the synchronous activity of cortical neurons, measurable with an electroencephalogram (EEG), via electrodes attached to the scalp, are conveniently categorized into general bands, in order of decreasing frequency, measured in Hertz (HZ) as follows:[41][42]

In addition, three further wave forms are often delineated in electroencephalographic studies:

It was Berger who first described the frequency bands Delta, Theta, Alpha, and Beta.


Neurophysiological origin of binaural beat perception

Binaural-beat perception originates in the inferior colliculus of the midbrain and the superior olivary complex of the brainstem, where auditory signals from each ear are integrated and precipitate electrical impulses along neural pathways through the reticular formation up the midbrain to the thalamus, auditory cortex, and other cortical regions.[44][45][46][47]


Neural oscillations and mental state

Following the technique of measuring such brainwaves by Berger, there has remained a ubiquitous consensus that electroencephalogram (EEG) readings depict brainwave wave form patterns that alter over time, and correlate with the aspects of the subject's mental and emotional state, mental status, and degree of consciousness and vigilance.[48][49][50] It is therefore now established and accepted that discreet electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements, including frequency and amplitude of neural oscillations, correlate with different perceptual, motor and cognitive states.[51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]

Furthermore, brainwaves alter in response to changes in environmental stimuli, including sound and music; and while the degree and nature of alteration is partially dependent on individual perception, such that the same stimulus may precipitate differing changes in neural oscillations and correlating electroencephalogram (EEG) readings in different subjects, the frequency of cortical neural oscillations, as measured by the EEG, has also been shown to synchronize with or entrain to that of an external acoustic or photic stimulus, with accompanying alterations in cognitive and emotional state. This process is called neuronal entrainment or brainwave entrainment.




Meaning and Origin of the Term 'Entrainment'

Entrainment is a term originally derived from complex systems theory, and denotes the way that two or more independent, autonomous oscillators with differing rhythms or frequencies, when situated in a context and at a proximity where they can interact for long enough, influence each other mutually, to a degree dependent on coupling force, such that they adjust until both oscillate with the same frequency. Examples include the mechanical entrainment or cyclic synchronization of two electric clothes dryers placed in close proximity, and the biological entrainment evident in the synchronized illumination of fireflies.[62]

Entrainment is a concept first identified by the Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens in 1665 who discovered the phenomenon during an experiment with pendulum clocks: He set them each in motion and found that when he returned the next day, the sway of their pendulums had all synchronized.[63]

Such entrainment occurs because small amounts of energy are transferred between the two systems when they are out of phase in such a way as to produce negative feedback. As they assume a more stable phase relationship, the amount of energy gradually reduces to zero, with system of greater frequency slowing down, and the other speeding up.[64]

Subsequently, the term 'entrainment' has been used to describe a shared tendency of many physical and biological systems to synchronize their periodicity and rhythm through interaction. This tendency has been identified as specifically pertinent to the study of sound and music generally, and acoustic rhythms specifically. The most ubiquitous and familiar examples of neuromotor entrainment to acoustic stimuli is observable in spontaneous foot or finger tapping to the rhythmic beat of a song.


Exogenous entrainment

Exogenous rhythmic entrainment, which occurs outside the body, has been identified and documented for a variety of human activities, which include the way people adjust the rhythm of their speech patterns to those of the subject with whom they communicate, and the rhythmic unison of an audience clapping.[65]

Even among groups of strangers, the rate of breathing, locomotive and subtle expressive motor movements, and rhythmic speech patterns have been observed to synchronize and entrain, in response to an auditory stimuli, such as a piece of music with a consistent rhythm.[66][67][68][69][70][71][72] Furthermore, motor synchronization to repetitive tactile stimuli occurs in animals, including cats and monkeys as well as humans, with accompanying shifts in electroencephalogram (EEG) readings.[73][74][75][76][77]


Endogenous entrainment

Examples of endogenous entrainment, which occurs within the body, include the synchronizing of human circadian sleep-wake cycles to the 24-hour cycle of light and dark.[78] and the synchronization of a heartbeat to a cardiac pacemaker.[79]


Brainwave entrainment

Main article: Brainwave entrainment

Brainwaves, or neural oscillations, share the fundamental constituents with acoustic and optical wave forms, including frequency, amplitude, and periodicity. Consequently, Huygens' discovery precipitated inquiry into whether or not the synchronous electrical activity of cortical neural ensembles might not only alter in response to external acoustic or optical stimuli but also entrain or synchronize their frequency to that of a specific stimulus.[80][81][82][83]

Brainwave entrainment is a colloquialism for such 'neural entrainment', which is a term used to denote the way in which the aggregate frequency of oscillations produced by the synchronous electrical activity in ensembles of cortical neurons can adjust to synchronize with the periodicity of an external stimuli, such as a sustained acoustic frequency perceived as pitch, a regularly repeating pattern of intermittent sounds, perceived as rhythm, or a regularly rhythmically intermittent flashing light.


The frequency following response and auditory driving

The hypothesized entrainment of neural oscillations to the frequency of an acoustic stimulus occurs by way of the Frequency following response (FFR), also referred to as Frequency Following Potential (FFP). The use of sound with intent to influence brainwave cortical brainwave frequency is called auditory driving.[84][85]
Auditory driving refers to the hypothesized ability for repetitive rhythmic auditory stimuli to 'drive' neural electric activity to entrain with it. By the principles of such hypotheses, it is proposed that, for example, a subject who hears drum rhythms at 8 beats per second, will be influenced such that an electroencephalogram (EEG) reading will show an increase brainwave activity at 8 Hz range, in the upper theta, lower alpha band.


Binaural beats and neural entrainment

One of the problems inherent in any scientific investigation conducted in order to ascertain whether brainwaves can entrain to the frequency of an acoustic stimulus is that human subjects rarely hear frequencies below 20 Hz, which is exactly the range of Delta, Theta, Alpha, and low to mid Beta brainwaves.[86][87] Among the methods by which some investigations have sought to overcome this problem is to measure electroencephalogram (EEG) readings of a subject while he or she listens to binaural beats. Subsequent to such investigations, there is significant evidence to show that such listening precipitates auditory driving by which ensembles of cortical neurons entrain their frequencies to that of the binaural beat, with associated changes in self-reported subjective experience of emotional and cognitive state.[88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103]


Binaural beats and music

Many of the aforementioned reports are based on the use of auditory stimuli that combines binaural beats with other sounds, including music and verbal guidance. This consequently precludes the attribution of any influence on or positive outcome for the listener specifically to the perception of the binaural beats.[104] Very few studies have sought to isolate the effect of binaural beats on listeners. However, initial findings in one experiment suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an influence on both Low Frequency and High

Frequency components of heart rate variability, and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.[105]
Notwithstanding this problem, a review of research findings suggest that listening to music and sound can modulate autonomic arousal through entrainment of neural oscillations. Furthermore, music generally, and rhythmic patterns, such as those produced by percussive performance including drumming specifically, have been shown to influence arousal ergotropically and trophotropically, increasing and decreasing arousal respectively.[106] Such auditory stimulation has been demonstrated to improve immune function, facilitate relaxation, improve mood, and contribute to the alleviation of stress.[107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114]

Meanwhile, the therapeutic benefits of listening to sound and music, whether or not the outcome can be attributed to neural entrainment, is a well-established principle upon which the practice of receptive music therapy is founded. The term 'receptive music therapy' denotes a process by which patients or participants listen to music with specific intent to therapeutically benefit; and is a term used by therapists to distinguish it from 'active music therapy' by which patients or participants engage in producing vocal or instrumental music.[115]

Receptive music therapy is an effective adjunctive intervention suitable for treating a range of physical and mental conditions.[116]

Meanwhile, the evident changes in neural oscillations precipitated by listening to music, which are demonstrable through electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements,[117][118][119][120][121][122] have contributed to the development of neurologic music therapy, which uses music and song as an active and receptive intervention, to contribute to the treatment and management of disorders characterized by impairment to parts of the brain and central nervous system, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, cerebral palsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism.[123][124][125]


Non ordinary states of consciousness

Historically, music generally, and percussive performance specifically was and remains integral to ritual ceremony and spiritual practice among early and indigenous peoples and their descendants, where it is often used to induce the non ordinary state of consciousness (NOSC) believed by participants to be a requisite for communication with spiritual energies and entities.[126][127]

While there is no scientific evidence for existence of such energy or entities, and thereby nor the human capacity to communicate with them, the findings of some contemporary research suggests that listening to rhythmic sounds, especially percussion, can induce the subjective experience of a non ordinary states of consciousness (NOSC), with correlating electroencephalogram (EEG) profiles comparable to those associated with some forms of meditation, while also increasing the susceptibility to hypnosis.[128][129][130][131] Specifically, some investigations show that the electroencephalogram (EEG) readings attained while a subject is meditating are comparable to those taken while he or she is listening to binaural beats, characterized by increased activity in the Alpha and Theta bands.[132][133][134][135][136]


See also



  • McConnell, P. A., Froeliger, B., Garland, E. L., Ives, J. C., & Sforzo, G. A., Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5, p2014.
  • Draganova R., Ross B., Wollbrink A., Pantev C. (2008). Cortical steady-state responses to central and peripheral auditory beats. Cerebral Cortex Vol. 18, 2008, pp1193–1200.
  • Stumpf, C., Binaurale Tonmischung, Mehrheitsschwelle und Mitteltonbildung, Zeitschrift für Psychologie Vol. 75, 1916, pp330-350.
  • Wade, N. J. and Ono, H., From dichoptic to dichotic: historical contrasts between binocular vision and binaural hearing, Perception Vol. 34, 2005, pp645-668.
  • Beyer, R. T., Sounds of Our Times: Two Hundred Years of Acoustics. Mellville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1998.
  • Alison, S. S., On the differential stethophone, and some new phenomena observed by it, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 9,1859, pp196-209.
  • Wells, W. C., An Essay upon Single Vision with two Eyes: together with Experiments and Observations on several other Subjects in Optics. London: Cadell, 1792.
  • Wade, N. J., Destined for Distinguished Oblivion: The Scientific Vision of William Charles Wells (1757-1817). New York, NY: Kluwer-Plenum, 2003.
  • Venturi, J. B., Considérations sur la connaissance de l’étendue que nous donne le sens de l’ouïe,”Magasin Encyclopédique, ou Journal des Sciences, des Lettres et des Arts 3, 1796, pp29-37.
  • Venturi, J. B., Betrachtungen über die Erkenntniss des Raums durch den Sinn des Gohörs,” Magazin für den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde 2, 1800, pp1-16.
  • Venturi, J. B., Riflessioni sulla conoscenza dello spazio, che noi possiamo ricavar dall’udito, in Indagine Fisica sui Colori by G. Venturi (Tipografica, Modena), 1801, pp. 133-149.
  • Venturi, J. B., Betrachtungen über die Erkenntniss der Entfernung, die wir durch das Werkzeug des Gehörs erhalten,” Archiv für die Physiologie 5, 1802, pp383-392.
  • Venturi, J. B., Riflessioni sulla conoscenza dello spazio, che noi possiamo ricavar dall’udito, in Indagine Fisica sui Colori by G. Venturi (Tipografica, Modena), 1801, pp. 133-149.
  • Venturi, J. B., Betrachtungen über die Erkenntniss der Entfernung, die wir durch das Werkzeug des Gehörs erhalten,” Archiv für die Physiologie 5, 1802, pp383-392.
  • Chladni, E. F. F., Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klanges. Leipzig : Weidmanns Erben und Reich, 1787.

  • Chladni, E. F. F., Die Akustik. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1802.
  • Chladni, E. F. F., Traité d’Acoustique (Paris: Courcier, 1809.
  • Seebeck, A., Beiträge zur Physiologie des Gehör- und Gesichtssinnes, Annalen der Physik und Chemie Vol. 68, 1846, pp449-465.
  • Wade, N. J., Destined for Distinguished Oblivion: The Scientific Vision of William Charles Wells (1757-1817). New York, NY: Kluwer-Plenum, 2003.
  • Wade, N. J., A Natural History of Vision, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.
  • Wade, N. J. and Ono, H., From dichoptic to dichotic: historical contrasts between binocular vision and binaural hearing, Perception Vol. 34, 2005, pp645-668.
  • Wheatstone, C., Experiments on audition, Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and Art, Vol. 24, 1827, pp67-72.
  • Lord Rayleigh, Our perception of the direction of a source of sound, Nature Vol. 7, 1876, pp32-33.
  • Lord Rayleigh, On Our Perception of the Direotion of a Source of Sound. Proceedings of the Musical Association, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1875, pp75-84.
  • Lord Rayleigh, Acoustical observations. III. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 9, No. 56, 1880, pp278-283.
  • Lord Rayleigh, On our perception of sound direction, Philosophical Magazine, Series 6, Vol. 13, No. 74, 1907, pp214-232.
  • Lord Rayleigh, Acoustical notes, Philosophical Magazine, Series 6, Vol. 13, No. 75, 1907, pp316-333.
  • Lord Rayleigh, Acoustical observations. Philosophical Magazine Series 5, Vol. 3, No. 20, 1877, pp.456-464.
  • Lord Rayleigh, Acoustical observations, The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol. 9, No. 56, 1880, pp278-283.
  • Lord Rayleigh, Acoustical observations, Philosophical Magazine, Series 5, Vol. 13, No. 82, 1882, pp340-347.
  • Beyer, R. T., Sounds of Our Times: Two Hundred Years of Acoustics. Mellville, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1998.
  • More, L. T. and Fry, H. S., On the appreciation of difference of phase of sound-waves, Philosophical Magazine, Series 6, Vol. 13, No. 76, 1907, pp452-459.
  • Wilson, H. A. and Myers, C. S., The influence of binaural phase differences on the localisation of sounds, British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1908, pp363–385.
  • Mayer, A. M., Researches in acoustics, Philosophical Magazine, Series 4, Vol. 49, No. 326, 1875, pp352-365.
  • Laennec, R. T. H., Traité de l'Auscultation Médiate. Paris: Chaudé, 1819.
  • Alison, S. S., The physical examination of the chest in pulmonary consumption and its intercurrent diseases. British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review 28, 1861, pp145-154.
  • Alison, S. S., On the differential stethophone, and some new phenomena observed by it, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 9,1859, pp196-209.
  • da Silva, F. L., Neural mechanisms underlying brain waves: from neural membranes to networks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 79, No. 2, 1991, pp81-93.
  • Cooper, R., Winter, A., Crow, H., and Walter, W. G., Comparison of subcortical, cortical, and scalp activity using chronically indwelling electrodes in man. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 18, 1965, pp217–230.
  • Niedermeyer E. and da Silva F.L., Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields. Lippincot Williams & Wilkins, 2004.
  • da Silva, F. H., and van Leeuwan, W., The cortical alpha rhythm in and the depth and surface profile of phase. In Brazier, M. A. B. and Petsche, H., (Eds.), Architectonics of the Cerebral Cortex. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1978.
  • da Silva, F. H., Neural mechanism underlying brain waves: From neural membranes to networks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 79, 1991, pp81–93.
  • Deuschl, G., and Eisen, A., Recommendations for the practice of clinical neurophysiology. Guidelines of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology Supplement, 1999.
  • Smith J. C., Marsh J. T. and Brown W. S. Far-field recorded frequency-following responses: evidence for the locus of brainstem sources. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. Vol., 1975, pp465–472.
  • Oster, G., Auditory beats in the brain. Scientific American, Vol. 229, No. 4, 1973, pp94-102.
  • Swann R., Bosanko S., Cohen R., Midgley R., Seed K. M.,The Brain - A User’s Manual. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam and Sons, 1982.
  • Draganova R., Ross B., Wollbrink A., Pantev C., Cortical steady-state responses to central and peripheral auditory beats. Cerebral Cortex Vol. 18, 2008, pp1193-1200.
  • Trzepacz, P. T., and Baker, R. W., The psychiatric mental status examination. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Engel, A. K., and Singer, W., Temporal binding and the neural correlates of sensory awareness. Trends in cognitive sciences, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2001, pp16-25.
  • Varela, F., Lachaux, J. P., Rodriguez, E., and Martinerie, J.,The brainweb: phase synchronization and large-scale integration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2001, pp229-239.
  • Anokhin, A. P., Lutzenberger, W., and Birbaumer, N., Spatiotemporal organization of brain dynamics and intelligence: An EEG study in adolescents. The International Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 33, 1999, pp259–273.
  • Başar, E., Başar-Eroglu, C., Karakas, S., and Schürmann, M., Brain oscillations in perception and memory. International Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 35, 2000, pp95–124.
  • Burgess, A. P., and Gruzelier, J. H., Short duration synchronization of human theta rhythm during recognition memory. NeuroReport, 8, 1997, pp1039-1042.
  • Eckhorn, R., Bauer, R., Jordan, W., Brosch, M., Kruse, W., Munk, M., and Reitboeck, H. J., Coherent oscillations: A mechanism of feature linking in the visual cortex? Multiple electrode and correlation analyses in the cat. Biological Cybernetics, Vol. 60, 1988, pp121–130.
  • Engel, A. K., Konig, P., Kreiter, A. K., & Singer, W., Interhemispheric synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in cat visual cortex. Nature, Vol. 252, 1991, pp1177-1179.
  • Klimesch, W., EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: A review and analysis. Brain Research Reviews, Vol. 29, 1999, pp169-195.
  • Klimesch, W., Schimke, H., & Schwaiger, J., Episodic and semantic memory: An analysis in the EEG theta and alpha band. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 91, 1994, pp428-441.
  • Miltner, W. H. R., Braun, C., Arnold, M., Witte, M., and Taub, E., Coherence of gamma-band EEG activity as a basis for associative learning. Nature, Vol. 397, 1999, pp434-436.
  • Rodriguez, E., George, N., Lachaux, J., Martinerie, J., Renault, B., and Varela, F., Perceptions shadow: Long-distance synchronization of human brain activity. Nature, Vol. 397, 1999, pp430–433.
  • Tallon-Baudry, C., Bertrand, O., and Fischer, C., Oscillatory synchrony between human extrastriate areas during visual short-term memory maintenance. Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 21, No. 15, 2001, RC177.
  • Tallon, C., Bertrand, O., Bouchet, P., and Pernier, J. (1995). Gamma-range activity evoked by coherent visual stimuli in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 7, 1995, pp1285-1291.
  • Néda, Z., Ravasz, E., Brechet, Y., Vicsek, T., & Barabsi, A. L., Self-organizing process: The sound of many hands clapping. Nature, Vol. 403, 2000, pp849–850.
  • Pantaleone, J., Synchronization of Metronomes. American Journal of Physics, Vol. 70, 2002 pp992–1000.
  • Bennett, M., Schatz, M. F., Rockwood, H., and Wiesenfeld, K., Huygens's clocks. Proceedings: Mathematics, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2002, pp563-579.
  • Néda, Z., Ravasz, E., Brechet, Y., Vicsek, T., & Barabsi, A. L., Self-organizing process: The sound of many hands clapping. Nature, Vol. 403, 2000, pp849–850.
  • Haas, F., Distenfeld, S., & Axen, K., Effects of perceived musical rhythm on respiratory pattern. Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 61, No. 3, 1986, pp1185–1191.
  • Safranek, M., Koshland, G., and Raymond, G., Effect of auditory rhythm on muscle activity. Physical Therapy, Vol. 62, 1982, pp161–168.
  • Thaut, M.H., Schleiffers, S., and Davis, W.B., Changes in EMG patterns under the influence of auditory rhythm. In Spintge, R. and Droh, R. (Eds.), Music Medicine St. Louis, MO: MMB Music, 1992.
  • Thaut, M. H., McIntosh, G. C., Prassas, S. G., and Rice, R. R., Effect of rhythmic cuing on temporal stride parameters and EMG patterns in hemiparetic stroke patients. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, Vol. 7, 1993, pp9–16.
  • Thaut, M., McIntosh, G., Prassas, S., and Rice, R., Effect of rhythmic cuing on temporal stride parameters and EMG patterns in normal gait. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, Vol. 6, 1992, pp185–190.
  • McIntosh, G.C., Thaut, M.H., and Rice, R.R., 1996. Rhythmic auditory stimulation as entrainment and therapy technique in gait of stroke and Parkinson’s disease patients. In Pratt, R. and. Spintge, R., (Eds.), Music Medicine. St. Louis, MO: MMB Music, 1996.
  • Condon, W. S., Multiple response to sound in dysfunctional children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1975, p43.
  • Pompeiano, O., and Swett, J. E., EEG and behavioral manifestations of sleep induced by cutaneous nerve stimulation in normal cats. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, Vol. 100, 1962, pp311–342.
  • Walter, D. O., and Adey, W. R., Linear and nonlinear mechanisms of brainwave generation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 128, 1966, pp772–780.
  • Namerow, N. S., Sclabassi, R. J., and Enns, N. F., Somatosensory responses to stimulus trains: Normative data. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 37, 1974, pp11–21.
  • Gavalas, R. J., Walter, D. O., Hamer, J., and Adey, W. R., Effects of low-level, low-frequency electric fields on EEG and behavior in Macaca uemestriua. Brain Research, Vol. 18, 1970, pp491–501.
  • Buzsáki, G., Rhythms of the Brain. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Clayton M., Sager R., and Will U., In time with the music: the concept of entrainment and its significance for ethnomusicology. In European Meetings in Ethnomusicology Vol. 11, 2005, pp3-142.
  • Cvetkovic D., Powers R., and Cosic I., Preliminary evaluation of electroencephalographic entrainment using thalamocortical modelling. Expert Systems, Vol. 26, 2009, pp320-338.
  • Will, U., and Berg, E., Brainwave synchronization and entrainment to periodic stimuli. Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 424, 2007, pp55–60.
  • Cade, G. M. and Coxhead, F., The awakened mind, biofeedback and the development of higher states of awareness. New York, NY: Delacorte Press, 1979.
  • Neher, A., Auditory driving observed with scalp electrodes in normal subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 13, 1961, pp449–451.
  • Zakharova, N. N., and Avdeev, V. M., Functional changes in the central nervous system during music perception. Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deiatelnosti imeni IP Pavlova Vol. 32, No. 5, 1981, pp915-924.
  • Burkard, R., Don, M., and Eggermont, J. J., Auditory evoked potentials: Basic principles and clinical application. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
  • Worden, F.G.; Marsh, J.T., Frequency-following (microphonic-like) neural responses evoked by sound. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology Vol. 25, No. 1, 1968, pp42–52.
  • Rosen, S. and Howell, P., Signals and Systems for Speech and Hearing. Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2001.
  • Rossing, T., (2007). Springer Handbook of Acoustics. Berlin, Springer: 2007.
  • Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C., and Zwickey, H., Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2007, pp25-32.
  • Becher, A. K., Höhne, M., Axmacher, N., Chaieb, L., Elger, C. E., and Fell, J., Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2015, pp254-263.
  • Solcà, M., Mottaz, A., and Guggisberg, A. G, Binaural beats increase interhemispheric alpha-band coherence between auditory cortices. Hearing research, 2015.
  • Guruprasath, G., and Gnanavel, S., Effect of continuous and short burst binaural beats on EEG signals. In Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), 2015 International Conference, 2015, IEEE.
  • Jirakittayakorn, N., and Wongsawat, Y., The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2015.
  • Becher, A. K., Höhne, M., Axmacher, N., Chaieb, L., Elger, C. E., and Fell, J. (2015). Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2015, pp254-263.
  • Mihajloski, T. (2015). Characterization of Auditory Evoked Potentials From Transient Binaural beats Generated by Frequency Modulating Sound Stimuli. Doctoral Thesis, University of Miami, 2015.
  • Becher, A. K., Höhne, M., Axmacher, N., Chaieb, L., Elger, C. E., and Fell, J., Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2015, pp254-263.
  • Vernon, D., Peryer, G., Louch, J., and Shaw, M.,Tracking EEG changes in response to alpha and beta binaural beats. International Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 93, No. 1, 2014, pp134-139.
  • Gao, X., Cao, H., Ming, D., Qi, H., Wang, X., Wang, X., ... and Zhou, P., Analysis of EEG activity in response to binaural beats with different frequencies. International Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2014, pp399-406.
  • Forster, J., Bader, L., Heßler, S., Roesler, O., and Suendermann, D. A., First Step Towards Binaural Beat Classification Using Multiple EEG Devices. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Applied Informatics for Health and Life Sciences, Kusadasi, Turkey, October 2014.
  • On, F. R., Jailani, R., Norhazman, H., and Zaini, N. M., Binaural beat effect on brainwaves based on EEG. In Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA), 2013 IEEE 9th International Colloquium, 2013, IEEE.
  • Kasprzak, C. (2011). Influence of binaural beats on EEG signal. Acta physica polonica, Vol. 119, No. 6A, 2011, pp986-990.
  • Pratt, H., Starr, A., Michalewski, H. J., Dimitrijevic, A., Bleich, N., and Mittelman, N., Cortical evoked potentials to an auditory illusion: binaural beats. Clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 120, No. 8, 2009, pp1514-1524.
  • Karino, S., Yumoto, M., Itoh, K., Uno, A., Yamakawa, K., Sekimoto, S., and Kaga, K. (2006). Neuromagnetic responses to binaural beat in human cerebral cortex. Journal of neurophysiology, Vol. 96, No. 4, 2006, pp1927-1938.
  • Cvetkovic, D., Cosic, I., and Djuwari, D.,The induced rhythmic oscillations of neural activity in the human brain. In Proceedings of IASTED (Biomedical Engineering), 2004.
  • McConnell, P. A., Froeliger, B., Garland, E. L., Ives, J. C., & Sforzo, G. A., Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5, 2014.
  • McConnell, P. A., Froeliger, B., Garland, E. L., Ives, J. C., & Sforzo, G. A., Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5, 2014.
  • Trost W. and Vuilleumier P., Rhythmic entrainment as a mechanism for emotion induction by music: a neurophysiological perspective. In The Emotional Power of Music: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Musical Arousal, Expression, and Social Control, Cochrane T., Fantini B., and Scherer K. R., (Eds.), Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2013, pp213–225.
  • Szabó, C., The effects of monotonous drumming on subjective experiences. Music Therapy Today, Vol. 1, 2004, 2004, pp. 1-9.
  • Bittman, B. B., Berk, L. S., Felten, D. L., Westengard, J., Simonton, O. C., Pappas, J., and Ninehouser, M., Composite effects of group drumming music therapy on modulation of neuroendocrine-immune parameters in normal subjects. Alternative Therapeutic Health Medicine, Vol. 1, 2001, pp38–47.
  • Wachiuli, M., Koyama, M., Utsuyama, M., Bittman, B. B., Kitagawa, M., and Hirokawa, K., Recreational music-making modulates natural killer cell activity, cytokines, and mood states in corporate employees. Medical Science Monitor, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2007, CR57–70.

  • Bittman, B., Bruhn, K. T., Stevens, C., & Westengard, J., and Umbach, P. O., Recreational music-making: A cost-effective group interdisciplinary strategy for reducing burnout and improving mood states in long-term care workers. Advanced Mind Body Medicine, Vol. 19, Nos. 3-4, 2003, p16.
  • Bittman, B. B., Snyder, C., Bruhn, K. T., Liebfreid, F., Stevens, C. K., Westengard, J., and Umbach, P. O., Recreational music-making: An integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: Insights and economic impact. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, Vol. 1, Article 12, 2004.
  • Walton, K., and Levitsky, D., A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by transcendental meditation. In O’Connell, D. and Alexander, C. (Eds.), Self-recovery: Treating addictions using transcendental meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda. New York, NY: Haworth, 1994.
  • Szabó, C., The effects of monotonous drumming on subjective experiences. Music Therapy Today, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 1–9.
  • Winkelman, M., Complementary therapy for addiction: Drumming out drugs. The American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 93, 2003, pp647–651.
  • Bruscia, K., Defining music therapy. Barcelona: Gilsum, NH, 1998.
  • Grocke, D., and Wigram, T. (2007). Receptive methods in music therapy: Techniques and clinical applications for music therapy clinicians, educators, and students. London, England: Jessica Kingsley, 2007.
  • Wagner, M. J., Brainwaves and biofeedback. A brief history - Implications for music research. Journal of Music Therapy, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1975, pp46-58.
  • Fikejz, F., Influence of music on human electroencephalogram. In Applied Electronics (AE), International Conference, 2011.
  • Ogata, S., Human EEG responses to classical music and simulated white noise: effects of a musical loudness component on consciousness. Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol. 80, No. 3, 1995, pp779-790.
  • Lin, Y. P., Yang, Y. H., and Jung, T. P., Fusion of electroencephalographic dynamics and musical contents for estimating emotional responses in music listening. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 8, 2014.
  • Nakamura, S., Sadato, N., Oohashi, T., Nishina, E., Fuwamoto, Y., and Yonekura, Y., Analysis of music–brain interaction with simultaneous measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and electroencephalogram beta rhythm in human subjects. Neuroscience letters, Vol. 275, No. 3, 1999, pp222-226.
  • Karthick, N. G., Thajudin, A. V. I., and Joseph, P. K., Music and the EEG: a study using nonlinear methods. In Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, 2006. Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, International Conference, Singapore, 2006.
  • Thaut, M. H., Peterson, D. A., & McIntosh, G. C. (2005). Temporal entrainment of cognitive functions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060(1), 243-254
  • Thaut, M.,Training manual for neurologic music therapy. Colorado State University: Center for Biomedical Research in Music, 1999.
  • Thaut, M. H., Neurologic music therapy in cognitive rehabilitation. Music Perception, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2010, pp281-285.
  • Winkelman, M. (1997). Altered states of consciousness and religious behavior. In Glazier, S., (Ed.), Anthropology of Religion: A Handbook of Method and Theory. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.
  • Rouget, G., Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relations Between Music and Possession. Chicalgo, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
  • Maurer, R. L., Sr., Kumar, V. K., Woodside, L., and Pekala, R. J., Phenomenological experience in response to monotonous drumming and hypnotizability. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1997, pp130–145.
  •  Mandell, A., Toward a psychobiology of transcendence: God in the brain. In Davidson, D. and Davidson, R., (Eds.), The Psychobiology of Consciousness New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1980.

  • Winkelman, M., Shamanism: The Neural Ecology of Consciousness and Healing. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 2000.
  • Stevens, L., Haga, Z., Queen, B., Brady, B., Adams, D., Gilbert, J., and McManus, P., Binaural beat induced theta EEG activity and hypnotic susceptibility: contradictory results and technical considerations. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2003, pp295-309.
  • Yamsa-ard, T., and Wongsawat, Y., The observation of theta wave modulation on brain training by 5 Hz-binaural beat stimulation in seven days. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2015.
  • Gifari, M. W., Said, S. M., Lam, J., JALIL, N., and Supriyanto, E. Binaural Beat Entrainment Effect on Prefrontal and Parietal Brain EEG in Theta Frequency. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cellular and Molecular Biology, Biophysics and Bioengineering, 2015.
  • Pfaff, H. U., Psychophysiological reactivity to auditory Binaural Beats stimulation in the alpha and theta EEG brain-wave frequency bands: A randomized, double–blind and placebo–controlled study in human healthy young adult subjects. Masters Thesis. Universidad Autonoma Madrid, 2014.
  • Yamsa-ard, T., and Wongsawat, Y., The relationship between EEG and binaural beat stimulation in meditation. In Proceedings of the Biomedical Engineering International Conference (BMEiCON), 2014, IEEE.
  • Puzi, N. M., Jailani, R., Norhazman, H., and Zaini, N. M. (2013, March). Alpha and Beta brainwave characteristics to binaural beat treatment. In Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA), 9th International Colloquium, 2013, IEEE.


    Further reading

    • Thaut, M. H., Rhythm, Music, and the Brain: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Applications (Studies on New Music Research). New York, NY: Routledge, 2005.
    • Berger, J. and Turow, G. (Eds.), Music, Science, and the Rhythmic Brain : Cultural and Clinical Implications. New York, NY: Routledge, 2011.


    External links