Friday, March 30, 2012

Eta Carinae

Preview of a Forthcoming Supernova

At the turn of the 19th century, the binary star system Eta Carinae was faint and undistinguished. In the first decades of the century, it became brighter and brighter, until, by April 1843, it was the second brightest star in the sky, outshone only by Sirius (which is almost a thousand times closer to Earth). In the years that followed, it gradually dimmed again and by the 20th century was totally invisible to the naked eye.

The star has continued to vary in brightness ever since, and while it is once again visible to the naked eye on a dark night, it has never again come close to its peak of 1843.


The larger of the two stars in the Eta Carinae system is a huge and unstable star that is nearing the end of its life, and the event that the 19th century astronomers observed was a stellar near-death experience. Scientists call these outbursts supernova impostor events, because they appear similar to supernovae but stop just short of destroying their star.


Although 19th century astronomers did not have telescopes powerful enough to see the 1843 outburst in detail, its effects can be studied today. The huge clouds of matter thrown out a century and a half ago, known as the Homunculus Nebula, have been a regular target for Hubble since its launch in 1990. This image, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Channel is the most detailed yet, and shows how the material from the star was not thrown out in a uniform manner, but forms a huge dumbbell shape.

Eta Carinae is not only interesting because of its past, but also because of its future. It is one of the closest stars to Earth that is likely to explode in a supernova in the relatively near future (though in astronomical timescales the “near future” could still be a million years away). When it does, expect an impressive view from Earth, far brighter still than its last outburst: SN 2006gy, the brightest supernova ever observed, came from a star of the same type.

This image consists of ultraviolet and visible light images from the High Resolution Channel of Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys. The field of view is approximately 30 arcseconds across.

Links

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Hubble Legacy Archive



Welcome to the Hubble Legacy Archive 

 The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) is designed to optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online, enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The HLA is a joint project of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC).
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See Also: The Hubble Legacy Archive For You

Relativism

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914 Max von Laue

I am not sure what I can add other then what I have already been saying toward logical deduction....I still need to get a handle on the essence of what is being said here in opening thread.

So with what I looked at, can we say that the deductive recognition of lets say symmetry would be in contrast to how you might look at the world in a relativistic sense versus Platonism.










See: Against Symmetry

This setting was used more I think in terms of how a scientist is explaining himself and his relationship with the way in which he had approached science.....yet I could see there were scientist who had adopted the Platonic Tradition. Example of Penrose and Coxeter were demonstrative of this idea?


5.4.3 Platonism and Relativism

Platonism is a family of views that get their name because they involve entities--propositions, properties, sets--which, like Plato's Forms, are held to be abstract, immutable things that exist outside space and time. On many platonistic approaches, concepts express abstract properties and beliefs are relations between people and abstract propositions. This suggests a way around some types of relativism, since people in quite different cultures could have many of the same beliefs (because they could believe the same abstract propositions), and a belief would be true just in case the immutable proposition it expresses is true.
The relativist may reply that platonistic accounts lead to severe difficulties in epistemology and semantics. The problem is that we are physical organisms living in a spatio-temporal world, and we cannot interact causally (or in any other discernible way) with abstract, causally inert things. Moreover, few people are aware of having any special cognitive faculty that puts them in touch with a timeless realm of abstract objects, neuroscientists have never found any part of the brain that subserves such an ability, such a view is not suggested by what is known about the ways children acquire concepts and beliefs, and nothing in physics suggests any way in which a physical system (the brain) can make any sort of contact with causally inert, non-physical objects. Moreover, if our minds cannot make epistemic contact with such things, it is difficult to see how our words and linguistic practices can make semantic contact with them.
None of this proves that abstract propositions don't exist, but it shows it isn't obvious that they do. There have been few debates between relativists and platonists over such matters, however, perhaps because the two views lie so far apart that their proponents cannot easily engage one another.

So these were two positions that were adopted within the push toward understanding the basis of science and it's mathematics.

In theory model development was pushed forward on the basis of such adoptions. Loop Quantum Gravity?

Quasicrystal: Prof. Dan Shechtman

***


Just throwing some stuff together in order to understand the extent of relativism as a universal truth, while seeking to understand the subjective realism that make up our individuality. As a layman I do not know if it will be useful under that admittance. You can judge for yourself of course.

Most people think of "seeing" and "observing" directly with their senses. But for physicists, these words refer to much more indirect measurements involving a train of theoretical logic by which we can interpret what is "seen."- Lisa Randall

If one was to solidify some basis to truth how would this be done? The question of a logic oriented view for me saw a basis in what Penrose was explaining using his Twistors, as a foundation in incorporating Fuzzy logic?

While examining the psychological model of Venn logic and TA combined, it was important that there be some relative framework for such a subjective interpretation of a logic orientated world. How subjectively could this have been managed?


Perspective of the Theoretical Scientist


So you have this history and theoretical perspective that sees the world in one way or another? How do you reduce it to a process through Computing that establishes a basis in machining the effects of [and\or-so that we say a statement is .7 true and .3 false.]? We've created a space in between a true and false statement?

DNA computing is a form of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. DNA computing, or, more generally, molecular computing, is a fast developing interdisciplinary area. Research and development in this area concerns theory, experiments and applications of DNA computing See:DNA computing

Entanglement then provides for other understanding then of a framework that sees the interrogation of a subjective world?


Do we selectively ignore other models from artificial intelligence such as Zadeh's Fuzzy Logic? This is a logic used to model perception and used in newly designed "smart" cameras. Where standard logic must give a true or false value to every proposition, fuzzy logic assigns a certainty value between zero and one to each of the propositions, so that we say a statement is .7 true and .3 false. Is this theory selectively ignored to support our theories? Ideas on Quantum Interrogation
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Geometry Leads us to the Truth?

Part of the realism here for me is the idea that such patterns established deep within our psyche are inherent in each of us as an image first to our awareness, but encompasses a geometric patten of sorts. This was part of the work I did on myself as I explored the realm of dreams. The idea then manifested in what was the basis of this thought process as mandala in origins. A historical vision of an ancient idea of model building. In today's world I thought this as appropriate toward how theoretical ideas are built around a whole history of science and information.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

On the Question of a Daemon

( Arthur Koestler on Creativity )


 You’ve seen it before? Perhaps you found it scrawled in goat’s blood on the walls of an abysmal abbey, written in the crabbed hand of one who purported to teach the whole of the law...Ain Soph

Just so you understand that what happens in the past may have set the course for humanity in thinking such and such so  is with some concern that anyone would think that what I had to say resounds with such historical distaste of what the future might bring?

Historical Figures Lead Us to the Topic of Entanglement

 
We do no want to be ever so arrogant that we cannot see the seeds of the past had paved the way for our understanding of that future and spread the progression of the subject so as to be well founded in experimental processes necessary.



But, said Timarchus, I see nothing but stars leaping about the hollow, some carried into it, and some darting out of it again. These, said the voice, are Daemons; for thus it is. Every soul hath some portion of reason; a man cannot be a man without it; but as much of each soul as is mixed with flesh and appetite is changed, and through pain or pleasure becomes irrational. Every soul doth not mix herself after one sort; for some plunge themselves into the body, and so in this life their whole frame is corrupted by appetite and passion; others are mixed as to some part, but the purer part still remains without the body, — it is not drawn down into it, but it swims above, and touches the extremest part of the man’s head; it is like a cord to hold up and direct the subsiding part of the soul, as long as it proves obedient and is not overcome by the appetites of the flesh. That part that is plunged into the body is called the soul, but the uncorrupted part is called the mind, and the vulgar think it is within them, as likewise they imagine the image reflected from a glass to be in that. But the more intelligent, who know it to be without, call it a Daemon. Therefore those stars which you see extinguished imagine to be souls whose whole substances are plunged into bodies; and those that recover their light and rise from below, that shake off the ambient mist and darkness, as if it were clay and dirt, to be such as retire from their bodies after death; and those that are carried up on high are the Daemons of wise men and philosophers. See:A DISCOURSE CONCERNING SOCRATES’S DAEMON. - Plutarch, The Morals,

The question raises the idea that with "matter trained" we had lost our way in terms of what matters. What we work has somehow become the the part of the belief that we no longer hold to what spiritually might be capable of, but steadfastly have chosen matter as the principle of some higher intelligence?

Saturday, March 24, 2012

Journal Club

A journal club is a group of individuals who meet regularly to critically evaluate recent articles in scientific literature. Journal clubs are usually organized around a defined subject in basic or applied research. For example, the application of evidence-based medicine to some area of medical practice can be facilitated by a journal club. Typically, each participant can voice their view relating to several questions such as the appropriateness of the research design, the statistics employed, the appropriateness of the controls that were used, etc. There might be an attempt to synthesize together the results of several papers, even if some of these results might first appear to contradict each other. Even if the results of the study are seen as valid, there might be a discussion of how useful the results are and if these results might lead to new research or to new applications.

Journal clubs are sometimes used in the education of graduate or professional students. These help make the student become more familiar with the advanced literature in their new field of study. In addition, these journal clubs help improve the students' skills of understanding and debating current topics of active interest in their field. This type of journal club may sometimes be taken for credit. Research laboratories may also organize journal clubs for all researchers in the lab to help them keep up with the literature produced by others who work in their field.

 History

The earliest references to a journal club is found in a book of memoirs and letters by the late Sir James Paget, a British surgeon, who describes a group at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London in the mid-19th century as "a kind of club ... a small room over a baker's shop near the Hospital-gate where we could sit and read the journals."[1]
Sir William Osler established the first formalized journal club at McGill University in Montreal in 1875. The original purpose of Osler's journal club was "for the purchase and distribution of periodicals to which he could ill afford to subscribe."[2]

External links

 References

  1. ^ Esisi, Martina. "Journal clubs." BMJ Careers. 13 Oct. 2007. Web. 09 Jan. 2010. <http://careers.bmj.com/careers/advice/view-article.html?id=2631#ref2>.
  2. ^ Milbrandt, Eric B., and Jean-Louis Vincent. "Evidence-based medicine journal club." Critical Care (2004): 401-02. PubMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 3 Nov. 2004. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1065082/>

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See Also: Journal Club – Black Holes Made All The Difference by Steve Nerlich on March 24, 2012

Friday, March 23, 2012

Intuition

Like Truth.....how is it one could have found any use of such an subjective tool while recognizing something inherent in the process of discovery? Your thoughts?

Here's two quotes for consideration.

Intuition and Logic in Mathematics by Henri Poincaré

On the other hand, look at Professor Klein: he is studying one of the most abstract questions of the theory of functions to determine whether on a given Riemann surface there always exists a function admitting of given singularities. What does the celebrated German geometer do? He replaces his Riemann surface by a metallic surface whose electric conductivity varies according to certain laws. He connects two of its points with the two poles of a battery. The current, says he, must pass, and the distribution of this current on the surface will define a function whose singularities will be precisely those called for by the enunciation.

Felix Klein on intuition

It is my opinion that in teaching it is not only admissible, but absolutely necessary, to be less abstract at the start, to have constant regard to the applications, and to refer to the refinements only gradually as the student becomes able to understand them. This is, of course, nothing but a universal pedagogical principle to be observed in all mathematical instruction ....

I am led to these remarks by the consciousness of growing danger in Germany of a separation between abstract mathematical science and its scientific and technical applications. Such separation can only be deplored, for it would necessarily be followed by shallowness on the side of the applied sciences, and by isolation on the part of pure mathematics ....

In context of examination while not mathematically trained I was always curious about the process unfolding.... the foundations and their beginnings. The Sound Of Billiard Balls

Dirac became proof for me of the issue of being abstract while needing the image to go with it? Symbolically recognized while analytically described. So his axiomatic stance lead me to question why how and why Feynman designed his "word art(feynman diagrams)?"

When one is doing mathematical work, there are essentially two different ways of thinking about the subject: the algebraic way, and the geometric way. With the algebraic way, one is all the time writing down equations and following rules of deduction, and interpreting these equations to get more equations. With the geometric way, one is thinking in terms of pictures; pictures which one imagines in space in some way, and one just tries to get a feeling for the relationships between the quantities occurring in those pictures. Now, a good mathematician has to be a master of both ways of those ways of thinking, but even so, he will have a preference for one or the other; I don't think he can avoid it. In my own case, my own preference is especially for the geometrical way.Paul Dirac
Part of finding this truth is a deep examination(deep play) of what has been perpetuated so far and a meta look synopsis at how to gather and explain it so as to move on.

The deeper truth is an image that has to be explained? Part of our innateness has left an impression on the soul and recognizing the "time capsule" that is mandala in origins, is the method by which the soul engages what explodes back into their consciousness? This arises from a subconscious level and so too having traveled there you recognize what happens when you touch the very core of your being?

While I may refer to the geometric as inherent in such a truth in expression as some light behind us shining our shadow on the cave walls, these geometries can be covered by ancient designs and can lead the soul back to this beginning?

While you were looking out there, you were looking inside.

***
On developing the intuition I had a comment that I wanted to bring together here so it is understood that while we may hold science as a standard within our question for knowledge it is also required that we learn to understand somethings about ourselves in that process.

See: Understanding our Angels and Daemons

Monday, March 19, 2012

The Truth

The value of non-Euclidean geometry lies in its ability to liberate us from preconceived ideas in preparation for the time when exploration of physical laws might demand some geometry other than the Euclidean. Bernhard Riemann

Yes, this is what I had in mind too, as too identify the last place with which the historical paved the way to meeting Non Euclidean.





The amount of dark matter and energy in the universe plays a crucial role in determining the geometry of space. If the density of matter and energy in the universe is less than the critical density, then space is open and negatively curved like the surface of a saddle Geometry of the Universe

With it's application understood in terms of how one might see the shape of the universe, the truth in understanding is the search for how our universe does have a basis in a geometrical truth? What shape then?

Riemannian Geometry, also known as elliptical geometry, is the geometry of the surface of a sphere. It replaces Euclid's Parallel Postulate with, "Through any point in the plane, there exists no line parallel to a given line." A line in this geometry is a great circle. The sum of the angles of a triangle in Riemannian Geometry is > 180°.


If one understands the purpose of the truth with which is presented "on the scales" what relationship is subjectively compared to how gravity may affect the idea of an emotive world that is circumspect by our views being contained/weight. It could be as much "as a fog that exists" until some idea of a "clear light like perspective" is understood? How our perception of earth has now been transformed from the pearl in space to some strange looking rock in space

***
Galileo Galilei

In 1586 at the age of 22, Galileo (1564-1642) wrote a short treatise entitled La Bilancetta (“The Little Balance”). He was skeptical of Vitruvius’s account of how Archimedes determined the fraud in Hiero's crown and in this treatise presented his own theory based on Archimedes’ Law of the Lever and Law of Buoyancy. He also included a description of a hydrostatic balance that determined the precise composition of an alloy of two metals.

So on a subjective level we want to put forward the best constitution that we can so we try and find the basis of this truth as it would apply to all people. I think this is what came out of Benjamin Franklin when he was involved in the writing of the US Constitution. perusing Jefferson words as to better clarify the meaning of.

We hold (they say) these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal. In what are they created equal? Is it in size, understanding, figure, moral or civil accomplishments, or situation of life? Benjamin Franklin-The Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 46, pp. 403–404)

When I spoke of Benjamin Franklin I was referring to a philosophical truth that is inductive\deductive.




Our attempt to justify our beliefs logically by giving reasons results in the "regress of reasons." Since any reason can be further challenged, the regress of reasons threatens to be an infinite regress. However, since this is impossible, there must be reasons for which there do not need to be further reasons: reasons which do not need to be proven. By definition, these are "first principles." The "Problem of First Principles" arises when we ask Why such reasons would not need to be proven. Aristotle's answer was that first principles do not need to be proven because they are self-evident, i.e. they are known to be true simply by understanding them.

Even with all the scientific truth that is as tested, as an individual finding that place within with which such a conclusion is arrived at.....is much like "setting the tone" that will reverberate though your whole life?

The truth is not just mathematical although such reductionism can be sought to have been derived from First Principles? Where is this place? Where inside is this place?

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See Also

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Beacons of Discovery

To discover what our world is made of and how it works at the most fundamental level is the challenge of particle physics. The tools of particle physics—experiments at particle accelerators and underground laboratories, together with observations of space—bring opportunities for discovery never before within reach. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate to design, build and use unique detectors and accelerators to explore the fundamental physics of matter, energy, space and time. Together, in a common world-wide program of discovery, they provide a deep understanding of the world around us and countless benefits to society. Beacons of Discovery presents a vision of the global science of particle physics at the dawn of a new light on the mystery and beauty of the universe. See: Beacons of Discovery

Message Sent Through Rock Via Neutrino Beam

See:Cern Courier:The right spin for a neutrino superfluid

If like myself you are watching the history of communication,  it becomes important to understand the advances we have on the horizon for when we are looking across the expanse of space for consideration of that information transference.


MINERvA: Bringing Neutrinos into Sharp Focus

 
Like radio waves, neutrino beams spread out. Moving farther away from the neutrino source is somewhat like driving away from a radio tower: Eventually you lose the signal. Until physicists create more intense beams of neutrinos or build more powerful detectors, the goal of using neutrinos to communicate with people under the sea or outside Earth’s orbit will remain out of reach.See:Scientists send encoded message through rock via neutrino beam
  While relativistic interpretations are understood with Muon detection scenarios we are able to understand some things about the earth that we had not known before. So in this case we see where such communications are already defining for us some information about the world we live in.


 ***

 Update:

DEMONSTRATION OF COMMUNICATION USING NEUTRINOS
 Beams of neutrinos have been proposed as a vehicle for communications under unusual circumstances, such as direct point-to-point global communication, communication with submarines, secure communications and interstellar communication. We report on the performance of a low-rate communications link established using the NuMI beam line and the MINERvA detector at Fermilab. The link achieved a decoded data rate of 0.1 bits/sec with a bit error rate of 1% over a distance of 1.035 km, including 240 m of earth.


ICARUS: the neutrino speed discrepancy is 0, not 60 ns

 ***
 We examine the possibility to employ neutrinos to communicate within the galaxy. We discuss various issues associated with transmission and reception, and suggest that the resonant neutrino energy near 6.3 PeV may be most appropriate. In one scheme we propose to make Z^o particles in an overtaking e^+ - e^- collider such that the resulting decay neutrinos are near the W^- resonance on electrons in the laboratory. Information is encoded via time structure of the beam. In another scheme we propose to use a 30 PeV pion accelerator to create neutrino or anti-neutrino beams. The latter encodes information via the particle/anti-particle content of the beam, as well as timing. Moreover, the latter beam requires far less power, and can be accomplished with presently foreseeable technology. Such signals from an advanced civilization, should they exist, will be eminently detectable in neutrino detectors now under construction. See:Galactic Neutrino Communication by John G. Learned, Sandip Pakvasa, A. Zee

See Also:

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Rara Avis in Terris Nigroque Simillima Cygno

Statistical and applied probabilistic knowledge is the core of knowledge; statistics is what tells you if something is true, false, or merely anecdotal; it is the "logic of science"; it is the instrument of risk-taking; it is the applied tools of epistemology; you can't be a modern intellectual and not think probabilistically—but... let's not be suckers. The problem is much more complicated than it seems to the casual, mechanistic user who picked it up in graduate school. Statistics can fool you. In fact it is fooling your government right now. It can even bankrupt the system (let's face it: use of probabilistic methods for the estimation of risks did just blow up the banking system).THE FOURTH QUADRANT: A MAP OF THE LIMITS OF STATISTICS [9.15.08]  By Nassim Nicholas Taleb


Nassim Nicholas Taleb - What is a "Black Swan?"

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SEE Also:

Sunday, March 11, 2012

Trying to Explain an Anomaly

What and how are we communicating? I draw comparisons from what we see as early universe formations in our own data sets as to show that we can see the world in different ways. I draw comparison between the emotive states of our being too, science in it's explanation as to seeing the mechanics of,  as shown in two separate ways. Classically and in the Quantum?


Pascal's triangle

It seems it has been really difficult trying to formulate the way in which to approach explaining the anomaly that was physical in the sense of observance. That as too reciprocity as much as I could say, could such a thing exist?


“By the age of 5 we are all musical experts, so this stuff is clearly wired really deeply into us,” said Dr. Levitin, an eerily youthful-looking 49, surrounded by the pianos, guitars and enormous 16-track mixers that make his lab look more like a recording studio.

This summer he published “This Is Your Brain on Music” (Dutton), a layperson’s guide to the emerging neuroscience of music. Dr. Levitin is an unusually deft interpreter, full of striking scientific trivia. For example we learn that babies begin life with synesthesia, the trippy confusion that makes people experience sounds as smells or tastes as colors. Or that the cerebellum, a part of the brain that helps govern movement, is also wired to the ears and produces some of our emotional responses to music. His experiments have even suggested that watching a musician perform affects brain chemistry differently from listening to a recording.
See: Music of the Hemispheres
I too added then that such an explanation had to have the human factor of input as to say that this anomaly needed the contribution of others in order to allow the observer and the observed produce such an action. Or, is it our own recognition of acceptance of such concrete things that we had assign the reality to be in such a way as to say reality is this way.


Ranging from slime molds to Alzheimer’s Disease, a new online exhibit, Emergent Universe (http://www.emergentuniverse.org) aims to encourage young people to learn about “emergence,” complex behaviors that arise from the interaction of simple parts. See: Emergent Universe - an online museum of science.
Constraints when applied to all senses, as to set them to being concrete we accustom ourselves to the reality around us . Reality becomes part and parcel of recognizing this capability before such concreteness, arises from such a abstract state of existence as to imply this association of an anomaly as an abstract thing?

 Color of Gravity 4
 
This is the most important song I’ve ever written, it's a time capsule song. I will listen to it every day of my life if I need to. It's honest to God the most important song I’ve ever written in my life, and it has the fewest words. I was in LA, and I was there for the summer, just writing tunes, and I was in the shower. And I don't know where it came from, but it's the damn truth you know, and I just sang, "gravity...is working against me.Gravity (John Mayer song)

So you say it is theoretical and have all the basis of science at your disposal as to imply such an equation arises from a set of proposed examples of why the universe is the way it is, that such an expression of the universe is as much the recognition of the capabilities of the universe being from all that is constitutionally recognized.


Currently science is looking for such "gathering attributes" as to understand why nature is the way it is. Emergence?


5 types of ATLAS event shape data
The data is first processed using the vast and all-powerful ATLAS software framework. This allows raw data (streams of ones and zeroes) to be converted step-by-step into ‘objects’ such as silicon detector hits and energy deposits. We can reconstruct particles using these objects. The next step is to convert the information into a file containing two or three columns of numbers known as a "breakpoint file". It can also be used as a "note list". This kind of file can be read by compositional software such as the Composers Desktop Project (CDP) and Csound software used for this project. See: How is Data Converted into Sounds

This sets the stage for questioning in my mind. If all the data is a function of information that exists and is constitutionally recognized then so too is the capability of consciousness able to manufacture the anomaly with which observance/observer of a new paradigm begins.

***





 
On planet Earth, we tend to think of the gravitational effect as being the same no matter where we are on the planet. We certainly don't see variations anywhere near as dramatic as those between the Earth and the Moon. But the truth is, the Earth's topography is highly variable with mountains, valleys, plains, and deep ocean trenches. As a consequence of this variable topography, the density of Earth's surface varies. These fluctuations in density cause slight variations in the gravity field, which, remarkably, GRACE can detect from space. Gravity 101

See Also:


Saturday, March 10, 2012

List of KITP Wikispaces


2011

Asteroseismology in the Space Age
Topological Insulators and Superconductors
Holographic Duality and Condensed Matter Physics
Dynamics of Development (Minipgm)
Network Architecture of Brain Structures and Functions (Minipgm)
Nonperturbative Effects and Dualities in QFT and Integrable Systems
The First Year of the LHC
Biological Frontiers of Polymer and Soft Matter Physics
The Harmony of Scattering Amplitudes
The Nature of Turbulence
Galaxy Clusters: the Crossroads of Astrophysics and Cosmology
Microbial and Viral Evolution
Iron-based Superconductors

2010

Disentangling Quantum Many-Body Systems: Computational and Conceptual Approaches
Emerging Techniques in Neuroscience
Beyond Standard Optical Lattices
Langlands-Type Dualities in Quantum Field Theory
X-ray Frontiers
Electron Glasses
Physics of Glasses: Relating Metallic Glasses to Molecular, Polymeric and Oxide Glasses
Strings at the LHC and in the Early Universe
The Theory and Observation of Exoplanets
Towards Material Design Using Strongly Correlated Electron Systems
Evolutionary Perspectives on Mechanisms of Cellular Organization

2009

Formation and Evolution of Globular Clusters
Low Dimensional Electron Systems
Fundamental Aspects of Superstring Theory
Quantum Control of Light and Matter
Quantum Criticality and the AdS/CFT Correspondence
The Physics of Higher Temperature Superconductivity
Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Plasmas
Morphodynamics of Plants, Animals and Beyond
Quantum Information Science
Excitations in Condensed Matter: From Basic Concepts to Real Materials

2008

Workshop on the Quantum Spin Hall Effect and Topological Insulators
Building the Milky Way
Population Genetics and Genomics
The Theory and Practice of Fluctuation-Induced Interactions
Gauge Theory and Langlands Duality
Dynamo Theory
Physics of Climate Change
Anatomy, Development, and Evolution of the Brain
Physics of the Large Hadron Collider
Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Particle Physics and Cosmology
Workshop on the Interplay between Numerical Relativity and Data Analysis

2007

Workshop on SRO and Chiral p-wave Superconductivity
Moments and Multiplets in Mott Materials
Star Formation Through Cosmic Time
Biological Switches and Clocks
Strongly Correlated Phases in Condensed Matter and Degenerate Atomic Systems

2006

Applications Of Gravitational Lensing: Unique Insights Into Galaxy Formation And Evolution
String Phenomenology
Stochastic Geometry and Field Theory: From Growth Phenomena to Disordered Systems
Physics of Galactic Nuclei
Attosecond Science Workshop
New Physical Approaches to Molecular and Cellular Machines

2005

From the Atomic to the Tectonic: Friction, Fracture and Earthquake Physics
Mathematical Structures in String Theory

Friday, March 09, 2012

Daya Bay

The Daya Bay site in southern China. Image: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

An international collaboration of physicists working on a neutrino experiment in southern China announced today they have made a difficult measurement scientists have been chasing for more than a decade.

The results of the Daya Bay neutrino experiment open an important window into understanding the behavior of neutrinos, and now the race is on to determine the implications. Two American experiments, one proposed and one under construction, seem well positioned to take the next steps.
See:Daya Bay experiment makes key measurement, paves way for future discoveries

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PMTs convert light from particle collisions to electric charge. Since the experiment must collect the light emitted from each event, the reflectors at top and bottom of the acrylic vessels enhance gathering of light.
See:The Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment: On Track to Completion

***


  • Dialogos of Eide: Mysterious Behavior of Neutrinos sent Straight



  • Dec 24, 2009... to the NOvA detector in Minnesota. The neutrinos travel the 500 miles in less than three milliseconds. See:NOvA Neutrino Project. ***. Using the NuMI beam to search for electron neutrino appearance. The NOνA Experiment...


  • Dialogos of Eide: Gran Sasso and Fermilab


  • Oct 31, 2011 Funded by a grant from the University of Minnesota. (Credit: Fermilab Visual Media Services). ***. Fermilab experiment weighs in on neutrino mystery. Scientists of the MINOS experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermi...


  • Dialogos of Eide: Linking Experiments



  • Mar 29, 2010 Scientists would use the LBNE to explore whether neutrinos break one of the most fundamental laws of physics: the symmetry between matter and antimatter. In 1980, James Cronin and Val Fitch received the Nobel Prize for...


  • Dialogos of Eide: ICECUBE Blogging Research Material and more


  • Oct 27, 2011 Linking Experiments(Majorana, EXO); How do stars create the heavy elements? (DIANA); What role did neutrinos play in the evolution of the universe? (LBNE). In addition, scientists propose to build a generic underground...

    Wednesday, March 07, 2012

    Tuesday, March 06, 2012

    Brain Mechanisms of Consciousness




    Consciousness is at once the most familiar and the most mysterious feature of our existence. A new science of consciousness is now revealing its biological basis.

    Once considered beyond the reach of science, the neural mechanisms of human consciousness are now being unravelled at a startling pace by neuroscientists and their colleagues. I've always been fascinated by the possibility of understanding consciousness, so it is tremendously exciting to witness – and take part in – this grand challenge for 21st century science.
    SEE:Consciousness: Eight questions science must answer

    SEE Also: Brain Info

    Geodesy and geophysics


    Mean Gravity Field



    Anomalies by definition would require that we understand something about our selves that we did not know before, in that the whole history of you, is a large synopsis of everything that thinks and breath? Imagine indeed that such a vast resource could defined you as in some book to know that what would come next would be the unfolding of what you have been to what you shall become.

    So I veered away from this act of who you are, toward a question of our relationship with understanding the world around us. What can exist in nature as some anomaly is really our inability to describe something in nature that awes us and had never gone deeper then then on the surface observance of who we are and where we live.


    Map of free-air gravity anomalies around Britain and Ireland
    Variations in the strength of gravity occur from place to place according to the density distribution of the rocks beneath the surface. Such gravity anomalies have been mapped across the British Isles and the surrounding seas and they reveal aspects of these islands’ geological structure.

    (Bouguer) gravity anomaly map of the state of New Jersey (USGS)
     The Bouguer anomalies usually are negative in the mountains because of isostasy: the rock density of their roots is lower, compared with the surrounding earth's mantle. Typical anomalies in the Central Alps are −150 milligals (−1.5 mm/s²). Rather local anomalies are used in applied geophysics: if they are positive, this may indicate metallic ores. At scales between entire mountain ranges and ore bodies, Bouguer anomalies may indicate rock types. For example, the northeast-southwest trending high across central New Jersey (see figure) represents a graben of Triassic age largely filled with dense basalts. Salt domes are typically expressed in gravity maps as lows, because salt has a low density compared to the rocks the dome intrudes. Anomalies can help to distinguish sedimentary basins whose fill differs in density from that of the surrounding region - see Gravity Anomalies of Britain and Ireland for example.

    Bouguer Anomaly Map of Belgium and Surrounding areas

    The anomalies are calculated using a uniform Bouguer reduction density of 2.67 gr/cm3 the grid was obtained by Krigging, cell size : 5 km, search radius : 30 km. The French data are copyrighted by BRGM (France).

    While the examples above help to shed light on how we can perceive earth in a way that we are not accustomed too, this idea of gravity is important to understand the way in which gravitationally we my look at the world/earth. In our early years abstractly the idea of curvature was something that did not make sense until one moved beyond the Euclidean lines of understanding to a Non Euclidean view?

    To that point we did not understand what the earth look like in its pearl form in space without having left the confines of earth?

    I want you too look at space as well to understand what may be conceivable even though we may talk about an anomaly in nature that to this point we did not necessarily understand until we were presented with the examples as to confront and require an explanation. So you have the earth and space to contend with here.

    LTool


    So we graduate with the understanding with how we have seen the earth in observatory implicitness to have it detailed in a more "ugly definition of its composed parts?" To me it's not really that ugly at all,  although as you venture to take in the color representation of the component parts of our earth's geological structure,  you learn to understand the concreteness of our definitions.

    Anomalistics


    Charles Fort, anomalistics pioneer
    Anomalistics
    Terminology
    Coined by Robert W. Wescott (1973)
    Definition The use of scientific methods to evaluate anomalies with the aim of finding a rational explanation.[1]
    Signature The study of phenomena that appear to be at odds with current scientific understanding.
    See also Parapsychology
    Charles Fort


    Anomalistics is the use of scientific methods to evaluate anomalies (phenomena that fall outside of current understanding), with the aim of finding a rational explanation.[1] The term itself was coined in 1973 by Drew University anthropologist Roger W. Wescott, who defined it as being "...serious and systematic study of all phenomena that fail to fit the picture of reality provided for us by common sense or by the established sciences."[citation needed]

    Wescott credited journalist and researcher Charles Hoy Fort as being the creator of anomalistics as a field of research, and he named biologist Ivan T. Sanderson and Sourcebook Project compiler William R. Corliss as being instrumental in expanding anomalistics to introduce a more conventional perspective into the field.[2][3]
    Henry Bauer, emeritus professor of Science Studies at Virginia Tech, writes that anomalistics is "a politically correct term for the study of bizarre claims,"[4] while David J. Hess of the Department of Science and Technology Studies at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute describes it as being "the scientific study of anomalies defined as claims of phenomena not generally accepted by the bulk of the scientific community."[1]
    Anomalistics covers several sub-disciplines, including ufology and cryptozoology. Scientifically trained anomalists include ufologist J. Allen Hynek,[5] Carl Sagan, Christopher Chacon,[citation needed] cryptozoologist Bernard Heuvelmans,[6] and CSICOP founder Paul Kurtz.[7]

    Field

    According to Marcello Truzzi, Professor of Sociology at Eastern Michigan University, anomalistics works on the principles that "unexplained phenomena exist," but that most can be explained through the application of scientific scrutiny. Further, that something remains plausible until it has been conclusively proven not only implausible but actually impossible, something that science does not do. In 2000, he wrote that anomalistics has four basic functions:
    1. to aid in the evaluation of a wide variety of anomaly claims proposed by protoscientists;
    2. to understand better the process of scientific adjudication and to make that process both more just and rational;
    3. to build a rational conceptual framework for both categorizing and accessing anomaly claims; and
    4. to act in the role of amicus curiae ("friend of the court") to the scientific community in its process of adjudication.[8]

     Scope

    In the view of Truzzi, anomalistics has two core tenets governing its scope:
    1. Research must remain within the conventional boundaries; and
    2. Research must deal exclusively with "empirical claims of the extraordinary", rather than claims of a "metaphysical, theological or supernatural" nature.
    Anomalistics, according to its adherents, is primarily concerned with physical events, with researchers avoiding phenomena they considered to be purely paranormal in nature, such as apparitions and poltergeists, or which are concerned with "Psi" (parapsychology, e.g., ESP, psychokinesis and telepathy).[3]

    Validation

    According to Truzzi, before an explanation can be considered valid within anomalistics, it must fulfill four criteria. It must be based on conventional knowledge and reasoning; it must be kept simple and be unburdened by speculation or overcomplexity; the burden of proof must be placed on the claimant and not the researcher; and the more extraordinary the claim, the higher the level of proof required.
    Bauer states that nothing can be deemed as proof within anomalistics unless it can gain "acceptance by the established disciplines."[4]

     References

    1. ^ a b c Hess David J. (1997) "Science Studies: an advanced introduction" New York University Press, ISBN 0814735649
    2. ^ Clark, Jerome (1993) "Encyclopedia of Strange and Unexplained Physical Phenomena", Thomson Gale, ISBN 081038843X
    3. ^ a b Wescott, Robert W. (1973) "Anomalistics: The Outline of an Emerging Field of Investigation" Research Division, New Jersey Department of Education
    4. ^ a b Bauer, Henry (2000) "Science Or Pseudoscience: Magnetic Healing, Psychic Phenomena and Other Heterodoxies," University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02601-2
    5. ^ Clark, Jerome (1998). The UFO book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Detroit, Michigan: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1578590299.
    6. ^ Science 5 November 1999: Vol. 286. no. 5442, p. 1079
    7. ^ CSI - About CSI (2007-05-05)
    8. ^ Truzzi, Marcello (2002) "The Perspective of Anomalistics" (section only) - "Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience", Fitzroy Dearborn, ISBN 1-57958-207-9