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Saturday, July 30, 2011

Google Search Charcters: Eliza and The Wayback Machine

Life must be understood backwards; but... it must be lived forward.
Soren Kierkegaard

Now this quote above by Soren is not just an application, to a point of view, but of an idea about what we can funnel through and forward using the connective links as an Wayback machine, as to living our lives forward.

This is a perspective that Plato has in terms of the the analogy of the Cave but of what one looks at while knowing behind them is the sun. It's potential in terms of information. If that information is all pervasive, exists around us not only in terms of data transmission then what relevance to information may be gleaned as to understand the person them self, their search of life, as to looking Wayback as a choice to voice, and then to move forward?

Concrete things easily settle the option to conclude any search and to understand that such a way forward has been concluded and any future relevance based on the amount of Wayback information accessibility the avatar will give. Currently such an algorithm is beening built into the Gatekeepers program currently designed by Google?

Example of ELIZA in Emacs.
ELIZA is a computer program and an early example of primitive natural language processing. ELIZA operated by processing users' responses to scripts, the most famous of which was DOCTOR, a simulation of a Rogerian psychotherapist. Using almost no information about human thought or emotion, DOCTOR sometimes provided a startlingly human-like interaction. ELIZA was written at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum between 1964 to 1966.
When the "patient" exceeded the very small knowledge base, DOCTOR might provide a generic response, for example, responding to "My head hurts" with "Why do you say your head hurts?" The response to "My mother hates me" would be "Who else in your family hates you?" ELIZA was implemented using simple pattern matching techniques, but was taken seriously by several of its users, even after Weizenbaum explained to them how it worked. It was one of the first chatterbots in existence.
 ***

Eliza, computer therapist

This javascript version of ELIZA was originally written by Michal Wallace and significantly enhanced by George Dunlop.

***
Okay I think you've made the connection now? You understand how an avatar may be used to supplant Google's search engine,. An activation by voice as too defining statistical relevance to the questions in mind and what lies at the edge of our current research? For those Quantum gravity researchers this is important. Keeping abreast of all the data out there.

Chiseled and honed to Plato's likeness I would have preferred Raphael School of Athen Image of Plato  but for yourself according to  your theme? Google Search characters can come in all shades given the algorithm lines placed underneath the image of the face.

Remember this has nothing to do about truth but is more the understanding that statistics are used in order to classify search functions as too popularity and Eliza's name was chosen for now...becomes a select programming feature that has to be married to a virtual image or face, that becomes the future of our Google search functions?

So by name and chosen avatar, the personal features become a method by which Google Search characters become automatic according to the depth of the algorithmic world created by one's personalization features selected.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

The Plato’s Cave Study: Does Bullshit Truly Baffle Brains?”

”Passive acceptance of the teacher's wisdom is easy to most boys and girls. It involves no effort of independent thought, and seems rational because the teacher knows more than his pupils; it is moreover the way to win the favor of the teacher unless he is a very exceptional man. Yet the habit of passive acceptance is a disastrous one in later life. It causes man to seek and to accept a leader, and to accept as a leader whoever is established in that position."-Bertrand Russell

Of course the title is borrowed as most things here in this blog........so thanks to the one  from whom it originates and thanks for the quotation. Also thanks to Bee for her Blablameter Some Fun can be taken seriously.

I mean I did offer Sokal as a example of what may be engendered "as a voice of reason" to see that we had all been baffled by such arrangement of words as to think this new subject on Quantum Gravity is somehow being spoken too? Maybe you didn't get that?;)


This is a photograph by the artist Michael Najjar, and it's real, in the sense that he went there to Argentina to take the photo. But it's also a fiction. There's a lot of work that went into it after that. And what he's done is he's actually reshaped, digitally, all of the contours of the mountains to follow the vicissitudes of the Dow Jones index. So what you see, that precipice, that high precipice with the valley, is the 2008 financial crisis. The photo was made when we were deep in the valley over there. I don't know where we are now. This is the Hang Seng index for Hong Kong. And similar topography. I wonder why. Kevin Slavin: How algorithms shape our world

For me it is a question too, about what is set as the basis as "a pattern that exists" that has been written by code.  To set in motion "a causation of events that have smeared out the contributing algorithm which is set now as the "global event that catches our attention"....or,  those that become highlighted in origination,  as to what one should or could become aware of once they"ve actually awoken to the reality of these patterns in life.

The event in society is a mountain and the metaphor that has been so eloquently described contains some relevance to the high's and lows in life. Some people's dreams about life and the surmountable, or about that way with which we may discribe the landscape of possibilities.

For me it was always about potential and the constraints that could be applied to thinking(the relevance of the reservoir Wayback) and where in this basis is Google as a contributor to such methods but to classify and count,  based on popularity, numbers of hits, etc,  as to the truth of the story that is written? In this case it is about statistics, not about truth?

It about encouraging the many possibilities, as to what shall be funneled down through some youthful mind, as to some concrete thing, as an idea from that potential to be disperse throughout society as an ideal, to then become pervasive throughout our culture?

How many ebooks have been cataloged and where is Wayback to think the developmental of the internet has been considered as a voice that has been attached to this reservoir and hence revealed this idea? A Google search engine then emanating from a virtual avatar to create a link to this vast reservoir of potential as to display concrete things?

"If the price of avoiding non-locality is to make an intuitive explanation impossible, one has to ask whether the cost is too great."

-David Bohm et al. “ Physc. Rep. 144, 321” (1987)

Okay Google, I have set before you, a challenge. Instead of a page that demonstrates a search feature as a main page, then change this to be represented by an virtual avatar who will lead you to these vast reservoirs of possibility? "Speak" your mind then and the Wayback becomes "your synapse" to the global thinking mind...... To have culminated in a set of info particulates "that are combined" to make this idea funnel into a wo/man to reset society? A holographic realization of all the components which help to make this world view.

The origins of technology was not in 1829, but was actually at the beginning of the Big Bang, and at that moment the entire huge billions of stars in the universe were compressed. The entire universe was compressed into a little quantum dot, and it was so tight in there there was no room for any difference at all. That's the definition. There was no temperature. There was no difference whatsoever. And at the Big Bang, what it expanded was the potential for difference. So as it expands and as things expand what we have is the potential for differences, diversity, options, choices, opportunities, possibilities and freedoms. Those are all basically the same thing. And those are the things that technology bring us. That's what technology is bringing us: choices, possibilities, freedoms. That's what it's about. It's this expansion of room to make differences. And so a hammer, when we grab a hammer, that's what we're grabbing. And that's why we continue to grab technology -- because we want those things. Those things are good. Differences, freedom, choices, possibilities. And each time we make a new opportunity place, we're allowing a platform to make new ones.Kevin Kelly on how technology evolves

In no way is this to make slight of, or,  imply things about Google. My thoughts are to advance society not by the creation of the algorithms but to idealize the access to information.

See Also:

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Fermilab experiment discovers a heavy relative of the neutron

Scientists of the CDF collaboration at the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory announced the observation of a new particle, the neutral Xi-sub-b (Ξb0). This particle contains three quarks: a strange quark, an up quark and a bottom quark (s-u-b). While its existence was predicted by the Standard Model, the observation of the neutral Xi-sub-b is significant because it strengthens our understanding of how quarks form matter. Fermilab physicist Pat Lukens, a member of the CDF collaboration, presented the discovery at Fermilab on Wednesday, July 20. See: Fermilab experiment discovers a heavy relative of the neutron
Once produced, the neutral Xi-sub-b (Symbol for Xi-sub-b) particle travels about a millimeter before it disintegrates into two particles: the short-lived, positively charged Xi-sub-c (Symbol Xi-sub-c^+) and a long-lived, negative pion (π-). The Xi-sub-c then promptly decays into a pair of long-lived pions and a Xi particle (Symbol pi^-), which lives long enough to leave a track in the silicon vertex system (SVX) of the CDF detector before it decays a pion and a Lambda (Λ). The Lambda particle, which has no electric charge, can travel several centimeters before decaying into a proton (p) and a pion (π). Credit: CDF collaboration and Fermi

***




Cosmic rays

The LHC, like other particle accelerators, recreates the natural phenomena of cosmic rays under controlled laboratory conditions, enabling them to be studied in more detail. Cosmic rays are particles produced in outer space, some of which are accelerated to energies far exceeding those of the LHC. The energy and the rate at which they reach the Earth’s atmosphere have been measured in experiments for some 70 years. Over the past billions of years, Nature has already generated on Earth as many collisions as about a million LHC experiments – and the planet still exists. Astronomers observe an enormous number of larger astronomical bodies throughout the Universe, all of which are also struck by cosmic rays. The Universe as a whole conducts more than 10 million million LHC-like experiments per second. The possibility of any dangerous consequences contradicts what astronomers see - stars and galaxies still exist.
***
Six of the particles in the Standard Model are quarks (shown in purple). Each of the first three columns forms a generation of matter.

***

What do we already know?


The standard package

The theories and discoveries of thousands of physicists over the past century have resulted in a remarkable insight into the fundamental structure of matter: everything that has been directly observed in the Universe until now has been found to be made from twelve basic building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamental forces. Our best understanding of how these twelve particles and three of the forces are related to each other is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particles and forces. Developed in the early 1970s, it has successfully explained a host of experimental results and precisely predicted a wide variety of phenomena. Over time and through many experiments by many physicists, the Standard Model has become established as a well-tested physics theory.

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Igniting Neurons:Time Travel

Life must be understood backwards; but... it must be lived forward.
Soren Kierkegaard





The image illustrates the Wayback machine from the Mr. Peabody and Sherman segment of the Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon. The image supports the article on the subject: Wayback machine. The screen shot was selected to illustrate the nature and size of the Wayback machine (compare to images of UNIVAC or ENIAC machines).

I mean whats sets the whole package off to wonder how such neurons once isolated,  as to being components of all the things we learn, then becomes a method by which we now see ? What sets off the spark to think that technologies will be superseded by the efforts by mind,  to think that all we have to do is turn the switch off? The technologies no longer work? That this is somehow the fate of a mind who no longer seeks to find meaning, or,  is settled to the fate of mundane happenings which replay them-self time and time again.

Boids is an artificial life program, developed by Craig Reynolds in 1986, which simulates the flocking behaviour of birds. His paper on this topic was published in 1987 in the proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH conference. The name refers to a "bird-like object", but its pronunciation evokes that of "bird" in a stereotypical New York accent.
As with most artificial life simulations, Boids is an example of emergent behavior; that is, the complexity of Boids arises from the interaction of individual agents (the boids, in this case) adhering to a set of simple rules. The rules applied in the simplest Boids world are as follows:

So, you've built up this vast reservoir of information as neurons, and all time that began from embryonic growth seeks to find them-self distinct to all the functions of the human body.  To think we have become who we are today,  as a sign of all these possibilities are but the evolution of a pattern played out as an example of the evolution of being manifested through this body? Manifest now,  once one expresses through the fingers as an extension of mind, to be built up, as all those things which represent self .

So you step back then, looking as if from outside, looking in,  as to wonder what is new being garnered are but piecemeal represents some larger view of the reality of groups, to present an awareness greater then that which is though to exist, as some local issue in it's understanding,  is more the societal flock with purpose, unawares of the significance of choices made? How do societies change?



Andrey Kravtsov's computer modelling comes to mind. See: Early Universe Formation


So there is then this reservoir of information, many facets and capabilities of mind to choose those things which are brought together through the journey,  all encompassing it's growth, this potential exists as if a flash, like lightning strikes from which are born new neuronal pathways. Perception, is then changed. Many connections in life take place where none were seen before.

See Also:

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Exterior photo of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina library in Alexandria, Egypt.
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina or Maktabat al-Iskandarīyah (English: Library of Alexandria; Arabic: مكتبة الإسكندرية‎) is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. It is both a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, and an attempt to rekindle something of the brilliance that this earlier center of study and erudition represented.

Monday, July 18, 2011

Internet Archive: WayBack Machine

Internet Archive


Coordinates: 37°46′56.3″N 122°28′17.65″W
Internet Archive
Type Digital library
Founded 1996
Key people Brewster Kahle (Chairman)
Website archive.org
Alexa rank decrease 230 (April 2011)[1]
Available in English

Internet Archive headquarters was in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco, from 1996 to 2009.

As of November 2009, new Internet Archive headquarters at 300 Funston in San Francisco, CA, a former Christian Science Church

Mirror of the Internet Archive in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina


(Click on Image)
http://www.archive.org/web/web.php


The Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge."[2][3] It offers permanent storage and access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, music, moving images, and nearly 3 million public domain books. The Internet Archive was founded by Brewster Kahle in 1996. It is a member of the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium).[4]

With offices located in San Francisco, California, USA and data centers in San Francisco, Redwood City, and Mountain View, California, USA, the Archive's largest collection is its web archive, "snapshots of the World Wide Web." To ensure the stability and endurance of the Internet Archive, its collection is mirrored at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt.

The Archive allows the public to both upload and download digital material to its data cluster, and provides unrestricted online access to that material at no cost. The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects. It is a member of the American Library Association and is officially recognized by the State of California as a library.[5]

In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.

The Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit operating in the United States. It has a staff of 200, most of whom are book scanners in its book scanning centers. Its main office in San Francisco houses about 30 employees. The Archive has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[6]

Contents


History

Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. The Archive began to archive the World Wide Web from 1996, but it did not make this collection available until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archive. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Recently, the Archive has begun working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled.

According to its website:
Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

Wayback Machine

The Internet Archive has capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of the old Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon, and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[7] This service allows users to see archived versions of web pages of the past, what the Internet Archive calls a "three dimensional index". Millions of websites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a gigantic database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of websites used to look like, to grab original source code from websites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit websites that no longer even exist. Not all websites are available, however, because many website owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. International biases have also been found in its coverage, although this does not seem to be the result of a deliberate policy [8]

Examples from the Wayback
Machine's archives:
The use of the term "Wayback Machine" in the context of the Internet Archive has become so common that "Wayback Machine" and "Internet Archive" are almost synonymous. This usage occurs in popular culture, e.g., in the television show Law and Order: Criminal Intent ("Legacy", first run Aug. 3, 2008), an extra playing a computer tech uses the "Wayback Machine" to find an archive of a student's Facebook style website. Snapshots usually take at least 6–18 months to be added.

Open Library

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The site seeks to include a web page database for every book ever published, a sort of open source version of WorldCat. It holds 23 million catalog records of books, in addition to the full texts of about 1,600,000 public domain books, which are fully readable and downloadable.[9][10] Open Library is a free/open source software project, with its source code freely available on the Open Library site.

Archive-It

First deployed in early 2006, Archive-It is a subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of born digital content.[11] Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, and within 24 hours browse their archived collections. Collections are hosted by the Internet Archive and available to the public with full-text search. Content collected through Archive-It is stored with a primary and back up copy, is periodically indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive, and a copy of the data can be sent to the partner institutions.

As of March 2009, Archive-It has 125 partner institutions in 42 US States and 11 countries who have captured over a 1.5 billion URL's for 963 public collections.

Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, the State Archives of North Carolina, the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Stanford University, the National Library of Australia, the Research Libraries Group (RLG), and many others.

nasaimages.org

NASA Images was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The NASA Images team works closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection at nasaimages.org. The site launched in July 2008 and now has more than 100,000 items online.

Media collections

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. The media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes an "Open Source" sub-collection where general contributions by the public are stored.

Moving image collection

Aside from feature films, IA's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels; classic cartoons; pro- and anti-war propaganda; Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection; and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational and industrial films and amateur and home movie collections.
IA's Brick Films collection contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films. The Election 2004 collection is a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States Presidential Election. The Independent News collection includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters." Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The September 11th Television Archive contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 as they unfolded on live television.
Some of the films available on the Internet Archive are:
See also Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive.

Audio collection

The audio collection includes music, audio books, news broadcasts, old time radio shows and a wide variety of other audio files.

The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes over 50,000 concert recordings from independent artists, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Jordan Zevon has also allowed anyone to share concert recordings of his father Warren Zevon on the Internet Archive.

Text collection


Internet Archive book scanner
The texts collection includes digitized books from various libraries around the world as well as many special collections. The Internet Archive operates 23 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day, financially supported by libraries and foundations.[12] As of November 2008, when there were about 1 million texts, the entire collection was over 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[13]

Between about 2006 and 2008 Microsoft Corporation had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning over 300,000 books which were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008 Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[14] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[14]

Around October 2007 Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[15] As of May 2011 there were over 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection, out of a total of 2.8 million books. The books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download, like all Internet Archive materials.[16]

Controversies and legal disputes

National Security Letter


An NSL issued to the Internet Archive demanding information about a user
On May 8, 2008, it was revealed that the Internet Archive successfully challenged an FBI National Security Letter asking for logs on an undisclosed user.[17][18]

Scientology

In late 2002, the Internet Archive removed various sites critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine.[19] The error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner."[20] It was later clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal and that the actual site owners did not want their material removed.[21]

Healthcare Advocates, Inc.

In 2003, Harding Earley Follmer & Frailey defended a client from a trademark dispute using the Archive's Wayback Machine. The lawyers were able to show that the plaintiff's claims were invalid based on the content of their web site from several years prior. The plaintiff, Healthcare Advocates, then amended their complaint to include the Internet Archive, accusing the organization of copyright infringement as well as violations of the DMCA and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Healthcare Advocates claimed that, since they had installed a robots.txt file on their website, even if after the initial lawsuit was filed, the Archive should have removed all previous copies of the plaintiff website from the Wayback Machine.[22] The lawsuit was settled out of court.[23]

Robots.txt is used as part of the Robots Exclusion Standard, a voluntary protocol the Internet Archive respects that disallows bots from indexing certain pages delineated by the creator as off-limits. As a result, the Internet Archive has rendered unavailable a number of websites that are now inaccessible through the Wayback Machine. Currently, the Internet Archive applies robots.txt rules retroactively; if a site blocks the Internet Archive, like Healthcare Advocates, any previously archived pages from the domain are also rendered unavailable. In cases of blocked sites, only the robots.txt file is archived.
However, the Internet Archive also states, "Sometimes a web site owner will contact us directly and ask us to stop crawling or archiving a site. We comply with these requests."[24] In addition, the website says: "The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other Internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection."[25]

Suzanne Shell

On December 12, 2005, activist Suzanne Shell demanded Internet Archive pay her US$100,000 for archiving her website profane-justice.org between 1999 and 2004.[26] Internet Archive filed a declaratory judgment action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on January 20, 2006, seeking a judicial determination that Internet Archive did not violate Shell’s copyright. Shell responded and brought a countersuit against Internet Archive for archiving her site, which she alleges is in violation of her terms of service.[27] On February 13, 2007, a judge for the United States District Court for the District of Colorado dismissed all counterclaims except breach of contract.[26] The Internet Archive did not move to dismiss copyright infringement claims Shell asserted arising out of its copying activities, which will also go forward.[28]

On April 25, 2007, Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell jointly announced the settlement of their lawsuit. The Internet Archive said, “Internet Archive has no interest in including materials in the Wayback Machine of persons who do not wish to have their Web content archived. We recognize that Ms. Shell has a valid and enforceable copyright in her Web site and we regret that the inclusion of her Web site in the Wayback Machine resulted in this litigation. We are happy to have this case behind us.” Ms. Shell said, “I respect the historical value of Internet Archive’s goal. I never intended to interfere with that goal nor cause it any harm.”[29]

Grateful Dead

In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to a New York Times article.[30] Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal website:
It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.[31]
A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.[32]

Opposition to Google Books Settlement

The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.

See also

Similar projects

Other

References

  1. ^ "archive.org - Site Information from Alexa". Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  2. ^ Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions
  3. ^ Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge
  4. ^ Members (International Internet Preservation Consortium)
  5. ^ "Internet Archive officially a library", May 2, 2007.
  6. ^ CabinetMagazine.org
  7. ^ Green, Heather (February 28, 2002). "A Library as Big as the World: Brewster Kahle has the technology to assemble the ultimate archive of human knowledge. What's stopping him? Restrictive copyright laws". Business Week Online. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  8. ^ Thelwall, M. & Vaughan, L. (2004). A fair history of the Web? Examining country balance in the Internet Archive, Library & Information Science Research, 26(2), 162-176.
  9. ^ Gonsalves, Antone (December 20, 2006). "Internet Archive Claims Progress Against Google Library Initiative". InformationWeek. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
  10. ^ "The Open Library Makes Its Online Debut". Chronicle of Higher Education, The Wired Campus. July 19, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
  11. ^ Stefanie Olsen, "Preserving the Web one group at a time", CNet News.com, May 1, 2006.
  12. ^ "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded", announcement by Brewster Khale, May 23, 2008.
  13. ^ "Bulk Access to OCR for 1 Million Books", via Open Library Blog, by raj, November 24, 2008.
  14. ^ a b "Book search winding down", Live Search Blog. Official announcement from Microsoft. Last accessed May 23, 2008.
  15. ^ Google Books at Internet Archive.
  16. ^ Books imported from Google have a metadata tag of scanner:google for searching purposes. The archive links back to Google for PDF copies, but also maintains a local PDF copy, which is viewable under the "All Files: HTTP" link.
  17. ^ FBI rescinds secret order for Internet Archive records, CNet.
  18. ^ Nakashima, Ellen, "FBI Backs Off From Secret Order for Data After Lawsuit", Washington Post, May 8, 2008.
  19. ^ Bowman, Lisa M (September 24, 2002). "Net archive silences Scientology critic". CNET News.com. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  20. ^ Jeff (September 23, 2002). "exclusions from the Wayback Machine" (Blog). Wayback Machine Forum. Internet Archive. Retrieved 2007-01-04. Author and Date indicate initiation of forum thread.
  21. ^ Miller, Ernest (September 24). "Sherman, Set the Wayback Machine for Scientology" (Blog). LawMeme. Yale Law School. Retrieved 2007-01-04. The posting is billed as a 'feature' and lacks an associated year designation; comments by other contributors appear after the 'feature' .
  22. ^ Dye, Jessica (2005). "Website Sued for Controversial Trip into Internet Past". EContent. 28 (11): 8–9.
  23. ^ Bangeman, Eric (August 31 2006). "Internet Archive Settles Suit Over Wayback Machine". Ars technica. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
  24. ^ Some sites are not available because of Robots.txt or other exclusions.
  25. ^ How can I remove my site's pages from the Wayback Machine?.
  26. ^ a b Lewis T. Babcock (February 13, 2007). Internet Archive v. Shell (PDF), Civil Action No. 06cv01726LTBCBS.
  27. ^ Claburn, Thomas (March 16, 2007). "Colorado Woman Sues To Hold Web Crawlers To Contracts". InformationWeek. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
  28. ^ Samson, Martin. Internet Archive v. Suzanne Shell. via Phillips Nizer LLP.
  29. ^ Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell Settle Lawsuit, April 25, 2007.
  30. ^ Jeff Leeds; Jesse Fox Mayshark (December 1, 2005). "Wrath of Deadheads stalls a Web crackdown". International Herald Tribune (republication of article from The New York Times). Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  31. ^ Phil Lesh (November 30, 2005). "An Announcement from Phil Lesh" (Blog). Hotline. PhilLesh.net. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
  32. ^ Brewster Kahle; Matt Vernon (December 1, 2005). "Good News and an Apology: GD on the Internet Archive". Live Music Archive Forum. Internet Archive. Retrieved July 14, 2010. Authors and date indicate the first posting in the forum thread.

Further reading

External links